The Afghanistan Papers: A secret history of the war

Afghanistan War


Fig. 1. Undated photograph credited to Jane Mingay in Agence France-Presse story via the Pakistan Express-Tribune,[4] fair use.


Fig. 2. Cartoon by Joel Pett, July 23, 2021, via GoComics,[5] fair use.


Fig. 3. Cartoon by Brian Adcock, August 17, 2021, for the Guardian,[6] fair use.


George W. Bush, “Text: President Bush Addresses the Nation,” Washington Post, September 20, 2001, https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/specials/attacked/transcripts/bushaddress_092001.html

Mark Danner, “US Torture: Voices from the Black Sites,” New York Review of Books, April 9, 2009, https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2009/04/09/us-torture-voices-from-the-black-sites/

Alexander Abad-Santos, “This 13-Year-Old Is Scared When the Sky Is Blue Because of Our Drones,” October 29, 2013, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2013/10/saddest-words-congresss-briefing-drone-strikes/354548/

Akhilesh Pillalamarri, “Why Is Afghanistan the ‘Graveyard of Empires’?” Diplomat, June 30, 2017, https://thediplomat.com/2017/06/why-is-afghanistan-the-graveyard-of-empires/

British Broadcasting Corporation, “US ‘threatened to bomb’ Pakistan,” September 22, 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5369198.stm

Kevin Gosztola, “FBI Affidavit in Assange Case Shows Government is Criminalizing Publication of Afghanistan War Logs,” Shadowproof, April 16, 2019, https://shadowproof.com/2019/04/16/fbi-affidavit-in-assange-case-shows-government-is-criminalizing-publication-of-afghanistan-war-logs/

Craig Whitlock, “At war with the truth,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/investigations/afghanistan-papers/afghanistan-war-confidential-documents/

Craig Whitlock, “Stranded without a strategy,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/investigations/afghanistan-papers/afghanistan-war-strategy/

Craig Whitlock, “Built to fail,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/investigations/afghanistan-papers/afghanistan-war-nation-building/

Craig Whitlock, “Consumed by corruption,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/investigations/afghanistan-papers/afghanistan-war-corruption-government/

Craig Whitlock, “Unguarded nation,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/investigations/afghanistan-papers/afghanistan-war-army-police/

Craig Whitlock, “Overwhelmed by opium,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/investigations/afghanistan-papers/afghanistan-war-opium-poppy-production/

Gordon Lubold and Yaroslav Trofimov, “Afghan Government Could Collapse Six Months After U.S. Withdrawal, New Intelligence Assessment Says,” Wall Street Journal, June 23, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/afghan-government-could-collapse-six-months-after-u-s-withdrawal-new-intelligence-assessment-says-11624466743?mod=article_inline

Ayaz Gul, “Khan: Pakistan Can Never Again Be US Partner in War,” Global Security, June 30, 2021, https://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/pakistan/2021/pakistan-210630-voa01.htm

Richard Dannatt, “The West has squandered its early success in Afghanistan,” Telegraph, July 1, 2021, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2021/07/01/west-has-squandered-early-success-afghanistan/

Danielle Sheridan, Ben Farmer, and Sami Yousafzai, “Taliban has won the war in Afghanistan, says Lord Dannatt as UK and US troops pull out,” Telegraph, July 1, 2021, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2021/07/01/taliban-has-prevailed-afghanistan-says-former-army-head-lord/

Gordon Lubold and Nancy A. Youssef, “U.S. Shuts Down Bagram Air Base as Afghanistan Pullout Speeds Up,” Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-shuts-down-bagram-air-base-as-afghanistan-pullout-speeds-up-11625221544

Ehsanullah Amiri and Gordon Lubold, “After U.S.’s Bagram Exit, Afghans Face the Taliban Alone,” Wall Street Journal, July 5, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/after-u-s-s-bagram-exit-afghans-face-the-taliban-alone-11625517960

Yaroslav Trofimov and Ehsanullah Amiri, “Taliban Find New Revenues as They Seize Afghanistan’s U.S.-Built Border Gateway,” Wall Street Journal, July 5, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/taliban-find-new-revenues-as-they-seize-afghanistans-u-s-built-border-gateway-11625495521

Miriam Berger, “More than 1,000 Afghan soldiers flee into Tajikistan as Taliban extends control, Tajik officials say,” Washington Post, July 6, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/07/05/afghan-soldiers-flee-tajikistan-taliban/

Kathy Gannon, “After troops exit, safety of US Embassy in Kabul top concern,” Associated Press, July 6, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/joe-biden-kabul-445f33e7bba08c382d9bc5f72bf48047

Kathy Gannon, “US left Afghan airfield at night, didn’t tell new commander,” Associated Press, July 6, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/bagram-afghanistan-airfield-us-troops-f3614828364f567593251aaaa167e623

Lara Seligman, “U.S. completes 90 percent of Afghanistan withdrawal,” Politico, July 6, 2021, https://www.politico.com/news/2021/07/06/us-90-percent-afghanistan-withdrawal-498279

R. W. Apple, Jr., “A Military Quagmire Remembered: Afghanistan as Vietnam,” New York Times, October 31, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/31/world/nation-challenged-analysis-military-quagmire-remembered-afghanistan-vietnam.html

Anne Gearan, Karen DeYoung, and Tyler Pager, “Biden tells Americans ‘we cannot continue the cycle’ in Afghanistan as he announces troop withdrawal,” Washington Post, April 15, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/biden-afghanistan-pullout-speech/2021/04/14/a4fd907c-9d2a-11eb-9d05-ae06f4529ece_story.html

Cleve R. Wootson, Jr., Dan Lamothe, and John Wagner, “Biden forcefully defends Afghan pullout despite Taliban gains,” Washington Post, July 8, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/biden-afghanistan-taliban/2021/07/08/3fe9ef50-dfd3-11eb-ae31-6b7c5c34f0d6_story.html

Susannah George, “Taliban’s rapid advance across Afghanistan puts key cities at risk of being overtaken,” Washington Post, July 9, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/07/07/afghanistan-taliban-surge/

Dan Lamothe, “Top U.S. commander in Afghanistan steps down, marking a symbolic end to 20 years of war,” Washington Post, July 12, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2021/07/12/last-us-general-afghanistan/

Sandi Sidhu, Anna Coren, and Helen Regan, “Afghan interpreter for US Army was beheaded by Taliban. Others fear they will be hunted down too,” CNN, July 23, 2021, https://edition.cnn.com/2021/07/22/asia/afghanistan-interpreters-taliban-reprisals-intl-hnk/index.html

Susannah George and Aziz Tassal, “Taliban advances into major Afghan cities for first time in two decades,” Washington Post, August 1, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/01/taliban-attacks-afghanistan/

Michael Evans and Hugh Tomlinson, “US abandoning Afghanistan to civil war, says General David Petraeus,” Times, August 2, 2021, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/us-abandoning-afghanistan-to-civil-war-says-general-david-petraeus-00ftvwpt3

Ehsanullah Amiri, Alan Cullison, and Saeed Shah, “Taliban Seize Capital of Afghanistan’s Nimroz Province and Kill Official in Kabul,” Wall Street Journal, August 6, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/taliban-seize-capital-of-afghanistans-nimroz-province-11628259499

Susannah George, “Pace of Taliban advance quickens as militants overrun three major cities in a single day,” Washington Post, August 8, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/08/taliban-kunduz/

Akhtar Mohammad Makoii and Luke Harding, “Taliban capture sixth provincial capital in northern Afghanistan,” Guardian, August 9, 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/09/taliban-capture-aibak-sixth-provincial-capital-northern-afghanistan

Al Jazeera, “Taliban seizes eighth Afghan provincial capital in five days,” August 10, 2021, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/8/10/taliban-seizes-farah-seventh-provincial-afghan-capital-in-five-days

Kathy Gannon and Tameem Akhgar, “US vows to isolate Taliban if they take power by force,” Associated Press, August 10, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/middle-east-taliban-e5288f8c0a5d48677f703dbc40c22d3a

Dan Lamothe et al., “U.S. officials warn collapse of Afghan capital could come sooner than expected,” Washington Post, August 10, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2021/08/10/afghanistan-intelligence-assessment/

Reuters, “Taliban flashpoints in Afghanistan,” August 10, 2021, https://graphics.reuters.com/AFGHANISTAN-CONFLICT/FLASHPOINTS/lbpgnrazjvq/index.html

Tameem Akhgar and John Gambrell, “Taliban complete northeast Afghan blitz as more cities fall,” Associated Press, August 11, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/joe-biden-taliban-e2c0e7b46c03cebb4fdddca309e005e8

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Afghanistan war: Biden says he does not regret troop withdrawal,” August 11, 2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-58167408

Deutschewelle, “Afghanistan: Taliban take control of Herat in major victory for militants,” August 12, 2021, https://www.dw.com/en/afghanistan-taliban-take-control-of-herat-in-major-victory-for-militants/a-58836723

Liv Klingert, “Foreign minister: Germany won’t give aid to Afghanistan if Sharia law is enforced,” Politico, August 12, 2021, https://www.politico.eu/article/german-foreign-minister-germany-refuse-aid-afghanistan-enforcement-sharia-law-taliban-takeover/

Stephen Losey et al., “More US Troops Heading into Afghanistan as Taliban Conquest Approaches Tipping Point,” Military.com, August 12, 2021, https://www.military.com/daily-news/2021/08/12/more-us-troops-heading-afghanistan-taliban-conquest-approaches-tipping-point.html

Ishaan Tharoor, “Afghanistan’s rapid collapse is part of a long, slow U.S. defeat,” Washington Post, August 12, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/12/afghanistan-taliban-biden-moment/

Jon Lee Anderson, “The Return of the Taliban,” New Yorker, August 13, 2021, https://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/the-return-of-the-taliban

Susannah George et al., “Mass Afghan government surrenders as Taliban fighters overrun three key cities in sweeping territorial gains,” Washington Post, August 13, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/13/afghanistan-taliban-advance/

Melissa Mahtani et al., “US to send troops to help evacuate personnel in Afghanistan, as Kandahar becomes latest city to fall,” CNN, August 13, 2021, https://www.cnn.com/webview/politics/live-news/afghanistan-taliban-us-troops-08-12-21/h_75f8d8c2a81923885b9a0fe6d7e00f7a

Roland Oliphant, “Will the Taliban take over Afghanistan? Here’s what we know so far,” Telegraph, August 13, 2021, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/world-news/2021/08/13/will-taliban-take-afghanistan-know-far/

Karen DeYoung et al., “Biden authorizes additional troops to Kabul as Taliban closes in on capital,” Washington Post, August 14, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/14/afghanistan-taliban-advance-humanitarian/

Greg Jaffe, “From hubris to humiliation: America’s warrior class contends with the abject failure of its Afghanistan project,” Washington Post, August 14, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/us-hubris-afghanistan-humiliation/2021/08/14/47fb025a-fc67-11eb-9c0e-97e29906a970_story.html

Alia Shoaib, “Why the US-trained Afghan National Army have been defeated with ease by the Taliban,” Business Insider, August 14, 2021, https://www.businessinsider.com/afghan-forces-havent-been-able-to-hold-off-the-taliban-2021-8

Susannah George, “Afghanistan’s military collapse: Illicit deals and mass desertions,” Washington Post, August 15, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/15/afghanistan-military-collapse-taliban/

Susannah George and Bryan Pietsch, “Taliban enters Kabul, leaving Afghan government on brink of collapse,” Washington Post, August 15, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/15/afghanistan-taliban-kabul-embassy-jalalabad/

Susannah George et al., “Afghan government collapses as Taliban sweeps in, U.S. sends more troops to aid chaotic withdrawal,” Washington Post, August 15, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/15/afghanistan-taliban-kabul-embassy-jalalabad/

Christina Goldbaum and Najim Rahim, “A Week Into Taliban Rule, One City’s Glimpse of What the Future May Hold,” New York Times, August 15, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/08/15/world/asia/afghanistan-taliban-kunduz.html

Ahmad Seir, Rahim Faiez, and Jon Gambrell, “Taliban seize Jalalabad, cut off Afghan capital from east,” Washington Post, August 15, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/taliban-seize-jalalabad-cut-off-afghan-capital-from-east/2021/08/14/131e00aa-fd75-11eb-911c-524bc8b68f17_story.html

Ahmad Seir et al., “Taliban fighters enter Kabul, await a ‘peaceful transfer’ of power,” Los Angeles Times, August 15, 2021, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-08-15/taliban-fighters-enter-kabul-then-pledge-not-to-take-afghan-capital-by-force

Times of Israel, “Afghan government set to hand over power to Taliban in stunning collapse,” August 15, 2021, https://www.timesofisrael.com/afghan-government-expected-to-hand-over-power-to-taliban-in-stunning-collapse/

Yaroslav Trofimov, “Afghanistan’s Taliban Seize Jalalabad as Panic Grips Kabul,” Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/afghanistans-taliban-seize-jalalabad-as-panic-grips-kabul-11629005282

Yaroslav Trofimov, Dion Nissenbaum, and Margherita Stancati, “‘Saigon on Steroids’: The Desperate Rush to Flee Afghanistan,” Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/saigon-on-steroids-the-desperate-rush-to-flee-afghanistan-11629071999

Charlie Faulkner and Ben Farmer, “Desperate Afghans plunge to deaths from departing US planes as Kabul airport overrun,” Telegraph, August 16, 2021, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/world-news/2021/08/16/kabul-airport-chaos-thousands-overrun-tarmac-desperate-bid-escape/

Anne Gearan, “Biden blames others for swift collapse in Afghanistan, defends his decision to withdraw troops,” Washington Post, August 16, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/biden-afghanistan-speech/2021/08/16/1bdff5e6-feaf-11eb-ba7e-2cf966e88e93_story.html

Guardian, “‘There are no women in the streets’ – the day life changed in Kabul,” August 16, 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/16/there-are-no-women-kabul-street-stayed-home-fear-beaten-taliban-fighters

Sarah Lazare, “We Can’t Let the Generals Who Lied About the Afghanistan War Define Its Legacy,” In These Times, August 16, 2021, https://inthesetimes.com/article/afghanistan-war-trump-biden-petraeus-bolton

Heather Cox Richardson, “August 16, 2021,” Letters from an American, August 16, 2021, https://heathercoxrichardson.substack.com/p/august-16-2021

Fareed Zakaria, “We lost the war in Afghanistan long ago,” Washington Post, August 16, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2021/08/16/we-lost-war-afghanistan-long-ago/

Naomi Conrad, Masood Saifullah, and Birgitta Schülke-Gill, “In Kabul, terrified Afghans wait for the call to safety,” Deutschewelle, August 18, 2021, https://www.dw.com/en/in-kabul-terrified-afghans-wait-for-the-call-to-safety/a-58894365

Ben Doherty, Warren Murray, and agencies, “Afghanistan: reports emerge of Taliban beating Afghans seeking to flee Kabul,” Guardian, August 18, 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/18/afghanistan-reports-emerge-of-taliban-beating-afghans-seeking-to-flee-kabul

Joyce Sohyun Lee et al., “With the Taliban now in control, here’s what Afghans are seeing in Kabul,” Washington Post, August 18, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/interactive/2021/videos-afghanistan-kabul-taliban-arrival/

Ahmad Massoud, “The mujahideen resistance to the Taliban begins now. But we need help,” Washington Post, August 18, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2021/08/18/mujahideen-resistance-taliban-ahmad-massoud/

Larisa Brown et al., “Planes leaving half empty after Taliban set up ring of steel,” Times, August 19, 2021, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/planes-leaving-half-empty-after-taliban-set-up-ring-of-steel-6rdvp2wdb

Eric Levitz, “The Media Is Helping Hawks Win the War Over Biden’s Withdrawal,” New York, August 19, 2021, https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2021/08/how-the-media-botched-bidens-afghanistan-withdrawal.html

Ezzatullah Mehrdad, Dan Lamothe, and Kareem Fahim, “Chaos persists at Kabul airport, imperiling Afghanistan evacuation effort,” Washington Post, August 19, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/airport-kabul-taliban-state-department-karzai/2021/08/19/5de79f4a-0105-11ec-87e0-7e07bd9ce270_story.html

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, “U.S. Airlift From Kabul Gains Speed As Afghans Defy Taliban In Several Cities,” August 19, 2021, https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/taliban-blocking-airport-independence-day/31418029.html

Monique Rivalland and Georgina Roberts, “How Afghanistan’s ambitious young women feel now,” Times, August 19, 2021, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/how-afghanistans-ambitious-young-women-feel-now-k7t6swgtk

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Afghanistan: Taliban ‘tortured and massacred’ men from Hazara minority,” August 20, 2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-58277463

Susannah George, “The treacherous journey into Kabul airport to escape Taliban-controlled Afghanistan,” Washington Post, August 20, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/20/kabul-airport-journalists-evacuation/

Ellen Knickmeyer, Robert Burns, and Matthew Lee, “Biden to address chaotic Kabul evacuation amid criticism,” Associated Press, August 20, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/business-health-coronavirus-pandemic-kabul-taliban-d036db0b190acba68087f3d46ffae146

Danielle Pletka et al., “What Went Wrong in Afghanistan?” Wall Street Journal, August 21, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/what-went-wrong-in-afghanistan-11629472600

Barbara Starr et al., “ISIS terror threat forces US military to establish alternate routes to Kabul airport,” CNN, August 21, 2021, https://www.cnn.com/2021/08/21/politics/kabul-airport-terror-warning/index.html

Emily Stewart, “The history of US intervention in Afghanistan, from the Cold War to 9/11,” Vox, August 21, 2021, https://www.vox.com/world/22634008/us-troops-afghanistan-cold-war-bush-bin-laden

Associated Press, “The Latest: Pentagon asks airlines for help moving evacuees,” August 22, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/afghanistan-kabul-evacuation-3e03946e8f84540927761d0b83efd769

David Roberts, [Twitter thread], Thread Reader App, August 22, 2021, https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1429538957742592012.html

Tim Shipman, “Tony Blair attacks Joe Biden’s ‘imbecilic’ Afghanistan retreat as Kabul chaos deepens,” Times, August 22, 2021, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/tony-blair-attacks-joe-bidens-imbecilic-afghanistan-retreat-as-kabul-chaos-deepens-jw782ghxr

Steve Hendrix et al., “Taliban sends hundreds of fighters to final province beyond its control,” Washington Post, August 23, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/taliban-resistance-panjshir-massoud/2021/08/23/8741bf9c-0411-11ec-b3c4-c462b1edcfc8_story.html

Kevin Liptak, “Biden decides to keep August 31 deadline to withdraw from Afghanistan as evacuations accelerate,” CNN, August 24, 2021, https://www.cnn.com/2021/08/24/politics/joe-biden-g7-afghanistan/index.html

Stephanie Nebehay and Emma Farge, “UN rights boss says she has credible reports of Taliban executions,” Reuters, August 24, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/un-rights-boss-says-has-credible-reports-taliban-executions-2021-08-24/

Rachel Pannett, Ellen Francis, and Adam Taylor, “Taliban doubles down on Aug. 31 deadline, says Afghans no longer allowed to reach Kabul airport,” Washington Post, August 24, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/24/afghanistan-kabul-taliban-live-updates/

David Leonhardt to The Morning list, “A better Afghan policy,” New York Times, August 25, 2021, https://messaging-custom-newsletters.nytimes.com/template/oakv2?campaign_id=9&emc=edit_nn_20210825&instance_id=38743&nl=the-morning&productCode=NN&regi_id=97793637&segment_id=67145&te=1&uri=nyt%3A%2F%2Fnewsletter%2F51d8629f-6851-5663-99e7-7a33a08aa7eb&user_id=087ade925ce15f15a24824418c4789ce

Phillip Walter Wellman, “US Woman Under Taliban’s Watch Won’t Leave Kabul Without Her Staff and Hundreds of Rescue Animals,” Military.com, August 25, 2021, https://www.military.com/daily-news/2021/08/25/us-woman-under-talibans-watch-wont-leave-kabul-without-her-staff-and-hundreds-of-rescue-animals.html

David Smith, “Biden warns masterminds of deadly Kabul bombings: ‘We will make you pay,’” Guardian, August 26, 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/aug/26/joe-biden-white-house-crisis-kabul-explosion

Yaroslav Trofimov, Nancy A. Youssef, and Sune Engel Rasmussen, “Kabul Airport Attack Kills 13 U.S. Service Members, at Least 90 Afghans,” Wall Street Journal, August 26, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/afghanistan-kabul-airport-explosion-11629976397

Tom Yun, “What is ISIS-K? A look at the Afghan-based terrorist group that threatens both Taliban and U.S. forces,” CTV News, August 26, 2021, https://www.ctvnews.ca/world/what-is-isis-k-a-look-at-the-afghan-based-terrorist-group-that-threatens-both-taliban-and-u-s-forces-1.5562085

George Monbiot, “Bloodhounds,” August 27, 2021, https://www.monbiot.com/2021/08/27/bloodhounds/

Graeme Wood, “What Comes Next in Afghanistan,” Atlantic, August 27, 2021, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2021/08/kabul-airport-bombing-afghanistan/619906/

Sayed Ziarmal Hashemi et al., “U.S. presses on with evacuations despite fears of more attacks,” Los Angeles Times, August 27, 2021, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-08-27/evacuations-resume-after-kabul-airport-attack-bombings

Susannah George, “Fear and anticipation on the streets of Kabul as Afghans adapt to Taliban rule,” Washington Post, August 29, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/29/afghanistan-kabul-taliban-life/

Marjorie Cohn, “As Biden Threatens More War, Don’t Forget the Afghanistan Invasion Was Illegal,” Truthout, August 30, 2021, https://truthout.org/articles/as-biden-threatens-more-war-dont-forget-the-afghanistan-invasion-was-illegal/

Rachel Pannett et al., “Last U.S. military flight leaves Kabul; Biden to address nation Tuesday,” Washington Post, August 30, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/30/afghanistan-kabul-taliban-live-updates/

Rachel Pannett, Haq Nawaz Khan, and Siobhán O’Grady, “Panjshir Valley, last resistance holdout in Afghanistan, falls to the Taliban,” Washington Post, September 6, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/09/06/afghanistan-kabul-taliban-updates/

Alex Horton et al., “Examining a ‘righteous’ strike,” Washington Post, September 10, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/interactive/2021/kabul-drone-strike-questions/

Shabana Basij-Rasikh, “My father refused to be a refugee. I turned him into one. I’m remembering his garden,” Washington Post, September 16, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2021/09/16/shabana-basij-rasikh-afghanistan-fathers-garden/

Emma Graham-Harrison, “Taliban ban girls from secondary education in Afghanistan,” Guardian, September 17, 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/sep/17/taliban-ban-girls-from-secondary-education-in-afghanistan

Alex Horton et al., “U.S. military admits ‘horrible mistake’ in Kabul drone strike that killed 10 Afghans,” Washington Post, September 17, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2021/09/17/drone-strike-kabul-afghanistan/

Julia Ioffe, “The Divorce Heard Around Washington,” Puck News, September 17, 2021, https://puck.news/the-divorce-heard-around-washington/

Shah Meer Baloch and Julian Borger, “Biden administration delivers brusque message to Pakistan,” Guardian, October 10, 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/oct/10/biden-administration-delivers-brusque-message-to-pakistan

  1. [4]Agence France-Presse, “More than 10,000 civilian casualties in Afghan war since 2016, reveals UN report,” Pakistan Express-Tribune, February 15, 2018, https://tribune.com.pk/story/1635531/10000-civilian-casualties-afghan-war-since-2016-reveals-un-report
  2. [5]Joel Pett, [cartoon], GoComics, July 23, 2021, https://www.gocomics.com/joelpett/2021/07/23
  3. [6]Brian Adcock, “Brian Adcock on the threat to women’s rights in Afghanistan – cartoon,” Guardian, August 17, 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/picture/2021/aug/17/brian-adcock-on-the-threat-to-womens-rights-in-afghanistan-cartoon

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