Imperialism · Israel · Palestine

Imperialism

Israel

Palestine

07_09:10:47-2
Fig. 1. The ruins of a terminal at the Gaza airport. Image by Said Khatib (Agence France-Presse) on September 9, 2018, via the Times of Israel,[1] fair use.


Fig. 2. Graphic by Al Jazeera, May 15, 2022,[2] fair use.


Fig. 3. Graphic by Roya News,[3] March 3, 2024, fair use.

Think of it like the Golden Rule: “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” Israel has been doing unto Palestinians very, very badly. And so it shouldn’t be even the least bit surprising when Palestinians do unto Israelis very, very badly.

That politicians and media outlets alike have not bothered to disguise their contempt for Palestinian life will prove consequential. Indeed, this phenomenon is not new, and those repercussions are now violently felt. If the world’s powerful nations had not so brazenly shrugged off three-quarters of a million Palestinians being driven from their homes 76 years ago, accompanied by an estimated 15,000 suffering violent deaths, the seeds of today’s bitter harvest would not have been planted. Political and media elites started as they meant to go on. How many know that last year, before the indefensible atrocities committed by Hamas on 7 October [2023], 234 Palestinians had been killed by Israeli forces in the West Bank alone, more than three dozen of them children? Life is cheap, they say. It is apparently meaningless if you are Palestinian.[4]

Soon after the Hamas attack, I started seeing an argument especially but not exclusively on social media insisting that Zionists cannot be settler-colonists because Jews have always been in Palestine. I even saw this argument from, shamefully, Julia Ioffe.[5]

Karen Attiah takes on this claim, in essence arguing that in fact this was a project of the British Empire, beginning with the Balfour Declaration of 1917, and therefore that the power dynamic of settler-colonialism applies nonetheless.[6]

My answer to the Zionist argument is different. I note that regardless of longstanding Jewish presence in Palestine, there have been numerous massive Jewish migrations to what is now Israel or the territory that Israel now occupies beginning in the 19th century, notably from Russia, eastern Europe, and Ethiopia,[7] but from around the world[8] as citizenship is guaranteed to those the Israeli authorities recognize as Jewish.[9] Whatever evidence you may have that Jews have been present in Palestine for however long, it applies to some Jews, not all—indeed, Jews did not become a majority of the area’s population until 1948,[10] when Israel was founded—Nakba.[11] Indeed, Jewish migration was more to the United States, by far, until Congress banned immigration from much of Europe in 1924.[12]

[I]t was only then [following U.S. Congressional passage of the Johnson-Reed Act] that Jewish immigration to Palestine began to soar, particularly after the Nazis took power in Germany and antisemitic movements and governments came to dominate Poland, Hungary, and much of the rest of Eastern Europe. The 3 percent of Jewish emigrants from Europe who were going to Palestine before the U.S. closed off its border soared to 46 percent from 1932 to 1939, as the Nazis took over Germany and loomed as a threat over the rest of Europe.[13]

The charge of ethnic cleansing applies simply because Palestinians are being forcibly displaced from their homes, in part to make way for settlements that are flatly illegal under international law.[14]

The [Anti-Defamation League] report was widely covered by mainstream outlets like CNN, NBC, and Axios, which simply took the organization’s word for the gigantic increase [a stunning 3,283 anti-Semitic incidents in 2023] without actually checking the data behind the claim.

Not all media outlets fumbled the ball, however. As The Forward first noted, there’s one big problem with the numbers: The ADL admits in its own press release that it includes pro-Palestine rallies in its list of antisemitic incidents, even if these featured no overt hostility toward Jewish people. Any anti-Israel or anti-Zionist chants are enough for the ADL’s new definition of antisemitism. . . .

Antisemitism is a real, and growing, problem—especially in the United States. But the ADL isn’t helping anyone when it defines a bomb threat at a synagogue and a Students for Justice in Palestine rally as equally antisemitic.[15]

But to be anti-Zionist is, in some lights, to be anti-Semitic.[16] In general, the charge of anti-Semitism performs far too much labor,[17] with a long list of anti-Semitic tropes:[18] Some humans do some evil things. Jews, being human, are no different. Some Jews do evil things. But while it is okay to protest such actions when a gentile does them, it is increasingly apparent that to highlight an evil action when a Jew has done it is anti-Semitic.

Republican Congressman Chris Smith of New Jersey said recently that “Israel is the only state in the world whose fundamental right to exist, within any borders at all, is openly denied by other states.” But Israel is the only nation with a “right to exist,” as the phrase is not commonly attached to any other country. And that’s the tell: This is not a legal concept, but a political one, available for broad interpretation and rhetorical weaponization.

The “right to exist” as a nation is, as the Palestinian scholar Edward Said once wearily dismissed it, “a formula hitherto unknown in international or customary law.” Rights pertain to individuals, not countries. And universal rights can’t, by definition, belong to some peoples and not others. It’s one of the great ironies, then, of the Israel-Palestine conflict that Israel seems untouchable by international law as it actually exists—it suffers no sanctions for routine violations of Geneva Convention prohibitions against settlements in the occupied West Bank—but is so fulsomely protected by a statute of international law that is basically made up.[19]

That conflation of international law as it actually exists with that which is entirely invented reaches to a conflation of Israel with the Jewish people, many of whom, Zionists, believe that, following centuries or millennia of persecution and pogroms, they can only be safe in a country that they control, and that that Israel is and must be that country. And, of course, what better place, than the “Holy Land?”[20] To oppose this country, to deny its imagined “right to exist,” or even to reject its declaration of itself as a “Jewish state” (in contrast to a secular pluralistic state) therefore, is to oppose Jews[21] and to seek the continuation of pogroms against them—genocide. This logic, of course, entirely neglects that other people, people who have universal human rights just like Jews have universal human rights,[22] had and have homes in Palestine.

The land is “holy,” of course, because three major religions who have never learned to share all say, “God gave us (exclusively) this land.”[23] (The Christian claim is evident in the Crusades, which Arabs have not forgotten.)

“God gave us this land” is the age-old cry of the settler-colonist. As we saw in the western hemisphere,[24] around the world, and are now seeing in Palestine,[25] to accept this claim is to embrace ethnic cleansing and genocide around the world, all in “God’s” name, of course.

Hunger and severe malnutrition are widespread in the Gaza Strip, where about 2.2 million Palestinians are facing severe shortages resulting from Israel destroying food supplies and severely restricting the flow of food, medicines and other humanitarian supplies. Aid trucks and Palestinians waiting for humanitarian relief have come under Israeli fire.

“There is no reason to intentionally block the passage of humanitarian aid or intentionally obliterate small-scale fishing vessels, greenhouses and orchards in Gaza – other than to deny people access to food,” Michael Fakhri, the UN special rapporteur on the right to food, told the Guardian.

“Intentionally depriving people of food is clearly a war crime. Israel has announced its intention to destroy the Palestinian people, in whole or in part, simply for being Palestinian. In my view as a UN human rights expert, this is now a situation of genocide. This means the State of Israel in its entirety is culpable and should be held accountable – not just individuals or this government, or that person.”[26]

Even in the U.S., we generally admit that what we did to American Indians was wrong. We generally admit it was genocide. But to accuse Israelis of this, even with inescapable parallels, is somehow anti-Semitic.[27]

Reform Judaism, “History of Jewish Immigration to Israel (Aliyah),” n.d., https://reformjudaism.org/history-jewish-immigration-israel-aliyah

Avigail Abarbanel, “A change needs to come,” Electronic Intifada, May 25, 2008, http://electronicintifada.net/content/change-needs-come/7529

Marilyn Katz, “Israel Needs a New Narrative,” In These Times, April 11, 2012, http://inthesetimes.com/article/13026/israel_needs_a_new_narrative

Ben Birnbaum, “The End of the Two-State Solution,” New Republic, March 11, 2013, https://newrepublic.com/article/112617/israel-palestine-and-end-two-state-solution

Ilene Prusher, “Influential Palestinians Say It’s Time for a One-State Solution,” Time, May 24, 2013, http://world.time.com/2013/05/24/influential-palestinians-say-its-time-for-a-one-state-solution/

Peter Beaumont, “Netanyahu insists he is ‘under attack for defending Israel’ after remarks from US official,” Guardian, October 29, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/29/binyamin-netanyahu-a-chickenshit-say-us-officials-in-explosive-interview

Jodi Rudoren, “Israel Jabs Back After U.S. Official Calls Netanyahu a Coward,” New York Times, October 29, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/30/world/middleeast/israel-snipes-back-after-us-official-calls-netanyahu-a-coward.html

Stephen M. Walt, “Netanyahu’s Not Chickenshit, the White House Is,” Foreign Policy, October 31, 2014, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/10/31/netanyahu_s_not_chickenshit_israel_united_states_special_relationship_obama

Zack Beauchamp, “It’s over: Why the Palestinians are finally giving up on Obama and the US peace process,” Vox, January 22, 2015, http://www.vox.com/2015/1/22/7324107/palestinian-abbas-peace-process

Michael Hirsh, “Jimmy Carter, Barack Obama and the Jews,” Politico, August 14, 2015, https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/08/jimmy-carter-barack-obama-and-the-jews-121367/

Mohamed Mohamed, “Right of return is the heart of Palestine’s struggle,” Electronic Intifada, September 6, 2016, https://electronicintifada.net/content/right-return-heart-palestines-struggle/17856

Times of Israel, “20 years after its opening, destroyed Gaza airport embodies grounded peace hopes,” September 12, 2018, https://www.timesofisrael.com/20-years-after-its-opening-destroyed-gaza-airport-embodies-grounded-peace-hopes/

Marwan Bishara, “The logic behind US humiliation of the Palestinians,” Al Jazeera, April 24, 2019, https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/logic-humiliation-palestinians-190423123902553.html

John Hudson and Loveday Morris, “Pompeo delivers unfiltered view of Trump’s Middle East peace plan in off-the-record meeting,” Washington Post, June 2, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/exclusive-pompeo-delivers-unfiltered-view-of-trumps-middle-east-peace-plan-in-off-the-record-meeting/2019/06/02/94527d80-3a2c-4f04-b8f9-dd3fd78a5a8c_story.html

Times of Israel, “US envoy says Israel has ‘right’ to annex parts of West Bank,” June 8, 2019, https://www.timesofisrael.com/us-envoy-says-israel-has-right-to-annex-parts-of-west-bank/

Raphael Ahren, “As Bahrain showed, even Trump’s Arab allies see two-state solution as essential,” Times of Israel, July 5, 2019, https://www.timesofisrael.com/as-bahrain-showed-even-trumps-arab-allies-see-two-state-solution-as-essential/

Derek Leebaert, “When Eisenhower Republicans Censured Israel—Three Times,” American Conservative, August 22, 2019, https://www.theamericanconservative.com/when-eisenhower-republicans-censured-israel-three-times/

Oliver Holmes, “Netanyahu vows to annex large parts of occupied West Bank,” Guardian, September 10, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/sep/10/netanyahu-vows-annex-large-parts-occupied-west-bank-trump

Times of Israel, “Netanyahu: I tried to annex Jordan Valley before election but AG said I couldn’t,” September 11, 2019, https://www.timesofisrael.com/netanyahu-tried-to-annex-jordan-valley-before-election-but-was-told-to-wait/

Times of Israel, “Netanyahu’s Jordan Valley sovereignty vow widely panned by politicians as ‘spin,’” Times of Israel, September 11, 2019, https://www.timesofisrael.com/netanyahus-jordan-valley-vow-widely-panned-by-politicians-as-spin/

Jacob Magid, “PM’s Jordan Valley map was error-strewn, but is his vow worth taking seriously?” Times of Israel, September 12, 2019, https://www.timesofisrael.com/pms-jordan-valley-map-was-error-strewn-but-is-his-vow-worth-taking-seriously/

Associated Press, “Trump changes decades-old U.S. position on illegality of Israeli settlements,” Los Angeles Times, November 18, 2019, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2019-11-18/u-s-softens-position-on-israeli-settlements

Michael Bachner and Jacob Magid, “Settler leaders call for West Bank annexation after US shifts stance,” Times of Israel, November 18, 2019, https://www.timesofisrael.com/settler-leaders-call-for-west-bank-annexation-after-us-shifts-stance/

Eric Cortellessa, “In rebuke to Trump and Netanyahu, US House passes resolution supporting 2 states,” Times of Israel, December 6, 2019, https://www.timesofisrael.com/in-rebuke-to-trump-netanyahu-us-house-passes-resolution-supporting-two-states/

Zena Tahhan, “Israel’s settlements: Over 50 years of land theft explained,” Al Jazeera, January 27, 2020, https://interactive.aljazeera.com/aje/2017/50-years-illegal-settlements/index.html

Sheena Anne Arackal, “The ‘Deal of the Century’ is Apartheid,” Mondoweiss, January 28, 2020, https://mondoweiss.net/2020/01/the-deal-of-the-century-is-apartheid/

Felicia Schwartz and Michael R. Gordon, “Trump’s Mideast Peace Plan Charts Two-State Course for Israelis, Palestinians,” Wall Street Journal, January 28, 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/trump-set-to-release-middle-east-peace-plan-11580221616

Ishaan Tharoor, “Trump’s ‘deal of the century’ is no deal at all,” Washington Post, January 28, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2020/01/28/trumps-deal-century-is-no-deal-all/

Times of Israel, “Trump unveils plan for ‘realistic 2-state’ deal, ‘undivided’ Israeli Jerusalem,” January 28, 2020, https://www.timesofisrael.com/trump-unveils-plan-for-realistic-2-state-deal-undivided-israeli-jerusalem/

Times of Israel, “As peace plan rolls out, Netanyahu says he will annex Jordan Valley, settlements,” January 28, 2020, https://www.timesofisrael.com/as-peace-plan-rolls-out-netanyahu-says-he-will-annex-jordan-valley-settlements/

Oliver Holmes, Sufian Taha, and Hazem Balousha, “‘We will never be Jerusalem’: Abu Dis pours scorn on Trump plan,” Guardian, January 29, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/29/we-will-never-be-jerusalem-abu-dis-pours-scorn-on-trump-plan

Natan Sachs, Tamara Cofman Wittes, and Bruce Riedel, “Around the halls: Brookings experts on the Middle East react to the White House’s peace plan,” Brookings Institute, January 29, 2020,https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2020/01/29/brookings-experts-react-to-the-white-houses-middle-east-peace-plan/

Jerusalem Online, “Bibi Steps Back from ‘Immediate’ Annexation Promise,” January 31, 2020, copy in possession of author

Times of Israel, “Gantz vows to advance US peace plan immediately if elected prime minister,” February 1, 2020, https://www.timesofisrael.com/gantz-vows-to-advance-us-peace-plan-immediately-if-he-becomes-prime-minister/

Times of Israel, “Backing Abbas, Arab League rejects Trump’s Middle East peace plan,” February 1, 2020, https://www.timesofisrael.com/backing-abbas-arab-league-rejects-trumps-middle-east-peace-plan/

Times of Israel, “Gantz vows to advance US peace plan immediately if elected prime minister,” February 1, 2020, https://www.timesofisrael.com/gantz-vows-to-advance-us-peace-plan-immediately-if-he-becomes-prime-minister/

Yousef Munayyer, “Liberal Zionism paved the Israeli right’s path to annexation,” +972, June 23, 2020, https://www.972mag.com/liberal-zionism-israel-annexation/

Salem Barahmeh, “Palestinians are fighting to dismantle apartheid, not just annexation,” +972, June 29, 2020, https://www.972mag.com/jericho-annexation-jordan-valley-apartheid/

Associated Press, “Netanyahu ally confirms delays in West Bank annexation plan,” Al-Ahram, July 1, 2020, http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/373408.aspx

Oliver Holmes and Julian Borger, “Israel signs historic deal with UAE that will ‘suspend’ West Bank annexation,” Guardian, August 13, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/13/israel-and-uae-to-form-diplomatic-ties-says-donald-trump

Mohammed Haddad, “Nakba Day: What happened in Palestine in 1948?” Al Jazeera, May 15, 2022, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/5/15/nakba-mapping-palestinian-villages-destroyed-by-israel-in-1948

Ishaan Tharoor, “Jimmy Carter’s warning: Without peace, Israel must face ‘apartheid,’” Washington Post, February 24, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2023/02/24/jimmy-carter-israel-apartheid-palestine-peace/

Ben Sales, “Israel-Gaza conflict: Anti-government protests canceled in Israel as fighting continues,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, May 12, 2023, https://www.jta.org/2023/05/12/israel/israel-gaza-conflict-anti-government-protests-canceled-in-israel-as-fighting-continues

Emanuel Fabian, “Operation Broken Record: Israel is already counting down to the next Gaza conflict,” Times of Israel, May 14, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/operation-broken-record-israel-is-already-counting-down-to-the-next-gaza-conflict/

David Horovitz, “Israel’s Gaza operation met its goals in seconds; trouble is, it went on for 5 days,” Times of Israel, May 14, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/israels-gaza-operation-met-its-goals-in-seconds-trouble-is-it-went-on-for-5-days/

Dalia Hatuqa, “The Nakba: Five Palestinian towns massacred 75 years ago,” Al Jazeera, May 15, 2023, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2023/5/15/the-nakba-five-palestinian-towns-massacred-75-years-ago

Alice Speri, “Biden Embraces Antisemitism Definition That Has Upended Free Speech in Europe,” Intercept, June 6, 2023, https://theintercept.com/2023/06/06/antisemitism-definition-israel-palestine/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Violence in Israel puts spotlight on the ‘one-state’ reality,” Washington Post, June 23, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2023/06/23/israel-palestine-one-state-two-reality-violence/

Steve Hendrix et al., “Israel’s raid left the Jenin camp in ruins. Palestinians blame their leaders,” Washington Post, July 5, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/07/05/israel-jenin-aftermath-attacks/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Biden muddles along with Israel as West Bank violence spirals,” Washington Post, July 7, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/07/07/israel-us-biden-west-bank-violence-status-quo/

Ron Kampeas, “Biden slams Israeli government and the Palestinian Authority in CNN interview,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, July 9, 2023, https://www.jta.org/2023/07/09/israel/biden-slams-israel-and-the-palestinian-authority-in-cnn-interview

Aime Williams and James Shotter, “Joe Biden calls out ‘extreme’ elements within Israel’s government,” Financial Times, July 9, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/6c91f5df-58ce-4fe2-b4f3-de12f565eac2

Ishaan Tharoor, “It’s the Republicans, not the Democrats, who are radical on Israel,” Washington Post, July 19, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/07/19/israel-republican-democrat-partisan-racist-state/

Ishaan Tharoor, “In Israel and the U.S., ‘apartheid’ is the elephant in the room,” Washington Post, August 11, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/08/11/israel-palestine-apartheid-israel-scholars/

Ishaan Tharoor, “The gloomy failure of the Oslo accords,” Washington Post, September 13, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/09/13/oslo-accords-30-israel-palestine-apartheid/

Brian Murphy, Adam Taylor, Sammy Westfall, and Bryan Pietsch, “The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: A chronology,” Washington Post, October 7, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2021/05/13/israel-palestinians-timeline-conflict/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Biden hoped for a quiet Middle East. So much for that,” Washington Post, October 8, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/10/08/israel-middle-east-war-biden-palestine-saudi-normalization/

Nabih Boulos and Laura King, “Israel calls for complete siege of Gaza as it masses troops at border,” Los Angeles Times, October 9, 2023, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2023-10-09/israel-battles-hamas-infiltrators-masses-troops-gaza-border

Julia Ioffe, “Tragedy in Israel,” Puck, October 10, 2023, https://puck.news/tragedy-in-israel/

Raya Jalabi, Najmeh Bozorgmehr, and Felicia Schwartz, “Border clashes prompt fears of Hizbollah joining Israel-Hamas war,” Financial Times, October 11, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/213ce971-b93e-4756-8dd0-6ff163b21577

Joseph Krauss and Wafaa Shurafa, “As strikes devastate Gaza, Israel forms unity government to oversee war sparked by Hamas attack,” Associated Press, October 11, 2023, https://apnews.com/article/israel-palestinians-gaza-hamas-airstrikes-hostages-e4ae51a640a3fc04b23ea9561703f874

Ellie Quinlan Houghtaling, “A Majority of Israelis Think Netanyahu Should Resign,” New Republic, October 12, 2023, https://newrepublic.com/post/176200/majority-israelis-think-netanyahu-resign

Noga Tarnopolsky, “Netanyahu Is Losing the War at Home,” New York, October 12, 2023, https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2023/10/in-the-israel-hamas-war-netanyahu-is-losing-at-home.html

Ishaan Tharoor, “As Israel ramps up war with Hamas, backers cheer destruction of Gaza,” Washington Post, October 13, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/10/13/israel-rhetoric-gaza-response-retribution-punishment/

Bethan McKernan, “US deploys second aircraft carrier as Israeli ground invasion of Gaza nears,” Guardian, October 15, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/oct/15/gaza-ground-invasion-israel-us-second-carrier-group-hamas

Jamie Dettmer, “Lebanese hold their breath as fears grow Hezbollah will pull them into war,” Politico, October 16, 2023, https://www.politico.eu/article/lebanese-hold-their-breath-as-fears-grow-hezbollah-will-pull-them-into-war/

Khaleda Rahman, “Israel Committing ‘Textbook Case of Genocide,’ Holocaust Historian Says,” Newsweek, October 17, 2023, https://www.newsweek.com/holocaust-historian-israel-committing-genocide-raz-segal-1835346

Heba Saleh, Henry Foy, and Guy Chazan, “Fear of Gaza exodus looms over Egypt,” Financial Times, October 17, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/feab5a29-a10a-4d6c-9035-ece2546c12a3

Liz Sly, “Mideast teeters on the brink of wider war as Iran weighs its options,” Washington Post, October 17, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/10/17/israel-iran-hezbollah-wider-war/

John Reed et al., “Israel agrees to allow basic aid into stricken Gaza Strip after Joe Biden visit,” Financial Times, October 18, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/3168166a-4d0b-429f-88b4-be8d6dd36db9

Vivian Salama et al., “U.S. Intelligence Shows Gaza Militants Behind Hospital Blast,” Wall Street Journal, October 18, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israel-tries-to-back-up-claims-it-didnt-attack-gaza-hospital-a8cc3405

Adam Taylor, “Everything we know about the Gaza hospital strike,” Washington Post, October 18, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/10/18/gaza-hospital-strike-al-ahli/

Mehul Srivastava, “UN chief denounces ‘clear violations’ of international law in Gaza,” Financial Times, October 24, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/61c23c82-4eaf-499b-8989-ecdebb86c839

John Reed, Mehul Srivastava, and Neri Zilber, “UN agency in Gaza says it will run out of fuel within hours,” Financial Times, October 25, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/ce60f3b5-591b-4b85-adcd-124e5a1b9001

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel says Hamas ‘is ISIS.’ But it’s not,” Washington Post, October 25, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/10/25/hamas-isis-islamic-state-israel-terrorism-analogy/

Democracy Now! “Judith Butler on Hamas, Israel’s Collective Punishment of Gaza & Why Biden Must Push for Ceasefire,” October 26, 2023, https://www.democracynow.org/2023/10/26/judith_butler_on_hamas_israels_collective

Democracy Now! “Palestinian Lives Matter Too: Jewish Scholar Judith Butler Condemns Israel’s ‘Genocide’ in Gaza,” October 26, 2023, https://www.democracynow.org/2023/10/26/judith_butler_ceasefire_gaza_israel

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel’s Gaza offensive stirs a wave of global protest,” Washington Post, October 29, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2023/10/29/gaza-protest-demonstration-ceasefire-israel-hamas-offensive/

Adam Gabbatt, “‘This war is prophetically significant’: why US evangelical Christians support Israel,” Guardian, October 30, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/oct/30/us-evangelical-christians-israel-hamas-war

Joseph Stepansky and Farah Najjar, “Israel-Hamas war live: Dozens killed in Jabalia camp strike – Gaza official,” Al Jazeera, October 31, 2023, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/liveblog/2023/10/31/israel-hamas-war-live-israeli-air-attacks-continue-across-gaza

Times of Israel, “Intelligence Ministry ‘concept paper’ proposes transferring Gazans to Egypt’s Sinai,” October 31, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/intelligence-ministry-concept-paper-proposes-transferring-gazans-to-egypts-sinai/

Andrew Feinstein, “Has Netanyahu misjudged tolerance for his actions?” New Internationalist, November 1, 2023, https://newint.org/features/2023/11/01/has-netanyahu-misjudged-tolerance-his-actions

Hussein Ibish, “Israel’s Dangerous Delusion,” Atlantic, November 1, 2023, https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2023/11/israel-gaza-after-hamas/675856/

Karen Attiah, “The colonial history of Israel-Palestine: Bringing the receipts,” Washington Post, November 3, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2023/11/03/colonial-history-britain-israel/

Jamie Dettmer, “Israel has only weeks to defeat Hamas as global opinion sours, former PM Ehud Barak says,” Politico, November 7, 2023, https://www.politico.eu/article/ehud-barak-israel-palestine-war-hamas-global-opinion-sours/

Jamie Dettmer, “A broken Netanyahu is miscalculating over Gaza, former Israeli PM says,” Politico, November 8, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/09/west-bank-israel-settlers-violence/

Ruth Michaelson, Julian Borger, and Emine Sinmaz, “Netanyahu rejected ceasefire-for-hostages deal in Gaza, sources say,” Guardian, November 9, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/nov/09/netanyahu-rejected-ceasefire-for-hostages-deal-in-gaza-sources-say

Victor Reklaitis, “Israel plans four-hour pauses in northern Gaza, White House says,” MarketWatch, November 9, 2023, https://www.marketwatch.com/story/israel-plans-four-hour-pauses-in-northern-gaza-white-house-says-0508ac84

Laura Wagner and Will Sommer, “Hundreds of journalists sign letter protesting coverage of Israel,” Washington Post, November 9, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/style/media/2023/11/09/open-letter-journalists-israel-gaza/

Ishaan Tharoor, “The punishing military doctrine that Israel may be following in Gaza,” Washington Post, November 10, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2023/11/10/israel-dahiya-doctrine-disproportionate-strategy-military-gaza-idf/

Tom Bowman, “The brutal calculus of war: Is the killing of civilians ever justified?” National Public Radio, November 11, 2023, https://www.npr.org/2023/11/11/1212326333/proportionality-israel-gaza-war-war-crimes

Jason Burke, “Netanyahu sets out uncompromising postwar vision as Israel pounds Gaza,” Guardian, November 12, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/nov/12/main-gaza-hospital-totally-surrounded-director-says-as-netanyahu-rejects-ceasefire-calls

Malachy Browne and Neil Collier, “Evidence Points to Israeli Shells in Strikes on Gaza’s Largest Hospital,” New York Times, November 14, 2023,

Times of Israel, “Attorney general said to warn ministers to be careful when talking about Hamas war,” November 14, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/attorney-general-said-to-warn-ministers-to-be-careful-when-talking-about-hamas-war/

Seb Starcevic, “UN Security Council adopts resolution for ‘humanitarian pauses’ in Gaza,” Politico, November 16, 2023, https://www.politico.eu/article/un-security-council-adopts-gaza-resolution-calling-for-humanitarian-pauses/

Adam Taylor, “Al-Shifa Hospital raid serves as potent symbol in Israel-Gaza war,” Washington Post, November 16, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/16/al-shifa-hospital-symbol-gaza-israel/

Steve Hendrix, “A midnight trip into northern Gaza reveals a shattered warscape,” Washington Post, November 19, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/19/israel-gaza-war-shifa-hospital/

Ben Sales and Philissa Cramer, “It’s official: Israel approves deal with Hamas to free at least 50 hostages in exchange for pause in fighting,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, November 21, 2023, https://www.jta.org/2023/11/21/israel/its-official-israel-approves-deal-with-hamas-to-free-at-least-50-hostages-in-exchange-for-pause-in-fighting

Simon Tisdall, “The pressure on Netanyahu is starting to tell – this potential truce shows something has changed,” Guardian, November 21, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/nov/21/pressure-benjamin-netanyahu-potential-truce-gaza-hostages

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel has utterly devastated Gaza,” Washington Post, November 22, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/22/gaza-destruction-destroy-israel-strikes-reconstruction/

Ellen Ioanes, “The controversial phrase “from the river to sea,” explained,” Vox, November 24, 2023, https://www.vox.com/world-politics/23972967/river-to-sea-palestine-israel-hamas

Roya News, “’Israeli police’ raid homes of released prisoners to prevent celebrations,” November 24, 2023, https://en.royanews.tv/news/46843/2023-11-24

Yana T. R. Golding, “Tracking lost pro-Palestinian posts,” Columbia Journalism Review, November 27, 2023, https://www.cjr.org/the_media_today/excessive-moderation-meta-palestinian-7amleh-nashif.php

Summer Said and Dov Lieber, “Israel, Hamas Agree to Extend Truce by Two Days,” Wall Street Journal, November 27, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/talks-to-extend-israel-hamas-truce-go-down-to-the-wire-8f1cbba9

Ishaan Tharoor, “How Israel keeps hundreds of Palestinians in detention without charge,” Washington Post, November 27, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/27/israel-palestine-detention-adminstrative-prisoners-jail/

Washington Post to 5-Minute Fix list, “The 5-Minute Fix: What’s behind Biden’s steadfast support for Israel?” November 27, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/the-fix/

Henry Bodkin, “Inside the Israeli settlement being turned into a battleground by the hard-Right finance minister,” Telegraph, November 28, 2023, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/world-news/2023/11/28/settlement-israels-finance-minister-has-made-a-battleground/

Julia Ioffe, “The Day After the War Ends,” Puck, November 28, 2023, https://puck.news/the-day-after-the-war-ends/

Leigh Ann Caldwell and Theodoric Meyer, “Democrats’ Israel dilemma,” Washington Post, November 29, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2023/11/29/democrats-israel-dilemma/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Why Christmas is canceled in Bethlehem,” Washington Post, November 29, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/29/palestinian-christians-christmas-ceasefire-cancel/

Nidal Al-Mughrabi, Mohammad Salem, and Humeyra Pamuk, “Hamas hands over two female hostages, others expected after truce extended,” Reuters, November 30, 2023, https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/talks-intensify-extend-israel-hamas-truce-after-more-hostages-prisoners-freed-2023-11-30/

Anthony Faiola, Stefano Pitrelli, and Louisa Loveluck, “In undisclosed call, Pope Francis warned Israel against committing ‘terror,’” Washington Post, November 30, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/30/pope-francis-israel-war-terrorism/

Alon Pinkas, “Netanyahu is stuck as he battles Hamas: he can’t afford to lose, yet can’t find a way to win,” Guardian, November 30, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/nov/30/netanyahu-hamas-lose-win-israeli-public-us

Stephen Kalin et al., “Israel Resumes Combat Operations in Gaza as Cease-Fire Stalls,” Wall Street Journal, December 1, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/blinken-returns-to-israel-as-negotiators-race-to-prolong-gaza-cease-fire-24ae6601

Antony Sguazzin and Courtney McBride, “Israel Focuses on Gaza’s South as Cease-Fire Talks Rejected,” Bloomberg, December 2, 2023, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2023-12-02/israel-recalls-negotiators-from-qatar-steps-up-strikes-on-hamas

Michael Birnbaum, William Booth, and Hazem Balousha, “Who will run Gaza after the war? U.S. searches for best of bad options,” Washington Post, December 3, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2023/12/03/palestinian-authority-gaza/

Ryan Grim, “Netanyahu’s Goal for Gaza: ‘Thin’ Population ‘to a Minimum,’” Intercept, December 3, 2023, https://theintercept.com/2023/12/03/netanyahu-thin-gaza-population/

Peter Beaumont, “Angry relatives of Hamas captives and ex-hostages confront Netanyahu,” Guardian, December 5, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/dec/05/angry-relatives-of-hamas-captives-and-ex-hostages-confront-netanyahu

Loveday Morris, “Israel has vowed to destroy Hamas. Yet the group remains largely intact,” Washington Post, December 5, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/12/05/israel-military-offensive-hamas-destruction-gaza/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel’s Netanyahu is fighting two wars, and may not win either,” Washington Post, December 5, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/12/05/netanyahu-wars-win-lose-political-endgame-career/

Steve Hendrix, Miriam Berger, and Hazem Balousha, “Israel touts civilian warning system, but for Gazans, nowhere is safe,” Washington Post, December 6, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/12/06/israel-gaza-civilians-protection/

John B. Judis, “Yes, Israel Is a Colonialist State. But Does That Matter Today?” New Republic, December 6, 2023, https://newrepublic.com/article/177306/israel-colonialist-state-history-today

Guardian, “US highlights ‘gap’ in Israel’s commitment to protect civilians in Gaza,” December 7, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/dec/08/us-israel-hamas-war-gaza-civilian-protection-anthony-blinken

Nataliya Vasilyeva, “IDF strip Palestinian men and parade them through square once used by Hamas,” Telegraph, December 7, 2023, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/world-news/2023/12/07/palestinian-men-stripped-to-underwear-gaza-idf/

Ron Kampeas, “US officials deny pressing Israel for a war ‘deadline,’ but differences between the two are emerging,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, December 8, 2023, https://www.jta.org/2023/12/08/united-states/us-officials-deny-pressing-israel-for-a-war-deadline-but-differences-between-the-two-are-emerging

Edith M. Lederer, “US vetoes UN resolution backed by many nations demanding immediate humanitarian cease-fire in Gaza,” Associated Press, December 9, 2023, https://apnews.com/article/israel-palestinians-un-resolution-ceasefire-humanitarian-6d3bfd31d6c25168e828274d96b85cf8

Times of Israel, “National security adviser indicates war against Hezbollah likely once Hamas is defeated,” December 9, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/national-security-adviser-indicates-war-against-hezbollah-likely-after-defeat-of-hamas/

Rory Jones et al., “The Hamas Leader Who Studied Israel’s Psyche—and Is Betting His Life on What He Learned,” Wall Street Journal, December 10, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/hamas-yahya-sinwar-israel-palestinian-hostages-6407dc41

Jeremy Scahill, “This Is Not a War Against Hamas,” Intercept, December 11, 2023, https://theintercept.com/2023/12/11/israel-hamas-war-civilians-biden/

David S. Cloud, and Summer Sai, “Israel’s Netanyahu Rejects U.S. Plan for Postwar Gaza,” Washington Post, December 12, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israels-netanyahu-rejects-u-s-plan-for-post-war-gaza-d60fc0c3

Caitlin Hu, “UN General Assembly votes to demand immediate ceasefire in Gaza,” Cable News Network, December 12, 2023, https://www.cnn.com/2023/12/12/middleeast/ceasefire-vote-gaza-israel-un-intl/index.html

John Hudson and Yasmeen Abutaleb, “Biden shows deep empathy with Israelis. Some feel it’s missing for Gazans,” Washington Post, December 12, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2023/12/12/biden-empathy-lacking-palestinians/

Kevin Liptak and Jeremy Diamond, “Biden tells donors Israel is losing support, Netanyahu must change his government,” Cable News Network, December 12, 2023, https://www.cnn.com/2023/12/12/politics/biden-israel-losing-support-netanyahu/index.html

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel’s Gaza war raises fears of a Palestinian exodus into Egypt,” Washington Post, December 12, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2023/12/12/gaza-displacement-egypt-palestine-israel-flee-rafah/

Nancy A. Youssef et al., “Israel Begins Pumping Seawater Into Hamas’s Gaza Tunnels,” Wall Street Journal, December 12, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israel-hamas-war-pumping-seawater-gaza-tunnels-2ed3b3f2

Kareem Fahim et al., “Images of stripped and humiliated Palestinians draw condemnation,” Washington Post, December 13, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/12/13/gaza-palestinian-detainee-photos-israel/

John Hudson et al., “Unguided ‘dumb bombs’ used in almost half of Israeli strikes on Gaza,” Washington Post, December 14, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2023/12/14/israel-unguided-dumb-bombs-gaza/

Dov Lieber, “Israel’s Netanyahu Bets Political Survival on Opposing a Palestinian State,” Wall Street Journal, December 13, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israels-netanyahu-bets-political-survival-on-opposing-a-palestinian-state-9e78790f

Jacob Magid, “Biden: ‘Indiscriminate’ bombing costing Israel support, Netanyahu ‘has to change,’” Times of Israel, December 13, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/biden-indiscriminate-bombing-costs-israel-support-netanyahu-has-to-change/

Times of Israel, “Poll shows soaring Palestinian support for Hamas; 72% back October 7 atrocities,” December 13, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/poll-shows-soaring-support-for-hamas-in-west-bank-as-90-say-abbas-should-resign/

Nancy A. Youssef and Vivian Salama, “U.S. Blocks Shipment of Rifles to Israel Over Concerns of West Bank Settler Violence,” Wall Street Journal, December 13, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/u-s-blocks-shipment-of-rifles-to-israel-over-concerns-of-west-bank-settler-violence-9764c87d

Edward Luce, “Biden’s mounting self-harm on Israel,” Financial Times, December 15, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/cfb4660f-de36-4453-9b44-531996c6ec9e

Anat Peled, “Israeli Military Says It Accidentally Killed Three Israeli Hostages in Gaza,” Wall Street Journal, December 15, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israeli-military-says-it-accidentally-killed-three-israeli-hostages-in-gaza-2acebecc

Times of Israel, “White House ups pressure on Israel to end ‘high-intensity’ fighting in Gaza soon,” December 15, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/white-house-ups-pressure-on-israel-to-end-high-intensity-fighting-in-gaza-soon/

Patrick Wintour, “Biden in a bind as Netanhayu ready to flout any US attempt to rein in Israel,” Guardian, December 15, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/dec/15/biden-in-a-bind-as-netanhayu-ready-to-flout-any-us-attempt-to-rein-in-israel

Karen DeYoung, “Biden’s support of Israel could come at a cost to U.S. foreign policy,” Washington Post, December 16, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2023/12/16/biden-netanyahu-israel-support-gaza/

John Hudson, “Killing of USAID contractor in Gaza fuels internal protest,” Washington Post, December 16, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2023/12/16/usaid-contractor-hani-jnena-killed-gaza/

David Ignatius, “In the West Bank, I saw how peace will require confrontation with Israel,” Washington Post, December 16, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2023/12/16/west-bank-settlers-violence-peace/

Summer Said and David S. Cloud, “Israel Says Its Soldiers Killed Israeli Hostages as They Held Up White Flag,” Wall Street Journal, December 16, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israel-and-qatar-explore-revival-of-deal-for-gaza-hostages-ff7af151

Shayndi Raice and Carrie Keller-Lynn, “Hostage Deaths at Hands of Israeli Soldiers Raise Questions About War Strategy,” Wall Street Journal, December 17, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israeli-militarys-hostage-killing-raises-questions-about-war-strategy-8dda768d

Andrew Silow-Carroll, “Among Jewish Americans, a ‘quiet middle’ has growing qualms over the war in Gaza,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, December 17, 2023, https://www.jta.org/2023/12/17/ideas/among-jewish-americans-a-quiet-middle-has-growing-qualms-over-the-war-in-gaza

Times of Israel, “Pointing to Hamas’s ‘little state,’ Netanyahu touts his role blocking 2-state solution,” December 17, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/pointing-to-hamass-little-state-netanyahu-touts-role-blocking-2-state-solution/

Summer Said, Margherita Stancati and William Mauldin, “Hamas Rejection Sours Israeli Bid to Revive Hostage Talks,” Wall Street Journal, December 20, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israel-offers-one-week-cease-fire-in-exchange-for-more-hostages-336ae59a

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel is struggling to destroy Hamas, but it’s destroying Gaza,” Washington Post, December 20, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/12/20/israel-battlefield-gaza-defeat-hamas/

Julian Borger, “US says it is ready to support amended UN resolution aimed at boosting aid to Gaza,” Guardian, December 21, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/dec/22/un-security-council-resolution-boosting-aid-gaza-usa-america-support

Louisa Loveluck et al., “The case of al-Shifa: Investigating the assault on Gaza’s largest hospital,” Washington Post, December 21, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/12/21/al-shifa-hospital-gaza-hamas-israel/

Paul Rogers, “Israel is losing the war against Hamas – but Netanyahu and his government will never admit it,” Guardian, December 21, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/dec/21/israel-losing-war-against-hamas-netanyahu-idf

Andrew Silow-Carroll, “What is antisemitism? At a Jewish studies conference, scholars use the archives as a guide — and a warning,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, December 21, 2023, https://www.jta.org/2023/12/21/ideas/what-is-antisemitism-at-a-jewish-studies-conference-scholars-use-the-archives-as-a-guide-and-a-warning

Emma Graham-Harrison and Julian Borger, “UN security council backs resolution on large-scale aid to Gaza but not ceasefire,” Guardian, December 22, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/dec/22/un-security-council-backs-resolution-on-large-scale-aid-to-gaza-but-not-ceasefire

James Politi and Felicia Schwartz, “Biden’s troubled Gaza strategy: ‘the US looks feckless,’” Financial Times, December 22, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/edebf6ef-155e-4aad-a41b-7e31016cad96

Robin Stein et al., “A Times Investigation Tracked Israel’s Use of One of Its Most Destructive Bombs in South Gaza,” New York Times, December 22, 2023, https://www.nytimes.com/2023/12/21/world/middleeast/israel-gaza-bomb-investigation.html

Adam Taylor, “More than 20,000 dead in Gaza, a historic human toll,” Washington Post, December 22, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/12/22/gaza-israel-war-20000-dead/

Deborah Danon, “‘The safest place to be Jewish’: 2,600 people have moved to Israel since Hamas invaded,” Times of Israel, December 23, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/the-safest-place-to-be-jewish-2600-people-have-moved-to-israel-since-hamas-invaded/

Evan Hill et al., “Israel has waged one of this century’s most destructive wars in Gaza,” Washington Post, December 23, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/interactive/2023/israel-war-destruction-gaza-record-pace/

Vivian Salama, Dion Nissenbaum, and Benoit Faucon, “Biden Convinced Netanyahu to Halt a Pre-Emptive Strike Against Hezbollah,” Wall Street Journal, December 23, 2023, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/how-biden-averted-a-second-front-by-convincing-israel-not-to-attack-hezbollah-on-oct-11-e14a0a3b

Neri Zilber, “Benjamin Netanyahu vows to fight on despite mounting Gaza death toll,” Financial Times, December 24, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/6e7a8788-6a30-4686-abd4-0b7496e86bff

Polina Ivanova, “Benjamin Netanyahu visits Israeli troops in northern Gaza and tells them war will not stop,” Financial Times, December 25, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/40c6e678-eeca-4346-9c1b-83d90e38f823

Neri Zilber and Raya Jalabi, “Israel warns of regional conflict risk as Iran tensions increase,” Financial Times, December 26, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/6932a369-f3f6-46e5-be1f-ce47e14e5ece

Bethan McKernan, “Israel widens offensive in central Gaza as Netanyahu refuses to discuss postwar plan,” Guardian, December 27, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/dec/27/benjamin-netanyahu-israel-refuses-to-discuss-postwar-plan-for-gaza-strip

Shira Rubin and Ruby Mellen, “Israel’s war in Gaza threatens to spill into Lebanon and beyond,” Washington Post, December 27, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/12/27/israel-lebanon-gaza-hamas-palestinians/

Polina Ivanova, “Israel’s Benny Gantz threatens to intensify military action against Hizbollah,” Financial Times, December 28, 2023, https://www.ft.com/content/dd48d1c3-da86-4e52-a934-c76fc31e63e1

Matthew Lee, “The Biden administration once again bypasses Congress on an emergency weapons sale to Israel,” Associated Press, December 29, 2023, https://www.vox.com/world-politics/23972967/river-to-sea-palestine-israel-hamas

Ruby Mellen et al., “Findings in hostage killings, Gaza deaths put Israeli tactics in focus,&rdquo: Washington Post, December 29, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/12/29/israel-gaza-investigation-hamas-hostage/

Dion Nissenbaum et al., “Top Hamas Leader Killed in Suspected Israeli Strike in Beirut,” Wall Street Journal, January 2, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israel-fights-on-three-fronts-as-it-debates-how-to-end-gaza-war-1c74c512

Ron Kampeas, “Biden administration, Reform Jewish leader slam Smotrich and Ben Gvir for calling for Palestinians’ removal from Gaza,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, January 2, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/01/02/politics/biden-administration-reform-jewish-leader-slam-smotrich-and-ben-gvir-for-calling-for-palestinians-removal-from-gaza

Tori Otten, “Report: Israel in Talks With Third Country to Expel Palestinians Entirely,” New Republic, January 3, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/177837/report-israel-expel-palestinians-gaza-third-country-congo

Gabriel Gavin, Antonia Zimmermann, and Laura Kayali, “The Gaza war is escalating. How bad will the Middle East crisis get?” Politico, January 4, 2024, https://www.politico.eu/article/gaza-israel-palestina-middle-east-red-sea-crisis/

Steve Hendrix, Hajar Harb, and Claire Parker, “As Gazans return to destroyed homes, Israeli ministers push resettlement,” Washington Post, January 4, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/01/04/gaza-displaced-civilians-resettlement-israel/

Ron Kampeas, “Israel faces charges of genocide at the International Court of Justice. Here’s why, and how Israel will respond,” i>Jewish Telegraphic Agency, January 4, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/01/04/politics/israel-faces-charges-of-genocide-at-the-international-court-of-justice-heres-why-and-how-israel-will-respond

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israeli calls for Gaza’s ethnic cleansing are only getting louder,” Washington Post, January 5, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/01/05/wv-israel-hamas/

David Cohen, “Israel’s president says expelling Palestinians not the plan,” Politico, January 7, 2024, https://www.politico.com/news/2024/01/07/israel-palestinians-expel-gaza-00134187

Wafaa Shurafa, Jack Jeffery, Bassem Mroue, “Israeli strike kills an elite Hezbollah commander in the latest escalation linked to the war in Gaza,” Associated Press, January 8, 2024, https://apnews.com/article/israel-hamas-war-news-01-08-2024-18fbc9af50000c94fed59017fe82481e

Julia Ioffe, “‘Blood Libel?’: On the Question of Genocide in Gaza,” Puck, January 9, 2024, https://puck.news/blood-libel-on-the-question-of-genocide-in-gaza/

Nahal Toosi, “The US Is Dealing With an Israeli Leader Who’s Losing Control,” Politico, January 9, 2024, https://www.politico.com/news/magazine/2024/01/08/netanyahu-israeli-leader-losing-control-00134146

Mark Leon Goldberg, “Why Israel Can’t Just Wave Away International Justice Charges,” New Republic, January 10, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/article/177983/israel-gaza-international-justice-charges

Adrienne Mahsa Varkiani, “ADL Officially Admits It Counts Pro-Palestine Activism as Antisemitic,” New Republic, January 10, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/177993/adl-abandons-pretense-tracking-antisemitism-honestly-palestine-rallies

Jess Bravin, “South Africa Accuses Israel of Genocide in U.N. Court,” Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/world/south-africa-accuses-israel-of-genocide-in-u-n-court-3af69eb7

Ryan Grim, “South Africa Just Made Its Case at The Hague. What’s Next?” Intercept, January 11, 2024, https://theintercept.com/2024/01/11/south-africa-israel-genocide-charges/

Barbara Moens, Jacopo Barigazzi, and Eddy Wax, “South Africa’s genocide case against Israel lays bare Europe’s feeble power,” Politico, January 11, 2024, https://www.politico.eu/article/south-africas-genocide-case-against-israel-lays-bare-europes-feeble-power/

Claire Parker and Emily Rauhala to Today’s Worldview list, “What to know about the genocide case against Israel at the ICJ,” Washington Post, January 11, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/newsletters/todays-worldview/

Yves Smith, “Israel Capitulates at the Start of International Court of Justice Genocide Hearing,” Naked Capitalism, January 11, 2024, https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2024/01/israel-capitulates-at-the-start-of-international-court-of-justice-genocide-hearing.html

James Shotter, “Israel calls South Africa’s allegations of genocide in Gaza ‘profoundly distorted,’” Financial Times, January 12, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/9cddf8bb-feb0-4722-9e9a-ff90acd6a328

Najib Jobain, Samy Magdy, and Bassem Mroue, “A defiant Netanyahu says no one can halt Israel’s war to crush Hamas, including the world court,” Associated Press, January 13, 2024, https://apnews.com/article/israel-hamas-war-news-01-13-2024-62b05e26b1e00439d00e60c78f260ce5

Neri Zilber, “Benjamin Netanyahu faces political backlash over Israel’s hostage strategy,” Financial Times, January 16, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/2d5258d5-aabb-4c54-80e8-ec28fd4e21b0

James Robins, “Israel’s Subtle Threats at the International Court of Justice,” New Republic, January 17, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/article/178174/israels-subtle-threats-international-court-justice

Peter Beaumont, “Netanyahu tells US he opposes creation of Palestinian state after Gaza war,” Guardian, January 18, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/jan/18/netanyahu-tells-us-opposes-palestinian-state-after-gaza-war

Tori Otten, “Democrats Are Pissed After Netanyahu’s Palestinian Statehood Comments,” New Republic, January 19, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/178286/democrats-pissed-netanyahu-palestinian-statehood-rejection

Henry Foy, “EU seeks ‘consequences’ for Israel over opposition to Palestinian statehood,” Financial Times, January 21, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/6b39f7cf-f6d6-4344-b1e8-a505616423ef

Owen Jones, “The west’s complete contempt for the lives of Palestinians will not be forgotten,” Guardian, January 21, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2024/jan/21/palestinian-lives-gaza-politics-media

Summer Said, “U.S., Arab Allies Push Hostage-Release Plan Aimed at Ending Israel-Hamas War,” Wall Street Journal, January 21, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/u-s-pushes-hostage-release-plan-aimed-at-ending-gaza-war-d48b27e1

Ishaan Tharoor, “What Netanyahu sees from the river to the sea,” Washington Post, January 22, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/01/22/netanyahu-biden-two-state-solution-palestine-river-to-sea/

Times of Israel, “Most believe Netanyahu’s wartime decision-making mainly motivated by personal interest,” January 22, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/poll-gives-national-unity-commanding-lead-over-likud-with-a-center-bloc-of-69-mks/

Shira Rubin, Steve Hendrix, and Lior Soroka, “As some Israeli troops leave Gaza, a long-term strategy remains elusive,” Washington Post, January 23, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/01/23/israel-military-gaza-strategy-hamas/

Matthew Bell, “Israel says ‘no’ to a 2-state solution,” World, January 24, 2024, https://theworld.org/stories/2024-01-24/israel-says-no-2-state-solution

Loveday Morris, Sarah Cahlan, and Jonathan Baran, “What to know about Israel’s controversial ‘buffer zone’ in Gaza,” Washington Post, January 24, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/01/24/israel-buffer-zone-gaza-war/

John Hudson and Claire Parker, “Biden to deploy CIA director to help broker major Gaza deal,” Washington Post, January 25, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/01/25/william-burns-cia-gaza-israel-hostages/

Neri Zilber and Andrew England, “Qatar rebukes ‘irresponsible’ Netanyahu over apparent criticism of Gulf state,” Financial Times, January 25, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/410de5d0-08b1-4be8-9260-4ddb87751ecc

Steve Crawshaw, “This momentous ICJ ruling may be brushed aside by Israel – but the US and UK can’t afford to ignore it,” Guardian, January 26, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2024/jan/26/israel-gaza-icj-genocide-ruling-the-hague

Just Security, “Top Experts’ Views of Int’l Court of Justice Ruling on Israel Gaza Operations (South Africa v Israel, Genocide Convention Case),” January 26, 2024, https://www.justsecurity.org/91457/top-experts-views-of-intl-court-of-justice-ruling-on-israel-gaza-operations-south-africa-v-israel-genocide-convention-case/

Ron Kampeas, “International Court of Justice rules that some allegations of Israel committing genocide are ‘plausible,’” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, January 26, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/01/26/politics/international-court-of-justice-rules-that-some-allegations-of-israel-committing-genocide-are-plausible

Emily Rauhala and Steve Hendrix, “U.N. court orders Israel to halt killings in Gaza, but no cease-fire,” Washington Post, January 26, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/01/26/israel-icj-ruling-decision-south-africa-gaza/

Kenneth Roth, “The ICJ ruling is a repudiation of Israel and its western backers,” Guardian, January 26, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2024/jan/26/icj-ruling-israel-western-backers

Juan Cole, “Israel’s Reputation forever Besmirched by UN Court Injunction to Cease Genociding Palestinians,” Informed Comment, January 27, 2024, https://www.juancole.com/2024/01/reputation-besmirched-palestinians.html

Rory Jones and Dov Lieber, “​Netanyahu Puts Political Survival Ahead of Tough Decisions on Gaza,” Wall Street Journal, January 31, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/netanyahu-puts-political-survival-ahead-of-tough-decisions-on-gaza-783cb8e6

Ed Pilkington, “Pro-Palestinian protests hound Biden, casting shadow on his re-election effort,” Guardian, January 31, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/jan/31/biden-pro-palestine-protest-israel

Yasmeen Abutaleb and Karen DeYoung, “Biden imposes sanctions on Israeli West Bank settlers,” Washington Post, February 1, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/02/01/biden-signs-executive-order-sanctioning-west-bank-settlers/

Gabriel Debenedetti, “Bernie’s Pressure Campaign,” New York, February 1, 2024, https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2024/02/bernie-sanders-israel-gaza-democrats-biden.html

Alice Speri, “After Historic Ruling, Lawyers Vow to Keep Fighting Biden Over Complicity in Gaza Genocide,” Intercept, February 1, 2024, https://theintercept.com/2024/02/01/gaza-biden-genocide-lawsuit-ruling/

Adam Taylor, “UNRWA funding pauses come amid uncertainty over Gaza aid future,” Washington Post, February 1, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/02/01/unrwa-funding-pause-united-nations-future-aid/

Daniel Hurst, “‘Shockingly amateurish’: Australian government delivers veiled rebuke to Israel over UN agency comments,” Guardian, February 2, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2024/feb/03/shockingly-amateurish-australian-government-delivers-veiled-rebuke-to-israel-over-un-agency-comments

Kaamil Ahmed, “‘Everything beautiful has been destroyed’: Palestinians mourn a city in tatters,” Guardian, February 4, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/feb/04/everything-beautiful-has-been-destroyed-palestinians-mourn-a-city-in-tatters

Julia Ioffe, “Who’s Afraid of Brett McGurk?” Puck, February 6, 2024, https://puck.news/whos-afraid-of-brett-mcgurk/

Yasmeen Abutaleb, “Biden says Israel’s military conduct in Gaza has been ‘over the top,’” Washington Post, February 8, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/02/08/biden-israel-gaza-speech-netanyahu/

Lazar Berman, “Israel cannot use Oct. 7 as ‘license to dehumanize others,’ Blinken warns in Tel Aviv,” Times of Israel, February 8, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-cannot-use-oct-7-as-a-license-to-dehumanize-others-fumes-blinken-in-tel-aviv/

Ron Kampeas, “Calling Israel’s response in Gaza ‘over the top,’ Biden conditions defense aid on allowing humanitarian assistance,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, February 9, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/02/09/politics/calling-israels-response-in-gaza-over-the-top-biden-conditions-defense-aid-on-humanitarian-assistance

Zolan Kanno-Youngs and Patrick Kingsley, “A Blinken Visit Puts U.S.-Israeli Tensions on Full Display,” New York Times, February 9, 2024, https://www.nytimes.com/2024/02/08/world/middleeast/blinken-netanyahu-gaza-negotiations.html

Ishaan Tharoor, “Netanyahu’s delusional, deadly quest for ‘total victory,’” Washington Post, February 9, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/02/09/netanyahu-israel-total-victory-hamas-palestine/

Yasmeen Abutaleb, John Hudson, and Tyler Pager, “Biden moving closer than ever to a breach with Netanyahu over war in Gaza,” Washington Post, February 11, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/02/11/biden-netanyahu-closer-to-a-breach/

Liz Goodwin and Mariana Alfaro, “Aid bill for Ukraine, Israel on track to pass Senate early this week,” Washington Post, February 11, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/02/11/senate-aid-ukraine-israel-taiwan-aid/

James Politi and Neri Zilber, “Biden says Israel must have plan to avoid civilian casualties in Rafah,” Financial Times, February 11, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/b00a8dcc-f8e3-4da6-a65b-280bb2289f5f

Andy Bounds, James Shotter, and Jonathan Wheatley, “Dutch court bans export of F-35 fighter jet parts to Israel,” Financial Times, February 12, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/502ebca5-5f2c-497c-968f-e710e617f268

Susie Coen, “Joe Biden considers going public with frustration over ‘a–hole’ Benjamin Netanyahu,” Telegraph, February 12, 2024, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/us/news/2024/02/12/joe-biden-going-public-frustration-benjamin-netanyahu/

Chao Deng, Carrie Keller-Lynn, and Daniel Michaels, “Defying Biden, Netanyahu Doubles Down on Plans to Fight in Rafah,” Wall Street Journal, February 12, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/defying-biden-israels-netanyahu-doubles-down-on-plans-to-fight-in-rafah-7b66d1dd

Emine Sinmaz, “Israel says two hostages freed in raid Gaza officials say killed 67 Palestinians,” Guardian, February 12, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/feb/12/israeli-hostages-freed-rafah-idf-gaza-report-dozens-palestinians-killed-strikes

Matthew Rosenberg et al., “A Tunnel Offers Clues to How Hamas Uses Gaza’s Hospitals,” New York Times, February 13, 2024, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2024/02/12/world/middleeast/gaza-tunnel-israel-hamas.html

Dion Nissenbaum and Jared Malsin, “U.S. Probes Israeli Strikes That Killed Civilians in Gaza, Possible Use of White Phosphorus in Lebanon,” Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/u-s-probes-israeli-strikes-that-killed-civilians-in-gaza-possible-use-of-white-phosphorus-in-lebanon-b8fb043b

Dion Nissenbaum and Vivian Salama, “Biden-Netanyahu Relationship at Boiling Point as Rafah Invasion Looms,” Wall Street Journal, February 15, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/biden-netanyahu-relationship-at-boiling-point-as-rafah-invasion-looms-b893bec5

Ishaan Tharoor, “As Israel corners Rafah, Netanyahu defies the world,” Washington Post, February 16, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/02/16/israel-rafah-pressure-global-displaced-assault/

Patrick Wintour, “Pressure builds on Israel to ditch Rafah offensive as ministers gather in Munich,” Guardian, February 16, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/feb/16/pressure-builds-on-israel-to-ditch-rafah-offensive-as-ministers-gather-in-munich

Susie Coen, Nataliya Vasilyeva, and Nick Gutteridge, “US moves to stop Israel’s invasion of Rafah,” Telegraph, February 19, 2024, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/world-news/2024/02/19/us-use-un-force-israel-halt-rafah-invasion-hamas-idf/

Polina Ivanova, “Israel grapples with ‘Eichmann’ dilemma over Hamas attack trials,” Financial Times, February 21, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/dbdc4ea2-d33f-43ce-b029-52a7cb8d2ae4

Ishaan Tharoor, “The world confronts Israel over its occupation of Palestinian lands,” Washington Post, February 21, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/02/21/israel-occupation-palestine-gaza-un-icj-hearing/

Mehul Srivastava, Neri Zilber, and Heba Saleh, “Israel unveils plan for complete postwar control of Gaza,” Financial Times, February 23, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/063495e8-645c-4cec-8b8e-290fdc32044f

John Hudson and Karen DeYoung, “White House reverses West Bank policy, calling Israeli settlements illegal,” Washington Post, February 23, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/02/23/israel-west-bank-settlements-illegal/

Ron Kampeas, “Will the US recognize a State of Palestine? The Biden-Netanyahu gap deepens over plans for Gaza’s future,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, February 23, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/02/23/politics/will-the-us-recognize-a-state-of-palestine-the-biden-netanyahu-gap-deepens-over-plans-for-gazas-future

Ibrahim Dahman, “Palestinian Authority prime minister and government resign,” Cable News Network, February 26, 2024, https://www.cnn.com/2024/02/26/middleeast/palestinian-authority-prime-minister-resigns-intl/index.html

Nina Lakhani, “Israel is deliberately starving Palestinians, UN rights expert says,” Guardian, February 27, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/feb/27/un-israel-food-starvation-palestinians-war-crime-genocide

Ishaan Tharoor, “Netanyahu’s ‘day after’ plan for Gaza is unviable,” Washington Post, February 27, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/02/27/post-war-gaza-plan-netanyahu-israel-day-after-future-abbas/

Kelsey Ables and Andrew Jeong, “Over 100,000 Michigan primary votes were ‘uncommitted.’ What does that mean?” Washington Post, February 28, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/elections/2024/02/28/uncommitted-votes-meaning-michigan/

Aaron Blake, “Four takeaways from the Michigan primary,” Washington Post, February 28, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/02/27/4-takeaways-michigan-primary/

Charles M. Blow, “Arab American Fury Toward Biden,” Washington Post, February 28, 2024, https://www.nytimes.com/2024/02/28/opinion/voters-michigan-biden-gaza.html

Eric Bradner, “Biden and Trump will easily win Michigan primaries, CNN projects,” Cable News Network, February 28, 2024, https://www.cnn.com/2024/02/27/politics/biden-trump-michigan-primaries/index.html

John Cassidy, “Michigan’s “Uncommitted” Democrats Send a Message to Biden,” New Yorker, February 28, 2024, https://www.newyorker.com/news/our-columnists/michigans-uncommitted-democrats-send-a-message-to-biden

Tony Diver, “Michigan primary results: Joe Biden wins but young and Arab Democrats rebel over Israel,” Telegraph, February 28, 2024, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/us/politics/2024/02/28/michigan-primary-results-polls-vote-republicans-trump-haley/

Caleb Ecarma, “Why Michigan’s Protest Vote Could Change Joe Biden’s Calculus: ‘There Will Be Political Consequences,’” Vanity Fair, February 28, 2024, https://www.vanityfair.com/news/michigan-vote-change-joe-biden-calculus

Lauren Fedor and James Politi, “Joe Biden faces dissent over Gaza as he wins Michigan Democratic primary,” Financial Times, February 28, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/4dbd9253-5147-4bbd-9e09-276e48e3f799

Ron Kampeas, “‘Uncommitted’ campaign protesting Biden’s Israel support nets 100,000+ votes in Michigan primary,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, February 28, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/02/27/politics/campaign-protesting-bidens-support-for-israel-celebrates-as-tens-of-thousands-vote-uncommitted-in-michigan-primary

Jeremy Scahill, Ryan Grim, and Daniel Boguslaw, “The Story Behind the New York Times October 7 Exposé,” Intercept, February 28, 2024, https://theintercept.com/2024/02/28/new-york-times-anat-schwartz-october-7/

Gordon Lubold, Nancy A. Youssef, and Annie Linskey, “U.S. to Deliver Aid to Gaza Through Military Airdrops,” Wall Street Journal, March 1, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/politics/national-security/u-s-expected-to-deliver-aid-to-gaza-through-military-air-drops-79814c51

Ishaan Tharoor, “Gaza’s spiraling, unprecedented humanitarian catastrophe,” Washington Post, March 1, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/03/01/gaza-humanitarian-catastrophe/

Tara Copp, “US military aircraft airdrop thousands of meals into Gaza in emergency humanitarian aid operation,” Associated Press, March 2, 2024, https://apnews.com/article/israel-hamas-gaza-airdrop-humanitarian-assistance-f8bc071193f89906abf21478bc70a084

Felicia Schwartz, “US begins Gaza aid airdrops after Joe Biden rebukes Israel,” Financial Times, March 2, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/c36c0386-8acb-48bc-a84b-8dfa636d00b4

Felicia Schwartz and Mehul Srivastava, “Israel has ‘basically signed on’ to a ceasefire, US official says,” Financial Times, March 2, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/b42490ae-8ea1-4744-8745-87123450c6c6

Neri Zilber and Felicia Schwartz, “Netanyahu allies lash out at Gantz over Washington trip,” Financial Times, March 3, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/1068b774-6ce2-4b41-8552-df64d12c7be1

Michelle Nichols, “UN team says rape, gang rape likely occurred during Hamas attack on Israel,” Reuters, March 4, 2024, https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/un-team-says-rape-gang-rape-likely-occurred-during-hamas-attack-israel-2024-03-04/

Noah Feldman, “How Oct. 7 is forcing Jews to reckon with Israel,” Washington Post, March 5, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2024/03/05/noah-feldman-jews-israel-progressive-justice-theology-politics/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Biden’s rift with Netanyahu grows wider,” Washington Post, March 5, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/03/05/biden-netanyahu-gantz/

John Hudson, “U.S. floods arms into Israel despite mounting alarm over war’s conduct,” Washington Post, March 6, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/03/06/us-weapons-israel-gaza/

Ron Kampeas, “‘Uncommitted’ campaign opposing Biden’s support for Israel makes a mark in 5 more states,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, March 6, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/03/06/politics/uncommitted-campaign-opposing-bidens-support-for-israel-makes-a-mark-in-5-more-states

Zack Beauchamp, “Are Biden and the Democrats finally turning on Israel?” Vox, March 8, 2024, https://www.vox.com/politics/2024/3/8/24093748/biden-israel-democrats-state-of-the-union-gaza-port

Konstantin Toropin, “New Military Sealift Operation to Aid Starving Gaza Residents Will Require More than 1,000 US Troops,” Military.com, March 8, 2024, https://www.military.com/daily-news/2024/03/08/new-military-sealift-operation-aid-starving-gaza-residents-will-require-more-1000-us-troops.html

Steve Hendrix and Sufian Taha, “At Jerusalem’s al-Aqsa Mosque, Ramadan brings uncertainty and fear,” Washington Post, March 9, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/03/09/ramadan-jerusalem-al-aqsa-gaza-war/

Noga Tarnopolsky, “The Biden Plan to Ditch Netanyahu,” New York, March 9, 2024, https://nymag.com/intelligencer/article/the-biden-plan-to-ditch-israels-netanyahu.html

Paul Ronzheimer and Carlo Martuscelli, “Netanyahu vows to defy Biden’s ‘red line’ and invade Rafah,” Politico, March 10, 2024, https://www.politico.eu/article/israels-netanyahu-says-he-will-defy-bidens-red-line-and-invade-rafah/

Roya News, “Exposé reveals list of essential aid items banned by ‘Israel’ from entry into Gaza,” March 10, 2024, https://en.royanews.tv/news/49795/2024-03-03

Eric Lutz, “Joe Biden’s Delicate Dance With Netanyahu Can’t Go on Forever,” Vanity Fair, March 11, 2024, https://www.vanityfair.com/news/joe-biden-benjamin-netanyahu-rift

Claire Parker, “Israeli pressure on Palestinian economy pushes West Bank to the brink,” Washington Post, March 11, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/03/11/israel-gaza-west-bank-economy/

Nataliya Vasilyeva and Tony Diver, “Israel could see Netanyahu ousted from power, US predicts,” Telegraph, March 11, 2024, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/world-news/2024/03/11/israel-could-see-netanyahu-ousted-from-power-us-predicts/

Adam Taylor, “Biden has huge leverage on Israel. He hasn’t really used it yet,” Washington Post, March 12, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/03/12/israel-united-states-military-aid-leverage/

Times of Israel, “Biden mulling conditions on Israel military aid if Rafah assault goes ahead — report,” Times of Israel, March 12, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/biden-mulling-conditions-on-israel-military-aid-if-rafah-assault-goes-ahead-report/

Times of Israel, “‘Very senior’ Israeli official accuses US government of seeking to oust Netanyahu,” March 12, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/very-senior-israeli-official-accuses-us-government-of-seeking-to-oust-netanyahu/

Andrew Lapin, “80+ bands pull out of South by Southwest to protest festival’s ties to Israeli military,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, March 13, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/03/13/israel/80-bands-pull-out-of-south-by-southwest-to-protest-festivals-ties-to-israeli-military

Stephen Collinson, Caitlin Hu, and Shelby Rose to Meanwhile in America list, “A momentous twist in US-Israel relations,” Cable News Network, March 14, 2024, https://www.cnn.com/newsletters

Liz Goodwin, “Schumer calls for ‘new election’ in Israel in scathing speech on Netanyahu,” Washington Post, March 14, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/03/14/israel-elections-netanyahu-charles-schumer/

Ellie Quinlan Houghtaling, “Surprise, Surprise: AIPAC Flips Out Over Schumer’s Netanyahu Comment,” New Republic, March 14, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/179836/aipac-pissed-chuck-schumer-benjamin-netanyahu-comment

Shia Kapos and Adam Cancryn, “Arab, Muslim and Palestinian leaders refuse to meet with White House aides in Chicago,” Politico, March 14, 2024, https://www.politico.com/news/2024/03/14/arab-muslim-and-palestinian-leaders-refuse-to-meet-with-white-house-aides-in-chicago-00147109

Barak Ravid, “Schumer’s anti-Netanyahu speech stuns Israel,” Axios, March 14, 2024, https://www.axios.com/2024/03/14/schumer-israel-netanyahu-speech-reaction

Luke Tress, “Chuck Schumer calls for new elections in Israel, says Netanyahu has ‘lost his way,’” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, March 14, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/03/14/israel/schumer-calls-for-new-elections-in-israel-says-netanyahu-has-lost-his-way

Gershom Gorenberg, “Why Biden and Bibi Are Tangling, and Why Biden Could Win,” New Republic, March 15, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/article/179736/biden-netanyahu-feud-gaza

Times of Israel, “Biden hails ‘good speech’ by Schumer criticizing Netanyahu, says many Americans agree,” March 15, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/biden-hails-good-speech-by-schumer-criticizing-netanyahu-says-many-americans-agree/

Luke Tress, “Chuck Schumer called for elections in Israel. What did he hope to achieve?” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, March 15, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/03/15/israel/chuck-schumer-called-for-elections-in-israel-what-did-he-hope-to-achieve

Lauren Gambino, “Top senator calls on Biden to ‘use all levers’ to pressure Israel over Gaza,” Guardian, March 16, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2024/mar/16/biden-senator-chris-van-hollen-israel-gaza-aid

Nicholas Vinocur, “Belgian PM warns Israel against using hunger as ‘weapon of war’ in Gaza,” Politico, March 16, 2024, https://www.politico.eu/article/belgian-prime-minister-alexander-de-croo-warns-israel-against-hunger-weapon-war-gaza/

Steve Hendrix, Susannah George, and Missy Ryan, “As Gaza war rages, U.S. military footprint expands across Middle East,” Washington Post, March 17, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/03/17/israel-gaza-us-military-middle-east/

Rachel Leingang, “How the uncommitted movement rocked Biden over Gaza,” Guardian, March 17, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2024/mar/17/us-uncommitted-voters-biden-gaza

Louisa Loveluck et al., “Drone footage raises questions about Israeli justification for deadly strike on Gaza journalists,” Washington Post, March 19, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/03/19/gaza-journalists-killed-israel-al-jazeera-footage/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel’s war on Hamas brings famine to Gaza,” Washington Post, March 19, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/03/19/gaza-famine-aid-warn/

Associated Press, “Why Israel is so determined to launch an offensive in Rafah,” March 21, 2024, https://apnews.com/article/rafah-hamas-gaza-israel-war-541e91c0f09196944a4dabeded94596f

Eric Lutz, “Will Biden’s “Immediate Ceasefire” Resolution Actually Change Netanyahu’s Calculus?” Vanity Fair, March 21, 2024, https://www.vanityfair.com/news/will-bidens-ceasefire-resolution-change-netanyahus-calculus

Jonathan Freedland, “In defying Joe Biden, Benjamin Netanyahu is exposing the limits of US power,” Guardian, March 22, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2024/mar/22/joe-biden-benjamin-netanyahu-israel-gaza-donald-trump

Nidal Al-Mughrabi, “Israel pounds Rafah in southern Gaza despite ceasefire calls,” Reuters, March 25, 2024, https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/israel-kills-dozens-gaza-attacks-besieges-two-hospitals-palestinian-medics-say-2024-03-25/

Felicia Schwartz, “UN Security Council passes Gaza ceasefire resolution,” Financial Times, March 25, 2024, https://www.ft.com/content/d96cafbd-4bb0-4b31-8285-7be53ccd6082

Ishaan Tharoor, “The U.S. and Israel have a ‘major credibility problem,’” Washington Post, March 25, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/03/25/israel-united-states-credibility-confrontation/

Karen DeYoung, Yasmeen Abutaleb, and Toluse Olorunnipa, “Biden-Netanyahu rift grows, as Israel cancels delegation visit,” Washington Post, March 26, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/03/25/biden-netanyahu-un-delegation-rift/

Alon Pinkas, “Netanyahu has been spoiling for a fight with the US. He may not survive this one,” Guardian, March 26, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2024/mar/26/benjamin-netanyahu-joe-biden-un-security-council-resolution-ceasefire-gaza

Ishaan Tharoor, “U.S. allows U.N. ceasefire vote, but it’s too late for many in Gaza,” Washington Post, March 26, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/03/26/united-states-united-nations-veto-israel-ceasefire-gaza/

Julian Borger, “State department official’s resignation highlights rifts over US Gaza policy,” Guardian, March 27, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2024/mar/27/state-department-resignation-gaza-biden-policy

Rory Carroll, “Ireland backs bid to include blocking of aid in definition of genocide,” Guardian, March 27, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/mar/27/gaza-ireland-joins-battle-to-include-the-blocking-of-vital-aid-in-definition-of-genocide

Louis Mian and Benjamin Brown, “‘Reasonable grounds’ to believe Israel is committing genocide in Gaza, UN rights expert says,” Cable News Network, March 27, 2024, https://www.cnn.com/2024/03/27/middleeast/israel-committing-genocide-in-gaza-un-rights-expert-says-intl/index.html

Melanie Swan, “Israel admits it may not be able to destroy Hamas now US has turned its back,” Telegraph, March 27, 2024, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/world-news/2024/03/27/israeli-intelligence-admits-may-not-destroy-hamas/

Peter Beaumont and Lorenzo Tondo, “‘Famine is setting in’: UN court orders Israel to unblock Gaza food aid,” Guardian, March 28, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/mar/28/famine-is-setting-in-icj-orders-israel-to-unblock-gaza-food-aid

Times of Israel, “ICJ orders Israel to increase humanitarian aid to Gaza, demands report in 30 days,” March 28, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/icj-orders-israel-to-increase-humanitarian-aid-to-gaza-demands-report-in-30-days/

John Hudson, “U.S. signs off on more bombs, warplanes for Israel,” Washington Post, March 29, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/03/29/us-weapons-israel-gaza-war/

Maegan Vazquez, “Michigan lawmaker says Gaza should be approached ‘like Nagasaki and Hiroshima,’” Washington Post, March 31, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/03/30/michigan-lawmaker-gaza-hiroshima/

Warren P. Strobel and Nancy A. Youssef, “U.S. and Israel’s ‘Unprecedented’ Intelligence Sharing Draws Criticism,” Wall Street Journal, March 31, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/politics/national-security/u-s-and-israels-unprecedented-intelligence-sharing-draws-criticism-a85979b4

William Booth and Lorenzo Tugnoli, “Inside the ruins of Gaza’s al-Shifa Hospital,” Washington Post, April 1, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/04/01/gaza-al-shifa-hospital-israel/

Times of Israel, “Israel acknowledges killing 7 aid charity workers in ‘tragic, unintentional’ airstrike,” April 2, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/idf-promises-probe-as-slain-aid-workers-home-countries-demand-explanation/

Yasmeen Abutaleb and Matt Viser, “Biden rebukes Israel over aid workers, but his Gaza policy is unchanged,” Washington Post, April 3, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/04/03/biden-world-central-kitchen-tough-statement-israel-policy/

Hafiz Rashid, “‘Unacceptable’: White House Cancels Event as Biden Struggles on Gaza,” New Republic, April 3, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/180409/white-house-cancels-event-gaza-outcry

Haroon Siddique, Eleni Courea, and Patrick Wintour, “Former supreme court judges say UK arming Israel breaches international law,” Guardian, April 3, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/apr/03/former-supreme-court-judges-say-uk-arming-israel-breaches-international-law

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel’s ‘unintentional’ strike on aid workers stirs global outrage,” Washington Post, April 3, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/04/03/israel-strike-world-central-kitchen-aid-workers-global-outrage/

Yasmeen Abutaleb and Matt Viser, “Biden warns Netanyahu the situation in Gaza is ‘unacceptable,’” Washington Post, April 4, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/04/04/biden-warns-netanyahu-situation-gaza-is-unacceptable/

Trinidad Deiros Bronte, “The unpunished deaths of other civilians question Israel’s willingness to clarify the attack on WCK,” El País, April 4, 2024, https://english.elpais.com/international/2024-04-04/the-unpunished-deaths-of-other-civilians-question-israels-willingness-to-clarify-the-attack-on-wck.html

Michael R. Gordon and Nancy A. Youssef, “Biden Ties Support for Israel to Civilian Protection in Gaza, ” Wall Street Journal, April 4, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/biden-netanyahu-set-to-talk-as-gaza-aid-worker-deaths-add-to-pressure-on-israel-9dee3793

Jacob Magid, “Senior Israeli official warns of growing ‘shoot first, ask later’ culture in IDF,” Times of Israel, April 4, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/senior-israeli-official-warns-of-growing-shoot-first-ask-later-culture-in-idf/

Kate Sullivan, “Trump says Israel needs to ‘finish what they started’ and said war with Hamas is ‘taking a long time,’” Cable News Network, April 4, 2024, https://www.cnn.com/2024/04/04/politics/trump-israel-comments/index.html

Adam Taylor, “Biden’s ‘red line’ on Gaza is nowhere to be found,” Washington Post, April 4, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/04/04/biden-wck-world-central-kitchen-israel-policy-change/

Dov Lieber, Rory Jones, and Margherita Stancati, “Israel Says Troops Lacked Grounds for Strike That Killed Aid Workers in Gaza,” Wall Street Journal, April 5, 2024, https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israel-to-allow-more-aid-into-gaza-after-biden-warning-over-u-s-support-49bc42e4

Michael Tomasky, “Is Biden Really Going to Let Netanyahu Lose Him the Election?” New Republic, April 5, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/180481/biden-israel-netanyahu-lose-election

Lazar Berman, “Israel’s begrudging approach to humanitarian aid could cost it the war in Gaza,” Times of Israel, April 6, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/israels-begrudging-approach-to-humanitarian-aid-could-cost-it-the-war-in-gaza/

Karen DeYoung, “Six months into Gaza war, Biden confronts the limits of U.S. leverage,” Washington Post, April 6, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/04/06/gaza-israel-biden-war/

Emanuel Fabian, “IDF chief says withdrawal of troops from Gaza doesn’t mean war is close to end,” Times of Israel, April 7, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/idf-chief-says-withdrawal-of-troops-from-gaza-doesnt-mean-war-is-close-to-end/

M. J. Lee, “Inside President Biden’s pointed phone call with Benjamin Netanyahu,” Cable News Network, April 7, 2024, https://www.cnn.com/2024/04/06/politics/biden-netanyahu-israel-gaza-war-phone-call-details/index.html

David Horovitz, “Israel’s major ground war in Gaza is over; the state of war inflicted by Hamas is not,” Times of Israel, April 8, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/israels-major-ground-war-in-gaza-is-over-the-state-of-war-inflicted-by-hamas-is-not/

Katie Polglase et al., “Dying for a bag of flour: Videos and eyewitness accounts cast doubt on Israel’s timeline of deadly Gaza aid delivery,” Cable News Network, April 9, 2024, https://edition.cnn.com/2024/04/09/middleeast/gaza-food-aid-convoy-deaths-eyewitness-intl-investigation-cmd/index.html

Times of Israel, “US Sen. Warren: World Court has ‘ample evidence’ to find Israel guilty of genocide,” April 9, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/us-sen-warren-world-court-has-ample-evidence-to-find-israel-guilty-of-genocide/

Guardian, “Netanyahu making a ‘mistake’ on Gaza, says Biden, as he urges Israel to push for ceasefire,” April 9, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/apr/10/benjamin-netanyahu-joe-biden-gaza-mistake-ceasefire-israel-war-palestine

Asaf Elia-Shalev, “Israeli academics face backlash after signing letter accusing Israel of ‘plausible genocide’ in Gaza,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, April 10, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/04/10/israel/israeli-academics-face-backlash-after-signing-letter-accusing-israel-of-plausible-genocide-in-gaza

Matt Lebovic, “Has the term ‘antisemitism’ been overused – or overblown – beyond usefulness?” Times of Israel, April 10, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/has-the-term-antisemitism-been-overused-or-overblown-beyond-usefulness/

Jacob Magid, “Biden urges Israel ‘to just call for’ 6-8 week ceasefire, slams PM’s handling of Gaza war,” Times of Israel, April 10, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/biden-urges-israel-to-just-call-for-6-8-week-ceasefire-slams-pms-handling-of-gaza-war/

Julian Borger, “Aid ‘still not reaching Gaza’, as top US official warns famine has started,” Guardian, April 11, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/apr/11/aid-still-not-reaching-gaza-as-top-us-official-warns-famine-has-started

Leigh Ann Caldwell and Marianna Sotomayor, “Johnson gambles on plan separating Israel aid from Ukraine funds,” Washington Post, April 15, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/04/15/mike-johnson-israel-ukraine-aid-house-republicans/

Eugene Daniels, “White House opposes standalone Israel funding bill,” Politico, April 15, 2024, https://www.politico.com/news/2024/04/15/biden-iran-attack-israel-00152282

Julia Ioffe, “Bibi Stings,” Puck News, April 15, 2024, https://puck.news/will-bibi-netanyahu-escalate-with-iran/

Jeremy Scahill and Ryan Grim, “Leaked NYT Gaza Memo Tells Journalists to Avoid Words ‘Genocide,’ ‘Ethnic Cleansing,’ and ‘Occupied Territory,’” Intercept, April 15, 2024, https://theintercept.com/2024/04/15/nyt-israel-gaza-genocide-palestine-coverage/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Iran’s escalation with Israel shifts focus away from Gaza,” Washington Post, April 16, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/04/16/iran-escalation-israel-gaza-attention-focus/

Jason Burke, “Revealed: Israel has sped up settlement-building in East Jerusalem since Gaza war began,” Guardian, April 17, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/apr/17/revealed-israel-has-sped-up-settlement-building-in-east-jerusalem-since-gaza-war-began

Brett Murphy, “Blinken Is Sitting on Staff Recommendations to Sanction Israeli Military Units Linked to Killings or Rapes,” ProPublica, April 17, 2024, https://www.propublica.org/article/israel-gaza-blinken-leahy-sanctions-human-rights-violations

Jennifer Scholtes and Connor O’Brien, “Johnson releases text on foreign aid plan as it hangs by thread,” Politico, April 17, 2024, https://www.politico.com/live-updates/2024/04/17/congress/johnson-outlines-foreign-aid-plan-00152767

Leigh Ann Caldwell and Marianna Sotomayor, “Bipartisan House coalition advances Ukraine aid,” Washington Post, April 19, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/04/19/israel-ukraine-aid-house-speaker-mike-johnson/

Jared Malsin and Nancy A. Youssef, “Biden Weighs More Than $1 Billion in New Arms for Israel,” Wall Street Journal, April 19, 2024, https://apple.news/AYrD2jUG7Td29aUfmEPUWSw

Danielle Paquette et al., “House approves Ukraine, Israel aid bills,” Washington Post, April 20, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/04/20/house-vote-ukraine-israel-aid-johnson/

Barak Ravid, “U.S. expected to sanction IDF unit for human rights violations in West Bank,” Axios, April 20, 2024, https://www.axios.com/2024/04/20/us-israel-sanctions-idf-west-bank

Times of Israel, “Israel aghast as US said poised to sanction IDF unit with history of abuses,” April 21, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-aghast-as-us-said-poised-to-sanction-notorious-idf-unit-netanyahu-a-moral-low/

Emanuel Fabian, “‘I will always carry the pain’: IDF intel chief Aharon Haliva resigns over Oct. 7 failure,” Times of Israel, April 22, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/idf-intel-chief-aharon-haliva-announces-resignation-over-october-7-failures/

Claire Parker, “Report says Israel has not provided evidence of widespread militancy among UNRWA staff,” Washington Post, April 22, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/04/22/unrwa-israel-hamas-report-palestinians/

Carla Bleiker, &lquo;Pro-Palestinian protests spread at US universities,” Deutsche Welle, April 23, 2024, https://www.dw.com/en/pro-palestinian-protests-spread-at-us-universities/a-68902360

Sonel Cutler and Alecia Taylor, “Here’s Where Student Protesters Are Demanding Divestment From Israel,” Chronicle of Higher Education, April 23, 2024, https://www.chronicle.com/article/heres-where-student-protesters-are-demanding-divestment-from-israel

Abby Sewell, “Hamas official says group would lay down its arms if an independent Palestinian state is established,” Associated Press, April 25, 2024, https://apnews.com/article/hamas-khalil-alhayya-qatar-ceasefire-1967-borders-4912532b11a9cec29464eab234045438

David Jesse, “Why Encampments Scare College Presidents,” Chronicle of Higher Education, April 26, 2024, https://www.chronicle.com/article/why-encampments-scare-college-presidents

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel could still force an exodus into Egypt,” Washington Post, April 26, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/04/26/gaza-egypt-exodus-rafah-invasion/

Brian VanDeMark, “The grim history of using troops against student protesters,” Washington Post, April 26, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2024/04/26/kent-state-killings-lesson-protests/

Claire Parker et al., “In war-battered Gaza, residents grow angry with Hamas,” Washington Post, April 27, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/04/27/gaza-hamas-public-support-israel/

Rachel Siegel and Christian Davenport, “Campus arrests spread as students press on with pro-Palestinian protests,” Washington Post, April 27, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2024/04/27/protests-campus-arrest-northeastern-upenn/

Yasmeen Abutaleb, “5,000 miles away, a Michigan mayor at the center of the Gaza storm,” Washington Post, April 28, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/04/28/5000-miles-away-michigan-mayor-center-gaza-storm/

Deutsche Welle, “UN court rules German military aid to Israel can continue,” April 30, 2024, https://www.dw.com/en/un-court-rules-german-military-aid-to-israel-can-continue/a-68956989

Lazar Berman, “Netanyahu tells Blinken he will not agree to end war on Hamas as part of hostage deal,” Times of Israel, May 1, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/in-israel-blinken-blames-hamas-for-hostage-deal-holdup-gaza-humanitarian-crisis/

J. Brian Charles, “After Negotiations Collapse, Police Sweep Through Columbia U. and Arrest Dozens,” Chronicle of Higher Education, May 1, 2024, https://www.chronicle.com/article/after-negotiations-collapse-police-sweep-through-columbia-u-and-arrest-dozens

Stephen Collinson, “Student unrest ratchets up an already tense election year,” Cable News Network, May 1, 2024, https://www.cnn.com/2024/04/30/politics/student-protests-election-year-analysis

Erin Gretzinger, “Unrest Has Gripped Campuses Across the Country. These 3 Colleges Struck Deals With Their Protesters,” Chronicle of Higher Education, May 1, 2024, https://www.chronicle.com/article/unrest-has-gripped-campuses-across-the-country-these-3-colleges-struck-deals-with-their-protesters

Abigail Hauslohner, “House passes antisemitism bill over complaints from First Amendment advocates,” Washington Post, May 1, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/05/01/antisemitism-awarness-act-campus-protests/

Ishaan Tharoor, “The delusions behind Biden’s plan for Middle East peace,” Washington Post, May 1, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/05/01/middle-east-peace-biden-plan-delusions/

Stefan M. Bradley, “Columbia University protests look increasingly like those in 1968 as police storm campuses nationwide,” Conversation, May 2, 2024, https://theconversation.com/columbia-university-protests-look-increasingly-like-those-in-1968-as-police-storm-campuses-nationwide-228851

Rollie Atkinson, “Campus protest redux,” Moral Dilemmas: First Drafts and Commentaries, May 3, 2024, https://rollieatkinson.substack.com/p/campus-protest-redux

Gabriel Debenedetti, “It’s Not 1968 to Joe Biden,” New York, May 3, 2024, https://apple.news/Am-BcQkVNQ86yBoySWEPzOw

Times of Israel, “Hamas indicates it may agree to deal; Israeli official insists truce won’t end the war,” May 4, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/hamas-indicates-it-may-agree-to-deal-israeli-official-insists-truce-wont-end-the-war/

Kareem Fahim and Adela Suliman, “Israel shuts down Al Jazeera’s operations, raids Jerusalem office,” Washington Post, May 5, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/05/05/al-jazeera-israel-shut-down-gaza/

Barak Ravid, “U.S. put a hold on an ammunition shipment to Israel,” Axios, May 5, 2024, https://www.axios.com/2024/05/05/israel-us-ammunition-shipment-hold

Stephen Zunes, “Don’t Buy the Right-Wing Disinformation Campaign on ‘From the River to the Sea,’” Truthout, May 5, 2024, https://truthout.org/articles/dont-buy-the-right-wing-disinformation-campaign-on-from-the-river-to-the-sea/

Emanuel Fabian, “IDF tells 100,000 Palestinians to evacuate eastern Rafah ahead of planned offensive,” Times of Israel, May 6, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/idf-calls-on-palestinians-to-evacuate-eastern-rafah-ahead-of-planned-offensive/

Harold Meyerson, “Who Created the Israel-Palestine Conflict?” American Prospect, May 6, 2024, https://prospect.org/world/2024-05-06-who-created-israel-palestine-conflict/

Abeer Salman et al., “Israel says Rafah operations will go ahead as Hamas deal remains ‘far’ from meeting its demands,” Cable News Network, May 6, 2024, https://www.cnn.com/2024/05/06/middleeast/hamas-agrees-ceasefire-proposal-israel-gaza-latam-intl/index.html

Thomas J. Sugrue, “College Presidents Behaving Badly,” Chronicle of Higher Education, May 6, 2024, https://www.chronicle.com/article/college-presidents-behaving-badly

Ishaan Tharoor, “What lies beneath Gaza’s rubble and ruin,” Washington Post, May 6, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/05/06/gaza-destruction-rubble-calamity/

Alexander Ward, Lara Seligman, and Erin Banco, “US fears Israel speeding up Rafah invasion timeline after deadly Hamas attack,” Politico, May 6, 2024, https://www.politico.com/news/2024/05/06/us-israel-rafah-invasion-hamas-attack-00156256

John Hudson, “U.S. paused shipment of thousands of bombs to Israel amid Rafah rift,” Washington Post, May 7, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/05/07/biden-delays-weapons-israel-rafah/

Yasmeen Abutaleb, “Biden says he will cut off offensive weapons if Israel invades Rafah,” Washington Post, May 8, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/05/08/biden-threatens-suspension-military-aid-israel/

Jordan Fabian and Galit Altstein, “US Pauses Arms Shipment to Israel Over Rafah Invasion Plans,” Bloomberg, May 8, 2024, https://apple.news/AxwraFLJGTjynJzZZSpfCVA

Jacob Magid, “US confirms holding up sale of heavy bombs it feared Israel would use in Rafah,” Times of Israel, May 8, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/us-confirms-holding-up-sale-of-heavy-bombs-it-feared-israel-would-use-in-rafah/

Barak Ravid, “Blinken report expected to criticize Israel, but say it isn’t breaking weapons terms,” Axios, May 9, 2024, https://www.axios.com/2024/05/10/israel-gaza-us-weapons-congress-report-blinken

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel puts Rafah in the eye of the storm,” Washington Post, May 9, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/05/09/rafah-gaza-city-palestine-history/

John Hudson, “U.S. says Israel may have violated humanitarian law using American weapons,” Washington Post, May 10, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/05/10/biden-israel-gaza-us-weapons/

Toluse Olorunnipa and Jacqueline Alemany, “Biden’s isolation grows as Gaza report both criticizes and clears Israel,” Washington Post, May 10, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2024/05/10/biden-israel-human-rights-report/

Times of Israel, “Report: State Department set to confirm Israel not breaking international law in Gaza,” May 10, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/report-state-department-set-to-confirm-israel-not-breaking-international-law-in-gaza/

United Nations News, “UN General Assembly presses Security Council to give ‘favourable consideration’ to full Palestinian membership,” May 10, 2024, https://news.un.org/en/story/2024/05/1149596

Brett Wilkins, “Biden ‘Moving the Goal Post’ With Threat to Withhold Bombs from Israel,” Inter Press Service, May 10, 2024, https://www.ipsnews.net/2024/05/biden-moving-goal-post-threat-withhold-bombs-israel/

Jason Burke, Lorenzo Tondo, and Malak A. Tantesh, “Terrified families flee Rafah as Israel set to open all-out assault,” Guardian, May 11, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/article/2024/may/11/leaflet-families-rafah-israel-assault-gaza-palestinians-biden

Richard Luscombe and Edward Helmore, “‘Strategic and moral mistakes’: US politicians step up condemnation of Israel,” Guardian, May 12, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/article/2024/may/12/us-politicians-criticize-israel-gaza-war

David Remnick, “An Israeli Newspaper Presents Truths Readers May Prefer to Avoid,” New Yorker, May 12, 2024, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2024/05/20/an-israeli-newspaper-presents-truths-readers-may-prefer-to-avoid

Ishaan Tharoor, “Why Spain will recognize a Palestinian state,” Washington Post, May 13, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/05/13/palestine-statehood-recognize-spain-united-nations/

John Hudson, “Biden advances $1 billion in arms for Israel amid Rafah tensions,” Washington Post, May 14, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/05/14/biden-israel-weapons-gaza-rafah/

Jessica Corbett, “’Most Thorough Legal Analysis’ Yet Concludes Israel Committing Genocide in Gaza,” Common Dreams, May 15, 2024, https://www.commondreams.org/news/genocide-gaza

Emanuel Fabian, Sam Sokol, and Lazar Berman, “ Gallant to PM: Reject Israeli military, civil rule of Gaza after Hamas; I won’t allow it,” Times of Israel, May 15, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/gallant-to-pm-reject-israeli-military-civil-rule-of-gaza-after-hamas-i-wont-allow-it/

Ezra Hess, “What Israel’s Political Landscape Says About the Course of the War in Gaza,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 15, 2024, https://www.cfr.org/in-brief/what-israels-political-landscape-says-about-course-war-gaza

Sanjana Karanth, “Jewish American Biden Appointee Is Latest To Resign In Protest Of Gaza Policy,” HuffPost, May 15, 2024, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/jewish-american-biden-appointee-resigns-protest-gaza_n_6644fb92e4b0411bd6ffae0f

Jeremy Sharon, “ICJ’s urgent hearings over IDF’s Rafah operation spell more trouble for Israel,” Times of Israel, May 15, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/icjs-urgent-hearings-over-idfs-rafah-operation-spell-more-trouble-for-israel/

Ronen Bergman and Mark Mazzetti, “The Unpunished: How Extremists Took Over Israel,” New York Times, May 16, 2024, https://www.nytimes.com/2024/05/16/magazine/israel-west-bank-settler-violence-impunity.html

Karen DeYoung and Shane Harris, “U.S. officials see strategic failure in Israel’s Rafah invasion,” Washington Post, May 16, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/05/16/biden-rafah-intelligence-netanyahu-strategy/

Ron Kampeas, “Lily Greenberg Call, Jewish staffer who quit Biden administration over Israel policy: ‘There are so many of us who feel this way’,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, May 16, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/05/16/israel/lily-greenberg-call-jewish-staffer-who-quit-biden-administration-over-israel-policy-there-are-so-many-of-us-who-feel-this-way

Ann Wright, “Why Did the US Spend $320 Million on a Rube Goldberg Pier For Gaza?” Common Dreams, May 16, 2024, https://www.commondreams.org/opinion/us-military-pier-gaza

Loveday Morris et al., “What Israel’s strategic corridor in Gaza reveals about its postwar plans,” Washington Post, May 17, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/05/17/gaza-israel-netzarim-corridor-war-hamas/

Prem Thakker, “The State Department Says Israel Isn’t Blocking Aid. Videos Show the Opposite,” Intercept, May 18, 2024, https://theintercept.com/2024/05/18/israel-blocking-aid-gaza/

Mohamad Bazzi, “Biden wants progressives to believe he’s reining in Israel. He isn’t,” Guardian, May 20, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/article/2024/may/20/biden-weapons-israel-gaza-war

Ron Kampeas, “ICC prosecutor seeks arrest warrants for Benjamin Netanyahu and Hamas leaders,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, May 20, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/05/20/israel/international-criminal-court-prosecutor-seeks-arrest-warrants-for-benjamin-netanyahu-and-hamas-leaders

Ivana Kottasová and Madalena Araujo, “ICC seeks arrest warrants against Sinwar and Netanyahu for war crimes over October 7 attack and Gaza war,” Cable News Network, May 20, 2024, https://www.cnn.com/2024/05/20/middleeast/icc-israel-hamas-arrest-warrant-war-crimes-intl/index.html

Louisa Loveluck, “ICC prosecutor seeks arrest warrants for Israel’s Netanyahu and Hamas’s Sinwar,” Washington Post, May 20, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/05/20/israel-hamas-war-news-gaza-palestine/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel ‘is stuck inside Gaza’ as Palestinian suffering deepens,” Washington Post, May 20, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/05/20/israel-gaza-suffering-netanyahu-palestinian/

Alexander Ward, Erin Banco, and Lara Seligman, “Biden admin openly hammering Israel’s military strategy in Gaza,” Politico, May 21, 2024, https://www.politico.com/news/2024/05/21/biden-admin-hammering-israel-military-strategy-gaza-00159262

Washington Post, “Six experts weigh in on the ICC’s warrants on Israeli and Hamas leaders,” May 21, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2024/05/21/icc-arrest-warrant-israel-hamas-debate/

Lazar Berman, “Norway, Ireland, Spain move to recognize Palestinian state, drawing Israeli fury,” Times of Israel, May 22, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/norway-ireland-spain-move-to-recognize-palestinian-state-drawing-israeli-fury/

William Booth, “Norway, Ireland and Spain recognize Palestinian state; Israel condemns move,” Washington Post, May 22, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/05/22/norway-ireland-palestine-state-recognition/

Kareem Fahim et al., “Israel’s latest offensives unleash ‘hell’ in Gaza, aid groups say,” Washington Post, May 22, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/05/22/gaza-famine-aid-israel-hamas/

Ishaan Tharoor, “The ICC’s battle with Israel is a test of the international order,” Washington Post, May 22, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/05/22/icc-international-order-criminal-court-israel-war-crimes/

Ishaan Tharoor, “Israel’s isolation deepens on the world stage,” Washington Post, May 23, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com//world/2024/05/23/israel-isolation-icj-ruling-gaza/

  1. [1]Times of Israel, “20 years after its opening, destroyed Gaza airport embodies grounded peace hopes,” September 12, 2018, https://www.timesofisrael.com/20-years-after-its-opening-destroyed-gaza-airport-embodies-grounded-peace-hopes/
  2. [2]Mohammed Haddad, “Nakba Day: What happened in Palestine in 1948?” Al Jazeera, May 15, 2022, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/5/15/nakba-mapping-palestinian-villages-destroyed-by-israel-in-1948
  3. [3]Roya News, “Exposé reveals list of essential aid items banned by ‘Israel’ from entry into Gaza,” March 10, 2024, https://en.royanews.tv/news/49795/2024-03-03
  4. [4]Owen Jones, “The west’s complete contempt for the lives of Palestinians will not be forgotten,” Guardian, January 21, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2024/jan/21/palestinian-lives-gaza-politics-media
  5. [5]Julia Ioffe, “Tragedy in Israel,” Puck, October 10, 2023, https://puck.news/tragedy-in-israel/
  6. [6]Karen Attiah, “The colonial history of Israel-Palestine: Bringing the receipts,” Washington Post, November 3, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2023/11/03/colonial-history-britain-israel/
  7. [7]Reform Judaism, “History of Jewish Immigration to Israel (Aliyah),” n.d., https://reformjudaism.org/history-jewish-immigration-israel-aliyah
  8. [8]Pew Research Center, “Faith on the Move – The Religious Affiliation of International Migrants,” March 8, 2012, https://www.pewresearch.org/religion/2012/03/08/religious-migration-exec/
  9. [9]Jewish Agency for Israel, “The Law of Return,” n.d., https://archive.jewishagency.org/first-steps/program/5131/
  10. [10]Jewish Virtual Library, “Jewish & Non-Jewish Population of Israel/Palestine,” n.d., https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jewish-and-non-jewish-population-of-israel-palestine-1517-present
  11. [11]Mohammed Haddad, “Nakba Day: What happened in Palestine in 1948?” Al Jazeera, May 15, 2022, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/5/15/nakba-mapping-palestinian-villages-destroyed-by-israel-in-1948
  12. [12]Harold Meyerson, “Who Created the Israel-Palestine Conflict?” American Prospect, May 6, 2024, https://prospect.org/world/2024-05-06-who-created-israel-palestine-conflict/
  13. [13]Harold Meyerson, “Who Created the Israel-Palestine Conflict?” American Prospect, May 6, 2024, https://prospect.org/world/2024-05-06-who-created-israel-palestine-conflict/
  14. [14]Mohammed Haddad, “Nakba Day: What happened in Palestine in 1948?” Al Jazeera, May 15, 2022, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/5/15/nakba-mapping-palestinian-villages-destroyed-by-israel-in-1948; Steve Hendrix, Hajar Harb, and Claire Parker, “As Gazans return to destroyed homes, Israeli ministers push resettlement,” Washington Post, January 4, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/01/04/gaza-displaced-civilians-resettlement-israel/; David Ignatius, “In the West Bank, I saw how peace will require confrontation with Israel,” Washington Post, December 16, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2023/12/16/west-bank-settlers-violence-peace/; Owen Jones, “The west’s complete contempt for the lives of Palestinians will not be forgotten,” Guardian, January 21, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2024/jan/21/palestinian-lives-gaza-politics-media; Tori Otten, “Report: Israel in Talks With Third Country to Expel Palestinians Entirely,” New Republic, January 3, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/177837/report-israel-expel-palestinians-gaza-third-country-congo; Zena Tahhan, “Israel’s settlements: Over 50 years of land theft explained,” Al Jazeera, January 27, 2020, https://interactive.aljazeera.com/aje/2017/50-years-illegal-settlements/index.html; Ishaan Tharoor, “Israeli calls for Gaza’s ethnic cleansing are only getting louder,” Washington Post, January 5, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/01/05/wv-israel-hamas/
  15. [15]Adrienne Mahsa Varkiani, “ADL Officially Admits It Counts Pro-Palestine Activism as Antisemitic,” New Republic, January 10, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/177993/adl-abandons-pretense-tracking-antisemitism-honestly-palestine-rallies
  16. [16]Adrienne Mahsa Varkiani, “ADL Officially Admits It Counts Pro-Palestine Activism as Antisemitic,” New Republic, January 10, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/177993/adl-abandons-pretense-tracking-antisemitism-honestly-palestine-rallies
  17. [17]Matt Lebovic, “Has the term ‘antisemitism’ been overused – or overblown – beyond usefulness?” Times of Israel, April 10, 2024, https://www.timesofisrael.com/has-the-term-antisemitism-been-overused-or-overblown-beyond-usefulness/
  18. [18]AntiDefamation League, “ADL Publishes New Guide to Antisemitic Tropes,” March 11, 2020, https://www.adl.org/resources/press-release/adl-publishes-new-guide-antisemitic-tropes
  19. [19]John Patrick Leary, “Israel’s ‘Right to Exist’ Is a Rhetorical Trap,” New Republic, January 3, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/article/177768/israel-right-to-exist-rhetorical-trap
  20. [20]Avigail Abarbanel, “A change needs to come,” Electronic Intifada, May 25, 2008, http://electronicintifada.net/content/change-needs-come/7529; Deborah Danon, “‘The safest place to be Jewish’: 2,600 people have moved to Israel since Hamas invaded,” Times of Israel, December 23, 2023, https://www.timesofisrael.com/the-safest-place-to-be-jewish-2600-people-have-moved-to-israel-since-hamas-invaded/; Albert Memmi, Portrait of a Jew (New York: Viking, 1971).
  21. [21]John Patrick Leary, “Israel’s ‘Right to Exist’ Is a Rhetorical Trap,” New Republic, January 3, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/article/177768/israel-right-to-exist-rhetorical-trap
  22. [22]United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “What are human rights?” n.d., https://www.ohchr.org/en/what-are-human-rights
  23. [23]Steve Hendrix and Sufian Taha, “At Jerusalem’s al-Aqsa Mosque, Ramadan brings uncertainty and fear,” Washington Post, March 9, 2024, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/03/09/ramadan-jerusalem-al-aqsa-gaza-war/
  24. [24]Bill Chappell, “The Vatican repudiates ‘Doctrine of Discovery,’ which was used to justify colonialism,” National Public Radio, March 30, 2023, https://www.npr.org/2023/03/30/1167056438/vatican-doctrine-of-discovery-colonialism-indigenous
  25. [25]Democracy Now! “Judith Butler on Hamas, Israel’s Collective Punishment of Gaza & Why Biden Must Push for Ceasefire,” October 26, 2023, https://www.democracynow.org/2023/10/26/judith_butler_on_hamas_israels_collective; Democracy Now! “Palestinian Lives Matter Too: Jewish Scholar Judith Butler Condemns Israel’s ‘Genocide’ in Gaza,” October 26, 2023, https://www.democracynow.org/2023/10/26/judith_butler_ceasefire_gaza_israel; Asaf Elia-Shalev, “Israeli academics face backlash after signing letter accusing Israel of ‘plausible genocide’ in Gaza,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, April 10, 2024, https://www.jta.org/2024/04/10/israel/israeli-academics-face-backlash-after-signing-letter-accusing-israel-of-plausible-genocide-in-gaza; Khaleda Rahman, “Israel Committing ‘Textbook Case of Genocide,’ Holocaust Historian Says,” Newsweek, October 17, 2023, https://www.newsweek.com/holocaust-historian-israel-committing-genocide-raz-segal-1835346
  26. [26]Nina Lakhani, “Israel is deliberately starving Palestinians, UN rights expert says,” Guardian, February 27, 2024, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2024/feb/27/un-israel-food-starvation-palestinians-war-crime-genocide
  27. [27]Adrienne Mahsa Varkiani, “ADL Officially Admits It Counts Pro-Palestine Activism as Antisemitic,” New Republic, January 10, 2024, https://newrepublic.com/post/177993/adl-abandons-pretense-tracking-antisemitism-honestly-palestine-rallies