Shell wanted a cracker. Unfortunately, it pollutes.

Pennsylvania and surrounding areas

Pittsburgh, the Ohio Valley, and surrounding areas


Fig. 1. Photographer unknown, circa 1940-1950, from Smoke Control Lantern Slide Collection, ca. 1940-1950, AIS.1978.22, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh, via Bloomberg,[1] fair use.

Julia Felton, “Operations on hold at Shell plant in Monaca,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 26, 2023,

Anya Litvak, “Shell tries to quash air quality fears as bad smells and elevated benzene counts emanate from Beaver County chemical plant,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 26, 2023,


Silicon Valley Bank, Signature Bank, and Credit Suisse, 2023

Fig. 1. “The monument sign in front of the parking lot of the Silicon Valley Bank headquarters at 3003 West Tasman Drive, Santa Clara, California.” Photograph by Minh Nguyen, March 13, 2023, via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0.

First Republic Bank needs relief. The trouble is that accepting that relief will undermine confidence in the bank further.[2]

Aaron Back, “First Republic’s Catch-22,” Wall Street Journal, April 26, 2023,

  1. [1]Mark Byrnes, “What Pittsburgh Looked Like When It Decided It Had a Pollution Problem,” Bloomberg, June 5, 2012,
  2. [2]Aaron Back, “First Republic’s Catch-22,” Wall Street Journal, April 26, 2023,

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