Imperialism · Russia · Ukraine




Fig. 1. “Destroyed Russian military vehicles located on the main street Khreshchatyk are seen as part of the celebration of the Independence Day of Ukraine in Kyiv, August 24.” Photograph by Gleb Garanich for Reuters, August 24, 2022,[1] fair use.

Fig. 2. “The atomic cloud over Nagasaki 1945.” Photograph from Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Overseas Operations Branch, New York Office, News and Features Bureau, (12/17/1942 – 09/15/1945), by Charles Levy, August 9, 1945, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

See also:

Adrian Karatnycky, “Ukraine’s Orange Revolution,” New York Times, April 12, 2005,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Ukraine crisis: ‘Russians’ occupy Crimea airports,” February 28, 2014,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s War in Crimea Could Soon Spread to Eastern Ukraine,” New Republic, March 1, 2014,

Alison Smale and Steven Erlanger, “Ukraine Mobilizes Reserve Troops, Threatening War,” New York Times, March 1, 2014,

Democracy Now! “Who Is Provoking the Unrest in Ukraine? A Debate on Role of Russia, United States in Regional Crisis,” March 3, 2014,

Andrew Higgins, “Steeped in Its Bloody History, Again Embracing Resistance,” New York Times, March 6, 2014,

David M. Herszenhorn and Andrew Roth, “In East Ukraine, Protesters Seek Russian Troops,” New York Times, April 7, 2014,

Andrew Higgins, “Among Ukraineʼs Jews, the Bigger Worry Is Putin, Not Pogroms,” New York Times, April 8, 2014, copy in possession of author.

Michael R. Gordon, “U.S. and Russia Agree on Pact to Defuse Ukraine Crisis,” New York Times, April 17, 2014,

Andrew Higgins, Michael R. Gordon, and Andrew E. Kramer, “Photos Link Masked Men in East Ukraine to Russia,” New York Times, April 20, 2014,

C. J. Chivers, Neil MacFarquhar, and Andrew Higgins, “Russia to Start Drills, Warning Ukraine Over Mobilization,” New York Times, April 24, 2014,

Tom McCarthy et al., “Ukraine: Dozens killed in building fire in Odessa, ministry says,” Guardian, May 2, 2014,

Andrew Higgins and Michael R. Gordon, “Russians Open Fire in Ukraine, NATO Reports,” New York Times, August 22, 2014,

Karoun Demirjian and William Branigin, “Putin hails Ukraine separatists; Kiev raises prospect of joining NATO,” Washington Post, August 29, 2014,

Max Fisher, “Everything you need to know about the Ukraine crisis,” Vox, September 3, 2014,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Ukraine crisis: Timeline,” November 13, 2014,

Dmitry Volchek and Claire Bigg, “Ukrainian Bloggers Hunt Down Russian Soldiers In War-Torn East,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, May 29, 2015,

Tim Marshall, “Russia and the Curse of Geography,” Atlantic, October 31, 2015,

Ivan Nechepurenko and Neil MacFarquhar, “As Sabotage Blacks Out Crimea, Tatars Prevent Repairs,” New York Times, November 23, 2015,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Ukraine crisis: What’s going on in Crimea?” August 12, 2016,

Eugene Rumer and Andrew S. Weiss, “Ukraine: Putin’s Unfinished Business,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, November 12, 2021,

Robin Emmott, “Ukraine PM says Russia ‘absolutely’ behind suspected coup attempt,” Reuters, November 30, 2021,

Vladimir Isachenkov, “Putin warns West: Moscow has ‘red line’ about Ukraine, NATO,” Associated Press, November 30, 2021,

Michael McFaul and Oleksiy Honcharuk, “The best response to Russia’s threats is a closer relationship with Ukraine,” Washington Post, December 1, 2021,

Teri Schultz, “Russia has been warned: So will NATO defend Ukraine?” Deutschewelle, December 1, 2021,

Marc Bennetts, “Russia tells Nato to back off or face a ‘nightmare’ amid spiralling crisis over Ukraine,” Times, December 3, 2021,

Shane Harris and Paul Sonne, “Russia planning massive military offensive against Ukraine involving 175,000 troops, U.S. intelligence warns,” Washington Post, December 3, 2021,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s ‘Nightmare’ Threat to Europe,” Puck, December 6, 2021,

Andrew Roth and Julian Borger, “US says it will send troops to eastern Europe if Russia invades Ukraine,” Guardian, December 6, 2021,

Peter Hartcher, “US can’t win two wars at once: Joe Biden’s worst nightmare,” Sydney Morning Herald, December 7, 2021,

Ashley Parker, Isabelle Khurshudyan, and Seung Min Kim, “Biden, Putin discuss Ukraine in video call amid growing tensions,” Washington Post, December 7, 2021,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s D.C Masterplan,” Puck, December 9, 2021,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Post-Trump Tantrum,” Puck, December 17, 2021,

Andrew Roth, David Blood, and Niels de Hoog, “Russia-Ukraine crisis: where are Putin’s troops and what are his options?” Guardian, December 17, 2021,

Andrew Roth, “Why Putin is acting like a man who has run out of time,” Guardian, December 23, 2021,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Talk Therapy,” Puck, December 31, 2021,

Meryl Kornfield, “Biden says he warned Putin of ‘severe sanctions’ if Russia invades Ukraine again,” Washington Post, December 31, 2021,

Anne Applebaum, “The U.S. Is Naive About Russia. Ukraine Can’t Afford to Be,” Atlantic, January 3, 2022,

Natasha Bertrand and Jeremy Herb, “US intelligence indicates Russia preparing operation to justify invasion of Ukraine,” CNN, January 14, 2022,

Julian Borger, Luke Harding, and Andrew Roth, “US accuses Russia of conspiring to take over Ukraine government,” Guardian, January 20, 2022,

Anatol Lieven, “Diplomats & experts: negotiate, or expect ‘drastic escalation’ by Russia,” Responsible Statecraft, January 20, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Trump’s Former Russia Guru Explains His Putin Complex,” Puck, January 21, 2022,

Paul Sonne, John Hudson, and Shane Harris, “U.K. accuses Russia of scheming to install a pro-Kremlin government in Ukraine,” Washington Post, January 22, 2022,

John Hudson, “State Department orders diplomats’ families to leave U.S. Embassy in Ukraine, citing ‘threat of Russian military action,’” Not Housebroken, January 23, 2022,

Robyn Dixon et al., “U.S. puts troops on alert and NATO sends ships, fighter jets to Eastern Europe as Russia continues buildup on Ukraine border,” Washington Post, January 24, 2022,

Fiona Hill, “Putin Has the U.S. Right Where He Wants It,” New York Times, January 24, 2022,

Jon Allsop, “The information war over Ukraine,” Columbia Journalism Review, January 25, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Inside the Biden-Putin Chess Match,” Puck, January 25, 2022,

Yuras Karmanau, “Ukrainian leaders: Stay calm, Russian invasion not imminent,” Associated Press, January 25, 2022,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Ukraine crisis: US rejects Russian demand to bar Ukraine from Nato,” January 27, 2022,

Jennifer Hansler, “US State Department orders families of government personnel to leave Belarus amid ‘unusual and concerning Russian military buildup,’” CNN, January 31, 2022,

Jake Epstein and John Haltiwanger, “Ukraine’s president warns a Russian invasion would spark a ‘fully-fledged’ European war,” Business Insider, February 1, 2022,

John Hudson and Ashley Parker, “Russia responds in writing to U.S. proposal on Ukraine crisis,” Washington Post, February 1, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Pickle,” Puck, February 3, 2022,

Aamer Madhani, Lorne Cook, and Suzan Fraser, “U.S. says new intel shows Russia plotting false-flag attack,” Los Angeles Times, February 3, 2022,

Joshua Yaffa, “Putin’s Next Move in Ukraine Is an Open Question in Moscow,” New Yorker, February 3, 2022,

Simon Tisdall, “Biden rattles his sabre at Putin … but it’s Xi he really wants to scare,” Guardian, February 6, 2022,

Jon Allsop, “Cutting through the fog of war,” Columbia Journalism Review, February 7, 2022,

Missy Ryan et al., “Biden vows to stop Nord Stream 2 pipeline to Europe if Russia invades Ukraine,” Washington Post, February 7, 2022,

David L. Stern, “The Ukrainian language is having a moment. To Putin’s ears, it’s a shot against Russian speakers,” Washington Post, February 8, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “War and Peace: The View from Moscow,” Puck, February 10, 2022,

Shane Harris, Ashley Parker, and Ellen Nakashima, “New intelligence suggests Russia plans a ‘false flag’ operation to trigger an invasion of Ukraine,” Washington Post, February 11, 2022,

Steve Hendrix, Amy Cheng, and Missy Ryan, “U.S. orders most embassy staffers in Kyiv to leave Ukraine amid fears Russia will invade soon,” Washington Post, February 12, 2022,

Jon Allsop, “The one person who knows what Putin is thinking,” Columbia Journalism Review, February 14, 2022,

Vivian Salama and Alan Cullison, “U.S. Is Closing Kyiv Embassy, Relocating Diplomatic Operations to Western Ukraine,” Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2022,

Nahal Toosi to Global Insider list, “A thin line between love and war,” Politico, February 14, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin on the Brink… of What, Exactly?” Puck, February 15, 2022,

Anthony Faiola, “How joining NATO and the E.U. became Ukraine’s unattainable dream,” Washington Post, February 17, 2022,

Reuters, “Ukraine says Russian-backed artillery strike hits kindergarten, no injuries,” February 17, 2022,

Ann M. Simmons, Yaroslav Trofimov, and William Mauldin, “Russia Accuses Ukrainian Military of ‘Crimes’ in Report to U.N.,” Wall Street Journal, February 17, 2022,

Jon Allsop, “A week of whiplash and the need for cool heads over Russia and Ukraine,” Columbia Journalism Review, February 18, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Quasi War Begins,” Puck, February 18, 2022,

Maegan Vazquez et al., “Biden says he’s now convinced Putin has decided to invade Ukraine, but leaves door open for diplomacy,” CNN, February 18, 2022,

Anne Applebaum, “There Are No Chamberlains in This Story,” Atlantic, February 20, 2022,

John Hudson and Missy Ryan, “U.S. claims Russia has list of Ukrainians ‘to be killed or sent to camps’ following a military occupation,” Washington Post, February 20, 2022,

David Ignatius, “Surprising cracks, if small ones, appear in Kremlin support for Putin on Ukraine,” Washington Post, February 21, 2022,

Dan Sabbagh and Rowena Mason, “UK says ‘serious doubts’ exist within Russian military about invading Ukraine,” Guardian, February 21, 2022,

Ann M. Simmons, Yaroslav Trofimov, and Matthew Luxmoore, “Putin Orders Deployment of Troops to Breakaway Regions in Ukraine,” Wall Street Journal, February 21, 2022,

Jon Allsop, “The weight of words in the Russia-Ukraine story,” Columbia Journalism Review, February 22, 2022,

Philip Bump, “‘Genius,’ ‘Savvy’: Trump reacts to Putin’s moves on Ukraine exactly as you’d expect,” Washington Post, February 22, 2022,

Anthony Faiola, “The moment when Putin got real,” Washington Post, February 22, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Will Putin Get His World War III?” Puck, February 22, 2022,

Frank Jordans, “Ukraine-Russia: Germany suspends Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline,” Associated Press, February 22, 2022,

Andrew Restuccia and Tarini Parti, “White House Calls Russian Moves an Invasion After Initially Refraining From Using Term,” Wall Street Journal, February 22, 2022,

Eli Stokols and Tracy Wilkinson, “Biden announces sanctions against Russia for invasion of Ukraine,” Los Angeles Times, February 22, 2022,

Ann M. Simmons, Alan Cullison, and Yaroslav Trofimov, “Russia Begins Military Operation in Ukraine,” Wall Street Journal, February 23, 2022,

Jonathan Swan and Zachary Basu, “Top senator warns Putin cyberattacks could trigger bigger war,” Axios, February 23, 2022,

Jon Allsop, “Propaganda, confusion, and an assault on press freedom as Russia attacks Ukraine,” Columbia Journalism Review, February 24, 2022,

Miriam Berger, “Putin says he will ‘denazify’ Ukraine. Here’s the history behind that claim,” Washington Post, February 24, 2022,

Julian Borger and Angelique Chrisafis, “Decision to invade Ukraine raises questions over Putin’s ‘sense of reality,’” Guardian, February 24, 2022,

Shira Hanau, “Declaring war on Ukraine, Russia’s Putin cites goal of ‘denazification’ of country with Jewish president,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, February 24, 2022,

Chico Harlan and Taylor Telford, “Stocks claw back after Russia’s attack on Ukraine roils markets,” Washington Post, February 24, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s New Iron Curtain,” Puck, February 24, 2022,

Matthew Karnitschnig, “How Germany helped blaze Putin’s path into Ukraine,” Politico, February 24, 2022,

Arshad Mohammed and Jonathan Landay, “Explainer: Why Russia and Ukraine are fighting for Chernobyl disaster site,” Reuters, February 24, 2022,

Reuters, “Chernobyl power plant captured by Russian forces -Ukrainian official,” February 24, 2022,

Reuters, “Factbox: How Ukraine’s armed forces shape up against Russia’s,” February 24, 2022,

Reuters, “Oil soars past $105 as Russia’s attack on Ukraine rattles markets,” Al Jazeera, February 24, 2022,

Adario Strange, “Kyiv or Kiev? How to pronounce the name of the capital city of Ukraine and why,” Quartz, February 24, 2022,

Robin Wright, “Putin’s Historic Miscalculation May Make Him a War Criminal,” New Yorker, February 24, 2022,

Durrie Bouscaren, “‘It was like a nightmare’: Russians react to news of Putin bombing Ukraine,” World, February 25, 2022,

Yuras Karmanau et al., “Ukraine’s capital under threat as Russia presses invasion,” Associated Press, February 25, 2022,

Farrah Tomazin, “Biden calls invasion ‘a dangerous moment for freedom around the world,’” Sydney Morning Herald, February 25, 2022,

Adam Gabbatt, “Tucker Carlson leads rightwing charge to blame everyone but Putin,” Guardian, February 26, 2022,

Juliette Garside, “Swift action at last brings meaningful sanctions against Putin regime,” Guardian, February 26, 2022,

Roman Goncharenko and Andreas Illmer, “Ukraine: What will the next days bring and what is Russia’s overall plan?” February 26, 2022,

Luke Harding, “How Ukrainian defiance has derailed Putin’s plans,” Guardian, February 26, 2022,

Reuters, “Ukraine and Russia: What you need to know right now,” February 26, 2022,

Emily Schultheis, “Ukraine invasion: What to know as Russian forces target Kyiv,” Associated Press, February 26, 2022,

Paritosh Bansal and Stephen Coates, “Russian central bank scrambles to contain fallout of sanctions,” Reuters, February 27, 2022,

Catherine Belton, Paritosh Bansal, and Megan Davies, “Analysis: SWIFT block deals crippling blow to Russia; leaves room to tighten,” Reuters, February 27, 2022,

Anthony Faiola, “Putin’s invasion of Ukraine could be backfiring,” Washington Post, February 27, 2022,

David Frum, “Can Putin Recover From This?” Atlantic, February 27, 2022,

Yuras Karmanau, “Putin puts nuclear forces on high alert, escalating tensions,” Associated Press, February 27, 2022,

Dasha Litvinova, “Russians hold anti-war rallies amid ominous threats by Putin,” Associated Press, February 27, 2022,

Robert Mackey, “Russian TV Uses Tucker Carlson and Tulsi Gabbard to Sell Putin’s War,” Intercept, February 27, 2022,

Tom Nichols, “How Should the U.S. Respond to Putin’s Nuclear Provocation?” Atlantic, February 27, 2022,

Ann M. Simmons and Matthew Luxmoore, “Putin Finds Himself Isolated, Out of Touch as Invasion of Ukraine Sputters,” Wall Street Journal, February 27, 2022,

Liz Sly and Dan Lamothe, “The war in Ukraine isn’t working out the way Russia intended,” Washington Post, February 27, 2022,

Vladimir Sorokin, “Vladimir Putin sits atop a crumbling pyramid of power,” Guardian, February 27, 2022,

Andrew Sparrow, “Russian oligarchs in UK face new laws tackling ‘dirty money,’” Guardian, February 27, 2022,

Jon Ungoed-Thomas and Shanti Das, “Boris Johnson under pressure to widen sanctions on more oligarchs in London,” Guardian, February 27, 2022,

Associated Press, “Russia-Ukraine War: What to know as Ukraine resists advance,” February 28, 2022,

Larisa Brown, “Ukraine resistance shatters Putin’s plan for victory in 48 hours,” Times, February 28, 2022,

Martin Farrer, Andrew Roth, and Julian Borger, “Ukraine war: sanctions-hit Russian rouble crashes as Zelenskiy speaks of ‘crucial’ 24 hours,” Guardian, February 28, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “‘The Image of Putin Has Broken,’” Puck, February 28, 2022,

Roland Oliphant, “The Russians rolled into Kharkiv like victors, but it was another disaster for them,” Telegraph, February 28, 2022,

Caitlin Ostroff, “Russia’s Ruble, Financial Markets Are Hammered by Sanctions,” Wall Street Journal, February 28, 2022,

Reuters, “Demand for VPNs in Russia, Ukraine leaps as internet control tightens,” February 28, 2022,

Reuters, “The events leading up to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine,” February 28, 2022,

Roane Carey, “Don’t Be a Tankie: How the Left Should Respond to Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine,” Intercept, March 1, 2022,

Richard Fontaine, “The Long Weekend That Changed History,” Atlantic, March 1, 2022,

Camille Gijs, “US sees ‘no indication’ to back Ukrainian claim Belarus has joined Russia’s invasion,” Politico, March 1, 2022,

Quinn Glabicki, “The Russian invasion of Ukraine ignites anger, distress among Pittsburghers from warring nations,” Public Source, March 1, 2022,

Yuras Karmanau et al., “Russia pummels Ukraine’s No. 2 city and convoy nears Kyiv,” Associated Press, March 1, 2022,

Iuliia Mendel, “Love, war and two cats — What fleeing Kyiv looked like for us,” Washington Post, March 1, 2022,

Adam Taylor, “War in Ukraine enters a new phase, even more unpredictable and dangerous than the last,” Washington Post, March 1, 2022,

Nataliya Vasilyeva, Robert Mendick, and Mason Boycott-Owen, “Russian troops in disarray and ‘crying’ in combat, radio messages reveal,” Telegraph, March 1, 2022,

Robin Wright, “What Does Putin’s Nuclear Sabre Rattling Mean?” New Yorker, March 1, 2022,

Christine Emba, “The war in Ukraine doesn’t need your ‘likes,’” Washington Post, March 2, 2022,

Alexander Graef, “Four ways the Russia-Ukraine war could end – from palace coup to Pyrrhic victory,” Telegraph, March 2, 2022,

Luke Harding, Jon Henley, and Martin Farrer, “Russia aims to erase Ukraine, says Zelenskiy, as bombardment intensifies,” Guardian, March 2, 2022,

Jim Sleeper, “Too much reality: Putin’s Ukraine invasion summons Europe’s dark past,” Tikkun, March 2, 2022,

Con Coughlin, “The oligarchs are turning on Russia’s new tsar,” Telegraph, March 3, 2022,

James Crisp, “Russian convoy’s advance on Kyiv deflated by flat tyres and Ukrainian mud,” Telegraph, March 3, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Europe’s 9/11,” Puck, March 3, 2022,

Dave Lawler, “Russia agreed to open “humanitarian corridors” for fleeing civilians: Ukraine official,” Axios, March 3, 2022,

Roland Oliphant, Gordon Rayner, and Lucy Fisher, “Vladimir Putin set to ‘cut Ukraine in two’ as key city of Kherson falls to Russians,” Telegraph, March 3, 2022,

Sacha Pfeiffer, Lauren Hodges, and Christopher Intagliata, “Former NATO commander says a no-fly zone over Ukraine must be on the table,” National Public Radio, March 3, 2022,

Pjotr Sauer, “‘My future is taken away from me’: Russians flee to escape consequences of Moscow’s war,” Guardian, March 3, 2022,

Michael Schwirtz and Richard Pérez-Peña, “Kremlin Vows Victory in Ukraine as Refugees Swell to One Million,” New York Times, March 3, 2022,

David L. Stern, “Russia claims control of vital port city in Ukraine, as convoy outside Kyiv remains stalled,” Washington Post, March 3, 2022,

Jim Heintz, Yuras Karmanau, and Mstyslav Chernov, “Fire out at key Ukraine nuclear plant, no radiation released,” Associated Press, March 4, 2022,

James Kilner, “Russia ‘may be preparing to use chemical weapons in Ukraine,’” Telegraph, March 4, 2022,

Eric Levitz, “Putin’s War Looks Increasingly Insane,” New York, March 4, 2022,

Simon Lewis and Sabine Siebold, “NATO rejects Ukraine no-fly zone, says ‘not part of this’ war,” Reuters, March 4, 2022,

Reuters, “Ukraine and Russia: What you need to know right now,” March 4, 2022,

Mark Galeotti, “How does Putin extract himself from this nightmare of his own making?” Times, March 5, 2022,

Toby Helm et al., “Defiant Putin warns the west: your sanctions are akin to an act of war,” Guardian, March 5, 2022,

Dan Lamothe, Alex Horton, and Karoun Demirjian, “Ukraine’s military adapts tactics after enduring Russia’s initial invasion,” Washington Post, March 5, 2022,

Tess McClure et al., “Mariupol to evacuate citizens after Russia declares temporary ceasefire,” Guardian, March 5, 2022,

Yaroslav Trofimov, “Ukraine, Russia Agreement on Evacuating Mariupol Civilians Collapses,” Wall Street Journal, March 5, 2022,

Kalyeena Makortoff, “Mastercard and Visa block in Russia does not stop domestic purchases,” Guardian, March 6, 2022,

Justin McCurry, Samantha Lock, and Luke Harding, “Russia targeting cities as strength of Ukraine’s resistance ‘continues to surprise’, UK says,” Guardian, March 6, 2022,

Catherine Philp, Caroline Wheeler, and Matthew Campbell, “Merciless Vladimir Putin shells Ukrainian evacuees,” Times, March 6, 2022,

Yaroslav Trofimov, “Russian Artillery Kills Ukrainian Civilians Fleeing Kyiv Suburb,” Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2022,

Yaroslav Trofimov and Alan Cullison, “Ukraine Faces Fresh Wave of Attacks Focused on Population Centers,” Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2022,

Benjamin R. Young, “Putin Has a Grimly Absolute Vision of the ‘Russian World,’” Foreign Policy, March 6, 2022,

Tom Ball, “This war will be a total failure, FSB whistleblower says,” Times, March 7, 2022,

Martin Farrer, “Russia Ukraine war: what we know on day 13 of the Russian invasion,” Guardian, March 7, 2022,

Jesus Jiménez, “What Is NATO and Which Countries Are Members?” New York Times, March 7, 2022,

Jacob Judah, “Moldova braces for ‘spectrum of threats’ as Russia bids to seize south of Ukraine,” Telegraph, March 7, 2022,

Yuras Karmanau, “Crisis deepens, Ukraine accuses Moscow of ‘medieval’ tactics,” Associated Press, March 7, 2022,

David Leonhardt, “Preventing This War,” New York Times, March 7, 2022,

Robert Mendick and Dominic Nicholls, “Russian aircraft losses in Ukraine ‘unsustainable for more than a fortnight,’” Telegraph, March 7, 2022,

David Moye, “Ukraine Expert Alexander Vindman Humiliates Marjorie Taylor Greene With Brutal Fact Check,” HuffPost, March 7, 2022,

Andrew Nikiforuk, “Can Ukraine Win?” Tyee, March 7, 2022,

Tina Nguyen, “The G.O.P.’s New Trump-Putin Headache,” Puck, March 7, 2022,

Daphne Rousseau, “Ukraine parades Russian troops captured during invasion before cameras,” Times of Israel, March 7, 2022,

Jordan Michael Smith, “Would Putin Really Go Nuclear? Well …,” New Republic, March 7, 2022,

Aaron Blake, “Tucker Carlson goes full blame-America on Russia’s Ukraine invasion,” Washington Post, March 8, 2022,

Kaitlan Collins et al., “Biden announces ban on Russian energy imports,” CNN, March 8, 2022,

Anthony Faiola, “Through Putin’s looking glass: How the Russians are seeing — or not seeing — the war in Ukraine,” Washington Post, March 8, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “The Death of Putin,” Puck, March 8, 2022,

Yuras Karmanau, “People flee embattled Ukraine city, supplies head to another,” Associated Press, March 8, 2022,

Matthew Luxmoore, Drew Hinshaw, and Nancy A. Youssef, “NATO Members Mount Huge Operation to Resupply Ukrainian Fighters,” Wall Street Journal, March 8, 2022,

Paul Nuki, “Why Vladimir Putin may stay in power longer than we think,” Telegraph, March 8, 2022,

Matt Oliver, “West scrambles for alternatives to Russian oil and gas,7rdquo; Telegraph, March 8, 2022,

Emily Rauhala, “E.U. presents plan to cut Russian gas imports by two-thirds this year, stops short of boycott,” Washington Post, March 8, 2022,

Daniel Thomas & Michael Race, “War in Ukraine: Russia says it may cut gas supplies if oil ban goes ahead,” British Broadcasting Corporation, March 8, 2022,

Agence France-Presse, “Chernobyl power supply cut but IAEA says ‘no critical impact on safety,’” Guardian, March 9, 2022,

Benjamin Dreyer, “Kyiv vs. Kiev, Zelensky vs. Zelenskyy, and the immense meaning of ‘the,’” Washington Post, March 9, 2022,

Samantha Lock and Maanvi Singh, “Russia-Ukraine war update: what we know on day 15 of the Russian invasion,” Guardian, March 9, 2022,

David L. Stern et al., “Russian airstrike hits maternity hospital, as officials warn of fast-rising civilian toll,” Washington Post, March 9, 2022,

Adela Suliman and David L. Stern, “Chernobyl plant disconnected from power grid; Ukraine demands cease-fire for urgent repairs,” Washington Post, March 9, 2022,

Victoria Ward, “‘Atrocity’ as maternity hospital in besieged Mariupol destroyed by Russian air strikes,” Telegraph, March 9, 2022,

Associated Press, “Russia built an economy like a fortress but the pain is real,” March 10, 2022,

Daniel Boffey, “Western Europe leaders rebuff Ukraine fast-track EU membership appeal,” Guardian, March 10, 2022,

Vladislav Davidzon, “No Quiet Place Left on Earth,” Tablet, March 10, 2022,

Steven L. Hall, “Putin doesn’t fear a coup by oligarchs. But he should fear his fellow spies,” Washington Post, March 10, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Inside Russia’s Media Black Hole,” Puck, March 10, 2022,

Pavel Polityuk and Tuvan Gumrukcu, “Ukraine says Russia snubs plea for humanitarian access to besieged civilians,” Reuters, March 10, 2022,

Reuters, “Russia, Ukraine foreign ministers meet as war enters third week,” March 10, 2022,

William Vaillancourt, “Fox News’ Jennifer Griffin Sets Hannity Straight on Russian Propaganda,” Daily Beast, March 10, 2022,

Kaitlan Collins et al., “Biden calls for suspending normal trade relations with Russia and will ban imports of vodka and seafood,” CNN, March 11, 2022,

Nick Gutteridge, “Russia ‘stockpiling bodies of Ukrainian soldiers’ to use in ‘false flag’ attack on Chernobyl,” Telegraph, March 11, 2022,

David Horovitz, “What does Putin think he’s doing? An expert’s primer on why he invaded, what’s next,” Times of Israel, March 11, 2022,

Mary Ilyushina and Adela Suliman, “Putin welcomes foreign ‘volunteers,’ most from Middle East, to reinforce troops in Ukraine,” Washington Post, March 11, 2022,

Eric Levitz, “Ukraine Is a War Without Endgame,” New York, March 11, 2022,

Ashley Parker et al., “‘No off-ramps’: U.S. and European officials don’t see a clear endgame in Ukraine,” Washington Post, March 11, 2022,

David Remnick, “The Weakness of the Despot,” New Yorker, March 11, 2022,

Reuters, “UN rights office says it has credible reports of Russian cluster bomb use in Ukraine,” March 11, 2022,

Brett Samuels, “Biden: Direct conflict between NATO and Russia would be ‘World War III,’” Hill, March 11, 2022,

David L. Stern et al., “Intelligence points to heightened risk of Russian chemical attack in Ukraine, officials say,” Washington Post, March 11, 2022,

Maureen Dowd, “Zelensky Answers Hamlet,” New York Times, March 12, 2022,

Philip Gourevitch, “Is It Time to Call Putin’s War in Ukraine Genocide?” New Yorker, March 13, 2022,

Luke Harding, Peter Beaumont, and Lorenzo Tondo, “Russia missile strike on Ukraine base close to Polish border kills 35, governor says,” Guardian, March 13, 2022,

Jennifer Maloney, Emily Glazer, and Heather Haddon, “Russian Prosecutors Warn Western Companies of Arrests, Asset Seizures,” Wall Street Journal, March 13, 2022,

Amy Davidson Sorkin, “The Trumpist Ukraine Blame Game,” New Yorker, March 13, 2022,

Richard Spencer, “Putin wipes out entire Ukrainian city of Volnovakha,” Times, March 13, 2022,

Edward Wong and Julian E. Barnes, “Russia Asked China for Military and Economic Aid for Ukraine War, U.S. Officials Say,” New York Times, March 13, 2022,

Henry Zeffman, “Russia ‘using banned white phosphorus bombs’ in attack on Ukrainian city,” Times, March 13, 2022,

Rodion Ebbighausen, “Why China thinks the West is to blame for Russia’s war in Ukraine,” Deutschewelle, March 14, 2022,

Martin Farrer, “Russia-Ukraine war: what we know on day 20 of the Russian invasion,” Guardian, March 14, 2022,

John Ismay, “Russia Deploys a Mystery Munition in Ukraine,” New York Times, March 14, 2022,

Veronika Melkozerova, “The Western World Is in Denial,” Atlantic, March 14, 2022,

Robert Mendick, Nataliya Vasilyeva, and Nick Allen, “China ‘willing to supply Russia’ with weapons and military support,” Telegraph, March 14, 2022,

Nomaan Merchant, “US View of Putin: Angry, Frustrated, Likely to Escalate War,”, March 14, 2022,

Ashley Parker et al., “U.S. warns China not to assist Russia,” Washington Post, March 15, 2022,

Yaroslav Trofimov and James Marson, “Russian Forces Kill Civilians, Loot for Supplies in Occupied Ukraine, Residents Say,” Wall Street Journal, March 14, 2022,

Jon Allsop, “The biases in coverage of the war in Ukraine,” Columbia Journalism Review, March 15, 2022,

Associated Press, “China Says it’s ‘Impartial’ on Ukraine, Denies Aiding Russia,”, March 15, 2022,

Isobel Koshiw, Jon Henley, and Julian Borger, “Ukraine will not join Nato, says Zelenskiy, as shelling of Kyiv continues,” Guardian, March 15, 2022,

Poppie Platt et al., “Volodymyr Zelensky says talks with Russia were ‘pretty good’ as Ukraine pushes for ‘a fair peace,’” Telegraph, March 15, 2022,

Helene Cooper, Julian E. Barnes, and Eric Schmitt, “As Russian Troop Deaths Climb, Morale Becomes an Issue, Officials Say,” New York Times, March 16, 2022,

James Crisp, “Russia and Ukraine ‘draw up 15-point peace plan,’” Telegraph, March 16, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Inside Biden’s Ukraine War Room,” Puck, March 16, 2022,

Molly Jong-Fast, “The Far Right Is Now Anti–anti-Putin,” Atlantic, March 16, 2022,

Rick Noack, “U.N. court orders Russia to halt its invasion of Ukraine, in a largely symbolic ruling,” Washington Post, March 16, 2022,

Grace Segers, “‘There Was Barely a Breath’: How Capitol Hill Reacted to Volodymyr Zelenskiy’s Plea for Help,” New Republic, March 16, 2022,

Daniel Boffey and Dan Sabbagh, “Vladimir Putin accused of war crimes as school and theatre are hit in Ukraine,” Guardian, March 17, 2022,

Larisa Brown, Charlie Parker, and Richard Spencer, “Ukraine forces ‘counter-attack’ as Russia loses estimated 7,000 troops and 230 tanks,” Times, March 17, 2022,

Isabel Coles, Alan Cullison, and Yaroslav Trofimov, “Ukraine Awaits Word of Deaths, Survivors After Russia Hits Theater Turned Bomb Shelter,” Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2022,

Yuka Hayashi and Eliza Collins, “House Passes Legislation to End Normal Trade Relations With Russia,” Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2022,

James Mackenzie, Natalia Zinets, and Oleksandr Kozhukhar, “Russia getting bogged down in Ukraine, Western nations say,” Reuters, March 17, 2022,

Loveday Morris, “In Ukraine’s second city, a furious rain of bombs and rockets takes a toll: ‘There are no coffins left,’” Washington Post, March 17, 2022,

Rachel Roubein with McKenzie Beard, “Health care is becoming a target in Ukraine,” Washington Post, March 17, 2022,

Dan Sabbagh, “Is an outright Russian military victory in Ukraine possible?” Guardian, March 17, 2022,

Joshua Goodman, “American gunmakers help Ukrainians fight back against Putin,” Associated Press, March 18, 2022,

Justin Ling, “How ‘Ukrainian bioweapons labs’ myth went from QAnon fringe to Fox News,” Guardian, March 18, 2022,

Rebecca Ratcliffe and Abené Clayton, “Russia-Ukraine war: what we know on day 24 of the invasion,” Guardian, March 18, 2022,

Michael Levenson, Marc Santora, and Valerie Hopkins, “Deadly Strike on Ukraine Barracks Punctuates Russian Military Gains,” New York Times, March 19, 2022,

Warren P. Strobel and Michael R. Gordon, “Reported Detention of Russian Spy Boss Shows Tension Over Stalled Ukraine Invasion, U.S. Officials Say,” Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2022,

Devan Cole, “Zelensky: “I’m ready for negotiations’ with Putin, but if they fail, it could mean ‘a third World War,’” CNN, March 20, 2022,

Michael R. Gordon and Alex Leary, “Russia, Failing to Achieve Early Victory in Ukraine, Is Seen Shifting to ‘Plan B,’” Wall Street Journal, March 20, 2022,

Loveday Morris, Annabelle Timsit, and Jennifer Hassan, “Russia bombs Mariupol art school where 400 people in besieged city were sheltering, Ukrainian officials say,” Washington Post, March 20, 2022,

Liz Sly and Dan Lamothe, “Russia’s war for Ukraine could be headed toward stalemate,” Washington Post, March 20, 2022,

Nataliya Vasilyeva, “Russians borrow from Nazi playbook with forced deportation of Ukrainian civilians,” Telegraph, March 20, 2022,

Larisa Brown and Richard Spencer, “Struggling Russians ‘plant mines’ and dig in for a long war,” Times, March 21, 2022,

Amy Kellogg, “Putin puts Russian spies who scouted Ukraine under house arrest, suggests growing distrust of KGB’s successor,” Fox News, March 21, 2022,

Samantha Lock, Jennifer Rankin, and Julian Borger, “‘Clear sign’ Putin is weighing up use of chemical weapons in Ukraine, says Biden,” Guardian, March 21, 2022,

Isaac Chotiner, “The Purges in Putin’s Shrinking Inner Circle,” New Yorker, March 22, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Hacking Through Putin’s Media Cult,” Puck, March 22, 2022,

Richard Kemp, “The Russian army has run out of time,” Telegraph, March 22, 2022,

Luke McGee and Claire Calzonetti, “Putin spokesman refuses to rule out use of nuclear weapons if Russia faced an ‘existential threat,’” CNN, March 22, 2022,

Adela Suliman, David L. Stern, and Steven Mufson, “Forest fires near Russian-held Chernobyl nuclear plant raise radiation fears, Ukraine says,” Washington Post, March 22, 2022,

Tom Ball, “Ukraine war: Putin ‘at risk of coup’ by Russian security services,” Times, March 23, 2022,

Nataliya Vasilyeva, “‘Unwell’ Russian defence minister Sergei Shoigu disappears from public view,” Telegraph, March 23, 2022,

Alex Gangitano, “Biden has sharp response to reporter: ‘You’re playing a game with me,’ Hill, March 24, 2022,

Ashley Parker, Tyler Pager, and Emily Rauhala, “Leaders add sanctions on Russia, warn against chemical weapons,” Washington Post, March 24, 2022,

Tarini Parti, Robert Wall, and Catherine Lucey, “Biden Calls for Russia to Be Expelled From G-20,” Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2022,

Christoph Hasselbach, “Ukraine: Could neutrality really be an option?” Deutschewelle, March 25, 2022,

Matthew Luxmoore, “Russia Refocuses on Ukraine’s East After Month of Heavy Losses,” Wall Street Journal, March 25, 2022,

Lisa McIntosh Sundstrom, “Will Russians Toss Their Leader?” Tyee, March 25, 2022,

Daniel Boffey, “Russia reasserts right to use nuclear weapons in Ukraine,” Guardian, March 26, 2022,

William Booth, Robyn Dixon, and David L. Stern, “Russian generals are getting killed at an extraordinary rate,” Washington Post, March 26, 2022,

James Kilner, “Russian MP accuses Poland of planning to take Kaliningrad back from Moscow,” Telegraph, March 26, 2022,

Claire Parker, Robyn Dixon, and Erin Cunningham, “Where was Sergei Shoigu? Russia’s missing defense minister resurfaces,” Washington Post, March 26, 2022,

Tarini Parti and and Drew Hinshaw, “Biden Says Russian President Vladimir Putin ‘Cannot Remain in Power,’” Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2022,

Nebi Qena and Yuras Karmanau, “Russia shifts focus to try to grind Ukraine’s army in east,” Associated Press, March 28, 2022,

Robin Wright, “Biden’s Fate Is Now Inextricably Linked to Putin’s War in Ukraine,” New Yorker, March 28, 2022,

Jon Henley, Pjotr Sauer, and Shaun Walker, “‘Ukrainians are not naive’: Zelenskiy voices doubt on Russian military withdrawals,” Guardian, March 29, 2022,

Samantha Lock and Léonie Chao-Fong, “Russia-Ukraine war: what we know on day 35 of the Russian invasion,” Guardian, March 29, 2022,

Adam Taylor and William Neff, “Why the world is so worried about Russia’s ‘tactical’ nuclear weapons,” Washington Post, March 29, 2022,

Joshua Yaffa, “Why Do So Many Russians Say They Support the War in Ukraine?” New Yorker, March 29, 2022,

Michael Birnbaum et al., “U.S. says Putin being misled, as Ukraine refugee tally hits 4 million,” Washington Post, March 30, 2022,

Nebi Qena and Yuras Karmanau, “Russia shells areas in Ukraine where it vowed to scale back,” Associated Press, March 30, 2022,

Tom Ball, “Cancer surgeon ‘visited Putin 35 times in four years,’” Times, April 1, 2022,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Ukraine war: Gruesome evidence points to war crimes on road outside Kyiv,” April 1, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “How Putin’s Game Ends,” Puck, April 1, 2022,

Daniel Boffey, “‘It is a war crime’: two young boys among neighbours shot dead during attempted evacuation,” Guardian, April 2, 2022,

Martin Farrer, “Russians booby-trapping homes as they retreat, claims Zelenskiy,” Guardian, April 2, 2022,

Bruno Maçães, “‘Russia cannot afford to lose, so we need a kind of a victory’: Sergey Karaganov on what Putin wants,” New Statesman, April 2, 2022,

Reuters, “Russia to halt cooperation over International Space Station,” Guardian, April 2, 2022,

Liz Sly and Max Bearak, “Russia pulls back from battered Kyiv region in major shift of war to east,” Washington Post, April 2, 2022,

Clare Ansberry, “In a Pennsylvania Town, a Ukrainian Church and Its Russian Neighbor Navigate Wartime Tensions,” Wall Street Journal, April 3, 2022,

Bethan McKernan, “Rape as a weapon: huge scale of sexual violence endured in Ukraine emerges,” Guardian, April 3, 2022,

Reuters, “Patriarch urges soldiers to defend ‘peace-loving’ Russia amid Ukraine campaign,” April 3, 2022,

Jennifer Rankin and Daniel Boffey, “Killing of civilians in Bucha and Kyiv condemned as ‘terrible war crime,’” Guardian, April 3, 2022,

David L. Stern et al., “Russian forces pull back from Kyiv, exposing horrors of war,” Washington Post, April 3, 2022,

Nandita Bose, “Biden urges Putin war crimes trial after Bucha killings,” Reuters, April 4, 2022,

Malachy Browne, David Botti and Haley Willis, “Satellite images show bodies lay in Bucha for weeks, despite Russian claims,” New York Times, April 4, 2022,

Amy Spiro, “Liberman refuses to condemn Russia over Bucha, citing ‘mutual accusations,’” Times of Israel, April 4, 2022,

Anton Troianovski and Matina Stevis-Gridneff, “Images of Russian Atrocities Push West Toward Tougher Sanctions,” New York Times, April 4, 2022,

Gerry Doyle, “Satellite images show civilian deaths in Ukraine town while it was in Russian hands,” Reuters, April 5, 2022,

Alon Ben-Meir, “Bennett Is Siding with the Ruthless Killer Putin,” InterPress Service, April 6, 2022,

Robert Burns, “Russia’s failure to take down Kyiv was a defeat for the ages,” Associated Press, April 6, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “‘Never Again’ Again: The History of Putin’s Terror,” Puck, April 6, 2022,

Melani McAlister, “War in Ukraine is testing some American evangelicals’ support for Putin as a leader of conservative values,” Conversation, April 6, 2022,

Sudarsan Raghavan et al., “Right-wing Azov Battalion emerges as a controversial defender of Ukraine,” Washington Post, April 6, 2022,

Tom Engelhardt, “Ukraine in Perspective,” TomDispatch, April 7, 2022,

Isaac Stanley-Becker and Vanessa Guinan-Bank, “Germany intercepts Russian talk of indiscriminate killings in Ukraine,” Washington Post, April 7, 2022,

Dalton Bennett, Adela Suliman, and Mary Ilyushina, “Train station strike in eastern Ukraine takes brutal toll on civilians evacuating,” Washington Post, April 8, 2022,

Jon Henley, “Russia laments ‘tragedy’ of troop deaths as Zelenskiy warns of atrocities in Borodyanka,” Guardian, April 8, 2022,

Adam Schreck and Cara Anna, “Deadly missile strike on Ukraine train station busy with fleeing civilians,” CTV News, April 8, 2022,

Anna Cooban, “Russia has defaulted on its foreign debt, says S&P,” CNN, April 11, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Life and Death and in Between in Kyiv,” Puck, April 11, 2022,

Bruno Waterfield and Charlie Parker, “Finland and Sweden set to join Nato as soon as summer,” Times, April 11, 2022,

Shawna Chen, “West investigates reports of Russian chemical weapons in Mariupol,” Axios, April 12, 2022,

Eliot A. Cohen, “This Is the War’s Decisive Moment,” Atlantic, April 12, 2022,

Yuras Karmanau and Adam Schreck, “Putin vows to press invasion until Russia’s goals are met,” Associated Press, April 12, 2022,

Jon Sindreu, “If Crypto Can’t Be Used to Evade Russian Sanctions, What Is the Point?” Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2022,

Bojan Pancevski and Georgi Kantchev, “Russia Warns It Could Station Nuclear Forces in Europe if Finland, Sweden Join NATO,” Wall Street Journal, April 14, 2022,

Dan Lamothe et al., “Russia says flagship missile cruiser has sunk after explosion off coast of Ukraine,” Washington Post, April 14, 2022,

David E. Sanger, Helene Cooper, and Anton Troianovski, “Girding for New Battle, Russia Warns U.S. on Advanced Weapons for Ukraine,” New York Times, April 15, 2022,

Karen DeYoung and Michael Birnbaum, “U.S., allies plan for long-term isolation of Russia,” Washington Post, April 16, 2022,

Juri Rescheto, “Who’s next? Lithuanians prepare for potential Russian aggression,” Deutschewelle, April 16, 2022,

Agence France-Presse, “Russian ultimatum to Ukraine forces in Mariupol expires,” Radio Television Luxembourg, April 17, 2022,

Catherine Lucey, “Biden’s Claim of Russian Genocide in Ukraine Adds to Pressure Campaign,” Wall Street Journal, April 17, 2022,

Shayan Sardarizadeh and Leo Sands, “Ukraine war: Dramatic images appear to show sinking Russian warship Moskva,” British Broadcasting Corporation, April 18, 2022,

Jeanne Whalen, “Russian Orthodox leader backs war in Ukraine, divides faith,” Washington Post, April 18, 2022,

Jonah Goldberg, “Ukraine, Russia and the moral clarity of ‘good guys’ vs. ‘bad guys’,” Los Angeles Times, April 19, 2022,

Lorenzo Tondo, Luke Harding, and Isobel Koshiw, “Russia takes Donbas town but Ukrainian frontline ‘still holding,’” Guardian, April 19, 2022,

Bloomberg, “Kremlin Insiders Alarmed Over Growing Toll of Putin’s War in Ukraine,” April 20, 2022,

Bloomberg, “Russia Test-Fires Nuclear-Capable ICBM in Warning to U.S. Allies,” April 20, 2022,

David E. Sanger, “Russia’s Missile Test Fuels U.S. Fears of an Isolated Putin,” New York Times, April 20, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Mothers for Putin,” Puck, April 21, 2022,

Nataliya Vasilyeva, “Russia seeks to capture all of southern Ukraine in major expansion of war goals,” Telegraph, April 22, 2022,

Reuters, “India wants to be friends with West but needs Russian help to defend borders, finance minister tells Bloomberg,” April 23, 2022,

Liz Sly, “The Belarusian railway workers who helped thwart Russia’s attack on Kyiv,” Washington Post, April 23, 2022,

Viktor Yushchenko, “I’ve dealt with Putin before: I know what it will take to defeat this brutal despot,” Guardian, April 24, 2022,

Chiara Giordano, “Russia effectively at war with Nato, Lavrov says as he calls western weapons ‘legitimate targets,’” Independent, April 25, 2022,

Roland Oliphant, “World War Three now a ‘real’ danger, Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov warns,” Telegraph, April 25, 2022,

CTV, “Top Russian diplomat warns Ukraine against provoking world war,” April 26, 2022,

Maciej Onoszko, Maciej Martewicz, and Slav Okov, “Russia to Cut Gas to Poland and Bulgaria, Making Energy a Weapon,” Bloomberg, April 26, 2022,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Ukraine war: Poland says it will manage without Russian gas,” April 27, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Biden’s New Ukrainian Calculus,” Puck, April 27, 2022,

Julian O’Shaughnessy, “War in Ukraine: West’s Bucha massacre claims killed hopes of peace, says Putin,” Times, April 27, 2022,

Johan Ahlander, “Swedish PM rejects referendum on possible NATO membership,” Reuters, April 28, 2022,

Catherine Belton and Greg Miller, “Cracks emerge in Russian elite as tycoons start to bemoan invasion,” Washington Post, April 29, 2022,

Bloomberg, “Russia Will Quit International Space Station Over Sanctions,” April 30, 2022,

Paula Erizanu, “‘I don’t feel safe here’: Transnistria fears could spark Moldova exodus,” Guardian, May 1, 2022,

Joseph Menn, “Hacking Russia was off-limits. The Ukraine war made it a free-for-all,” Washington Post, May 1, 2022,

Nataliya Vasilyeva, “‘I want to see Putin hanged’, says Gazprom executive who fled Russia,” Telegraph, May 1, 2022,

Cnaan Liphshiz, “Speaking about Zelensky, Russian foreign minister says Hitler also had Jewish ancestry,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, May 2, 2022,

Missy Ryan et al., “Russia planning to annex new areas of Ukraine, U.S. intelligence finds,” Washington Post, May 2, 2022,

Will Dunn, “‘He has embarked on a war he can’t stop’: Mikhail Khodorkovsky on Putin’s next move,” New Statesman, May 3, 2022,

Mary Ilyushina, Miriam Berger, and Timothy Bella, “Russian TV shows simulation of Britain and Ireland wiped out by a nuke,” Washington Post, May 3, 2022,

Richard Kemp, “Vladimir Putin’s military cupboard is bare,” Telegraph, May 3, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin vs. His Oligarchs,” Puck, May 3, 2022,

Lawrence Freedman, “A ‘strategic nuclear exchange’ would offer Putin zero military gains,” New Statesman, May 4, 2022,

Delia Gallagher, “Pope Francis warns pro-war Russian patriarch not to be ‘Putin’s altar boy,’” CNN, May 4, 2022,

Times of Israel, “Putin apologizes for Russian FM’s ‘Jewish Hitler’ remarks, Bennett’s office says,” May 5, 2022,

Christian Esch, Susanne Koelbl, and Fritz Schaap, “Putin’s Disaster and What Could Happen Next,” Spiegel, May 6, 2022,

Anthony Faiola, “How millions of Russians are tearing holes in the Digital Iron Curtain,” Washington Post, May 6, 2022,

Thomas Latschan, “Mysterious series of deaths among Russian oligarchs,” Deutschewelle, May 7, 2022,

Jamie Seidel, “Russia-Ukraine War: Putin’s Plan B is failing as Russian troops ‘pushed out’ of Donbas,” New Zealand Herald, May 7, 2022,

Associated Press, “Russia marks WWII victory overshadowed by Ukraine,” May 9, 2022,

Max Boot, “Putin is trapped in a quagmire and doesn’t know how to get out,” Washington Post, May 9, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “About a Boy: The Roots of Putin’s Evil,” Puck, May 10, 2022,

Matthew Lee, “US, Western Europe fret over uncertain Ukraine war endgame,” Associated Press, May 11, 2022,

Dominic Nicholls, Joe Barnes, and JohnJo Devlin, “Finland and Sweden joining Nato shows just how terribly Vladimir Putin has miscalculated,” Telegraph, May 11, 2022,

Sune Engel Rasmussen, “Finland Says It Will Apply to Join NATO in Response to Russia’s Ukraine Invasion,” Wall Street Journal, May 12, 2022,

Pjotr Sauer, “‘They were furious’: the Russian soldiers refusing to fight in Ukraine,” Guardian, May 12, 2022,

Mark Trevelyan, “Russia says Finnish entry to NATO poses threat to which it will respond,” Reuters, May 12, 2022,

Lawrence Freedman, “When will Vladimir Putin realise it is time to cut his losses in Ukraine?” New Statesman, May 13, 2022,

Ross Douthat, “There Are Two Endgames in Ukraine. Both Carry Big Risks,” New York Times, May 14, 2022,

Natalia Drozdiak, “NATO Expansion Could Finally Shore Up Alliance’s Weakest Flank,” Bloomberg, May 14, 2022,

Liz Sly, “Russia is furious that Finland is joining NATO but can’t do much about it,” Washington Post, May 14, 2022,

Joe Barnes, “Sweden’s bid to join Nato ‘shows Vladimir Putin’s aggression doesn’t pay,’” Telegraph, May 15, 2022,

Bloomberg, “Ukraine Latest: NATO Embraces Sweden, Finland; US Aid Vote Nears,” May 15, 2022,

Deutschewelle, “Finland officially announces support for NATO membership,” May 15, 2022,

Deutschewelle, “NATO: Turkey outlines demands on Finland and Sweden membership,” May 15, 2022,

Kati Pohjanpalo and Niclas Rolander, “Finland, Sweden Set to Seek NATO Entry in Historic Shift,” Bloomberg, May 15, 2022,

Richard Spencer, “Third of Russian invaders destroyed,” Times, May 15, 2022,

Guardian, “Russians and Ukrainians battle around Izium as Sweden joins Finland in Nato bid,” May 16, 2022,

Jon Henley, “Turkey says it will not approve Sweden and Finland joining Nato,” Guardian, May 16, 2022,

Matthew Karnitschnig, “Europe’s leaders fall out of key on Ukraine,” Politico, May 16, 2022,

Jared Malsin, “Turkey Lays Out Demands as Finland, Sweden Plan NATO Entry,” Wall Street Journal, May 16, 2022,

John Revill, “Neutral Switzerland leans closer to NATO in response to Russia,” Reuters, May 16, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Wood Chipper,” Puck, May 17, 2022,

Rozina Sabur and Nataliya Vasilyeva, “Wounded Ukrainian defenders rescued from Mariupol steelworks to be exchanged for captive Russians,” Telegraph, May 17, 2022,

Joe Barnes, “Turkey blocks Sweden and Finland’s bids to join Nato,” Telegraph, May 18, 2022,

Emily Rauhala, “Finland and Sweden formally apply for NATO membership,” Washington Post, May 18, 2022,

Patrick Wintour, “Why has Erdoğan doubled down on threat to veto Nordic Nato bids?” Guardian, May 18, 2022,

Thomas Grove and Matthew Luxmoore, “As Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine Stalls, Critical Voices Emerge in Moscow,” Wall Street Journal, May 19, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Turkey’s awkward role in the Russia-Ukraine war,” Washington Post, May 20, 2022,

Drew Hinshaw and Laurence Norman, “Hungary’s Orban Keeps EU Guessing Over Russian Oil Embargo,” Wall Street Journal, May 21, 2022,

John Psaropoulos, “Former NATO general says Putin has 9-month window to win war,” Al Jazeera, May 26, 2022,

Joe Barnes, “Germany ‘deliberately watering down’ EU embargo on Russian oil,” Telegraph, May 27, 2022,

Dominic Nicholls, “Vladimir Putin’s forces are running out of tanks,” Telegraph, May 27, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s D.C. Waiting Game,” Puck, May 31, 2022,

Bloomberg, “The West Must Bridge the Global Divide Over Ukraine,” June 6, 2022,

Arne Delfs, “Merkel Warns of Isolating Russia After Putin’s ‘Big Mistake,’” Bloomberg, June 7, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “The Case Against Appeasement,” Puck, June 7, 2022,

Reuters, “Hailing Peter the Great, Putin draws parallel with mission to ‘return’ Russian lands,” June 9, 2022,

Julian O’Shaughnessy, “I’m reconquering just like Peter the Great, insists Vladimir Putin,” Times, June 10, 2022,

Times of Israel, “Polish president compares Putin to Hitler, slams France, Germany for talking to him,” June 10, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Putin makes his imperial pretensions clear,” Washington Post, June 13, 2022,

Jinjoo Lee, “Natural Gas Could Start to Melt United Front Against Russia,” Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2022,

Daniel Michaels, “Ukraine’s NATO Allies Strain to Keep Up Pressure on Russia,” Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2022,

Nataliya Vasilyeva, “Russia accuses Lithuania of imposing siege on Kaliningrad by halting rail cargo,” Telegraph, June 20, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “The Putin Apostates Come Home,” Puck, June 21, 2022,

Liz Sly, “Russia will soon exhaust its combat capabilities, Western assessments predict,” Washington Post, June 25, 2022,

Caitlin Ostroff and Chelsey Dulaney, “Sanctions Push Russia to First Foreign Default Since Bolshevik Revolution,” Wall Street Journal, June 26, 2022,

Louis Ashworth, “What Russia’s debt default means for the world,” Telegraph, June 27, 2022,

Daniel Michaels and Jared Malsin, “Turkey Backs NATO Membership for Sweden, Finland,” Wall Street Journal, June 28, 2022,

Samantha Lock and Dan Sabbagh, “Russian warplanes destroyed in Crimea airbase attack, satellite images show,” Guardian, August 10, 2022,

Associated Press, “Russia struggles to replenish its troops in Ukraine,” August 11, 2022,

Lawrence Freedman, “Russia is still underestimating Ukraine,” New Statesman, August 16, 2022,

Shane Harris et al., “Road to war: U.S. struggled to convince allies, and Zelensky, of risk of invasion,” Washington Post, August 16, 2022,

Ted Widmer, “Russia-Ukraine: five lessons from the 19th-century Crimean war,” Guardian, July 21, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Surprise Triumph of the Will,” Puck, August 23, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The global politics of Russia’s notorious nationalist ideologue,” Washington Post, August 23, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Who Killed Dasha Dugina?” Puck, August 25, 2022,

Simon Tisdall, “Putin is trapped and desperate. Will his friends in the west rescue him?” Guardian, August 28, 2022,

Christopher Gettel, “Russia Is Running Out of Missiles. That’s Bad News for Ukraine,” Defense Post, September 1, 2022,

Pjotr Sauer, “‘We have already lost’: far-right Russian bloggers slam Kremlin over army response,” Guardian, September 8, 2022,

Robyn Dixon, Steve Hendrix and Liz Sly, “Russia confirms big retreat near Kharkiv as Ukraine offensive advances,” Washington Post, September 10, 2022,

Thomas Grove and Evan Gershkovich, “In Major Advance, Ukraine Drives Russians Out of Key Front-Line Cities,” Wall Street Journal, September 10, 2022,

Steve Hendrix et al., “Russian troops in big retreat as Ukraine offensive advances in Kharkiv,” Washington Post, September 10, 2022,

Isobel Koshiw, Lorenzo Tondo, and Artem Mazhulin, “Ukraine’s southern offensive ‘was designed to trick Russia,’” Guardian, September 10, 2022,

Allison Quinn, “Moscow Officials Urge Putin to GTFO: ‘Everything Went Wrong,’” Daily Beast, September 10, 2022,

Associated Press, “Ukraine pushes major counteroffensive as war marks 200 days,” September 11, 2022,

Steve Hendrix, Serhii Korolchuk, and Robyn Dixon, “Amid Ukraine’s startling gains, liberated villages describe Russian troops dropping rifles and fleeing,” Washington Post, September 11, 2022,

Sergei Kuznetsov, “Putin’s problems aren’t just on the battlefield,” Politico, September 11, 2022,

Mike Martin, “Putin is finished. The Ukrainians have him on the ropes with a stunning victory in their sights,” Telegraph, September 11, 2022,

Hugo Bachega, “Ukraine’s rapid gains stun Russia,” British Broadcasting Corporation, September 12, 2022,

Elena Becatoros and Hanna Arhirova, ““Ukraine claims to have reached Russian border as counteroffensive maintains momentum,” Times of Israel, September 12, 2022,

Shane Harris and Ellen Nakashima, “Intelligence points to potential turning point in Ukraine war,” Washington Post, September 12, 2022,

Insider, “Municipal deputies in 18 Moscow and St. Petersburg districts demand Putin’s resignation,” September 12, 2022,

Isabelle Khurshudyan et al., “Ukraine extends battlefield gains as Kremlin reels from setback,” Washington Post, September 12, 2022,

Merlyn Thomas, “Ukraine war: Russians ‘outnumbered 8-1’ in counter-attack,” British Broadcasting Corporation, September 12, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Fear and Loathing in Moscow,” Puck, September 13, 2022,

CBS News, “President Biden warns Vladimir Putin not to use nuclear weapons: ‘Don’t. Don’t. Don’t,’” September 16, 2022,

Mary Ilyushina, “Ukrainian strikes into Russia’s border towns compound Putin’s troubles,” Washington Post, September 17, 2022,

Isabelle Khurshudyan and Kamila Hrabchuk, “‘Look, these are our boys’: Ukrainian troops drive Russian tanks on new front line,” Washington Post, September 17, 2022,

Laurence Peter, “Ukraine war: Russian pop megastar Alla Pugacheva condemns conflict,” British Broadcasting Corporation, September 18, 2022,

Steve Rosenberg, “Megastar speaks out,” British Broadcasting Corporation, September 18, 2022,

Gabriel Gavin, “Putin’s push for a new USSR reawakens the bloody chaos of Soviet collapse,” Politico, September 19, 2022,

Thomas Bolton, “Russian forces ‘palpably panicking’ in Kharkiv region, says Zelenskyy,” EuroNews, September 20, 2022,

Robyn Dixon, “Russia moves toward annexing Ukraine regions in a major escalation,” Washington Post, September 20, 2022,

John Gambrell, “Ukraine, using captured Russian tanks, firms up its lines,” Associated Press, September 20, 2022,

Matthew Luxmoore and Mauro Orru, “Russia Moves to Annex Occupied Lands as Ukraine Presses Offensive,” Wall Street Journal, September 20, 2022,

Barbara Kollmeyer, “Putin’s partial draft announcement appears to spark scramble to leave Russia as flights fill up,” MarketWatch, September 21, 2022,

Pjotr Sauer, “Putin flirts again with grim prospect of nuclear war – this time he might mean it,” Guardian, September 21, 2022,

Zoya Sheftalovich, “Putin calls up 300,000 reservists, makes nuclear threat,” Politico, September 21, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Russia pushes the panic button and raises risk of nuclear war,” Washington Post, September 21, 2022,

Julian Borger, “Russia’s nuclear threats ‘totally unacceptable’, says UN chief,” Guardian, September 22, 2022,

Robyn Dixon, Mary Ilyushina, and David L. Stern, “Putin faces fury in Russia over military mobilization and prisoner swap,” Washington Post, September 22, 2022,

Robert Mackey, “Russians Return to Streets to Protest Widening of Putin’s War on Ukraine,” Intercept, September 22, 2022,

Paul Sonne and John Hudson, “U.S. has sent private warnings to Russia against using a nuclear weapon,” Washington Post, September 22, 2022,

Şebnem Arsu et al., “Putin Bets It All in Ukraine,” Spiegel, September 23, 2022,

Pjotr Sauer and Dan Sabbagh, “Border queues build as people flee Russia to escape Putin’s call-up,” Guardian, September 23, 2022,

David L. Stern and Robyn Dixon, “With Kalashnikov rifles, Russia drives the staged vote in Ukraine,” Washington Post, September 24, 2022,

Robyn Dixon et al., “Russian mobilization prompts backlash as Ukraine annexation effort plows ahead,” Washington Post, September 25, 2022,

Edward Helmore, “Jake Sullivan: US will act ‘decisively’ if Russia uses nuclear weapons in Ukraine,” Guardian, September 25, 2022,

Yaroslav Trofimov, “Pushing East of Kupyansk, Ukrainian Forces Expand Offensive,” Wall Street Journal, September 25, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The right-wing turn against Ukraine may be around the corner,” Washington Post, September 26, 2022,

Michael Horovitz, “Medvedev asserts Russia’s ‘right’ to use nukes to defend its territory,” Times of Israel, September 27, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Male Fragility,” Puck, September 27, 2022,

Anatol Lieven, “Putin’s regime may fall – but what would come next?” Guardian, September 27, 2022,

Agence France-Presse, “‘Full chaos’: Over 100,000 Russians flood neighboring countries to flee army call-up,” Times of Israel, September 28, 2022,

Bloomberg, “Putin Raises Gas-Cutoff Threat as He Moves to Annex Ukraine Regions,” September 28, 2022,

Jennifer Hansler, “US Embassy warns Americans to leave Russia,” CNN, September 28, 2022,

Meg Kelly and Michael Birnbaum, “E.U. warns of ‘robust’ response against sabotage after Nord Stream blasts,” Washington Post, September 28, 2022,

Times of Israel, “Suspecting Nord Stream sabotage, EU vows ‘robust’ response to energy network attacks,” September 28, 2022,

Sarah Cahlan et al., “Russians rebel as Putin drafts more people in battle for Ukraine,” Washington Post, September 29, 2022,

Drew Hinshaw, Matthew Dalton, and Laurence Norman, “NATO Formally Blames Sabotage for Nord Stream Pipeline Damage,” Wall Street Journal, September 29, 2022,

Agence France Presse, “Putin Eases Citizenship For Foreigners In Russian Army,” Barron’s, September 30, 2022,

CNN, “The turning points in Russia’s invasion of Ukraine,” September 30, 2022,

Ann M. Simmons and Yuliya Chernova, “Russia Announces Annexation of Four Regions of Ukraine,” Wall Street Journal, September 30, 2022,

Eli Stokols, “U.S. sanctions Russia after Putin annexes parts of Ukraine,” Los Angeles Times, September 30, 2022,

John Gambrell and Adam Schreck, “Russia withdraws troops from once-occupied Lyman as Ukraine recaptures more territory,” Los Angeles Times, October 1, 2022,

Luke Harding, “Humiliation for Vladimir Putin as Ukrainians liberate key city of Lyman,” Guardian, October 1, 2022,

Isabelle Khurshudyan et al., “Russian troops withdraw from Lyman, a day after annexation claims,” Washington Post, October 1, 2022,

Liz Sly, “Russia’s annexation puts world ‘two or three steps away’ from nuclear war,” Washington Post, October 1, 2022,

Lewis Page, “Why Putin would be a fool to go nuclear in Ukraine,” Telegraph, October 2, 2022,

Farida Rustamova, “Vladimir Putin is making rash and secretive decisions in face of defeats, Kremlin insiders warn,” Telegraph, October 2, 2022,

Josie Ensor, “Nuclear weapons convoy sparks fears Putin could be preparing test to send ‘signal to the West,’” Telegraph, October 3, 2022,

Luke Harding, Isobel Koshiw, and Peter Beaumont, “Russia no longer has full control of any of four ‘annexed’ Ukrainian provinces,” Guardian, October 3, 2022,

Dominic Nicholls, “Russia’s bloated military has finally been properly tested – and the results are not good,” Telegraph, October 3, 2022,

Mary Ilyushina, Emily Rauhala, and Isabelle Khurshudyan, “Ukraine hammers Russian forces into retreat on east and south fronts,” Washington Post, October 4, 2022,

Pjotr Sauer, “Attempts to play down retreats in Ukraine no longer wash inside Russia,” Guardian, October 5, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Annexations show the depth of Putin’s imperial delusion,” Washington Post, October 5, 2022,

Yasmeen Abutaleb, “Biden suggests Putin’s nuclear threats mean a ‘prospect of Armageddon,’” Washington Post, October 6, 2022,

Charlie Cooper, “Coal built the EU. Will gas destroy it?” Politico, October 6, 2022,

Robyn Dixon, “As Ukraine war falters, Russians ask a risky question: Could Putin fall?” Washington Post, October 6, 2022,

Alex Horton, “Russians flee by boat to Alaska after Putin’s military mobilization,” Washington Post, October 6, 2022,

Christian Esch et al., “Berlin and Washington Play Out Nuclear Scenarios,” Spiegel, October 7, 2022,

Greg Miller et al., “Putin confronted by insider over Ukraine war, U.S. intelligence finds,” Washington Post, October 7, 2022,

Peter Beaumont, “Impact of Kerch bridge blast will be felt all the way to the Kremlin,” Guardian, October 8, 2022,

Nandita Bose and Pavel Polityuk, “Putin marks low-key birthday as Ukraine pressures mount,’” Reuters, October 8, 2022,

Sergei Kuznetsov, “Blast on Russia bridge to Crimea threatens Moscow supply route,” Politico, October 8, 2022,

Adam Schreck and Vasilisa Stepanenko, “Explosion on Crimean bridge damages key Russian supply route; 3 dead,” Los Angeles Times, October 8, 2022,

Maite Fernández Simon and Paul Sonne, “Putin’s bridge of dreams explodes in flames,” Washington Post, October 8, 2022,

Times of Israel, “Russia says truck bomb caused Crimea bridge explosion, stops short of blaming Kyiv,” October 8, 2022,

Yaroslav Trofimov, “Major Explosion Hits the Bridge Between Crimea and Russia, Halting Traffic,” Wall Street Journal, October 8, 2022,

Peter Beaumont, “Vladimir Putin calls blast on Crimea-Russia bridge an ‘act of terror,’” Guardian, October 9, 2022,

Siobhán O’Grady, Anastacia Galouchka, and Whitney Shefte, “In Russian-occupied Izyum, she was raped and tortured,” Washington Post, October 9, 2022,

Alice Speri, “The Mother Crime: Will Putin Face Prosecution for the Crime of Aggression in Ukraine?” Intercept, October 9, 2022,

Dan Sabbagh, “GCHQ head: Putin making strategic errors due to unconstrained power,” Guardian, October 10, 2022,

Dan Sabbagh, “Kremlin decision to target Ukraine’s cities was political, not tactical,” Guardian, October 10, 2022,

Pjotr Sauer, “Sergei Surovikin: the ‘General Armageddon’ now in charge of Russia’s war,” Guardian, October 10, 2022,

George Styllis, Gareth Davies, and Grace Millimaci, “Deadly strikes are just ‘first episode’ of response to Crimea attack, says Medvedev,” Telegraph, October 10, 2022,

Jamie Dettmer, “Putin’s endgame? Kremlin infighting spills into the open,” Politico, October 11, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “‘General Armageddon’ & Putin’s Bridge to Nowhere,” Puck, October 11, 2022,

Jade McGlynn, “Desperate Putin is out of time as rival elites begin to circle,” Telegraph, October 11, 2022,

Stephen Sestanovich, “Who Are Russia’s War Hawks, and Do They Matter?” Council on Foreign Relations, October 11, 2022,

Adela Suliman, “Russian military ‘exhausted,’ Putin’s judgment ‘flawed,’ U.K. spy chief says,” Washington Post, October 11, 2022,

Emily Rauhala et al., “U.N. condemns Russia’s annexation of Ukraine territory; NATO says air defense systems a ‘priority,’” Washington Post, October 12, 2022,

Liz Sly, “Russia’s escalation won’t turn tide of the war, analysts say,” Washington Post, October 15, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s New Tools of Terror,” Puck, October 18, 2022,

Paul Kirby, “Ukraine war: Russians start leaving Ukraine’s Kherson city,” British Broadcasting Corporation, October 19, 2022,

Andreas Kluth, “If Putin Orders a Nuke, Will His Generals Obey?” Bloomberg, October 19, 2022,

Uliana Pavlova, “Putin declares martial law in four occupied regions as Kyiv presses offensive,” CNN, October 19, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The uncomfortable need to talk about diplomacy with Russia,” Washington Post, October 19, 2022,

Pjotr Sauer, “‘The army has nothing’: new Russian conscripts bemoan lack of supplies,” Guardian, October 20, 2022,

Andrew Meldrum, “Anticipating Ukrainian advance, Russia withdraws officers from Kherson – think tank,” Times of Israel, October 23, 2022,

Julian Borger and Peter Beaumont, “Russia steps up Ukraine ‘dirty bomb’ claim in letter delivered to UN,” Guardian, October 25, 2022,

Mary Ilyushina and Emily Rauhala, “Ukrainian forces advance against Russian fighters in Kherson and Bakhmut,” Washington Post, October 25, 2022,

Amy B. Wang, Yasmeen Abutaleb, and Marianna Sotomayor, “Liberal Democrats withdraw letter to Biden that urged him to rethink Ukraine strategy,” Washington Post, October 25, 2022,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Ukraine war: Russian tactics on eastern front ‘crazy’, says Zelensky,” October 27, 2022,

Catherine Belton, “Russia’s security service works to subvert Moldova’s pro-Western government,” Washington Post, October 28, 2022,

Greg Sargent, “The hidden danger lurking behind Elon Musk’s Twitter takeover,” Washington Post, October 28, 2022,

Jade McGlynn, “Time is running out for Putin, and the danger is that he knows it,” Telegraph, November 3, 2022,

Reuters, “Russia’s Prigozhin admits interfering in U.S. elections,” November 7, 2022,

Pjotr Sauer, “‘We were completely exposed’: Russian conscripts say hundreds killed in attack,” Guardian, November 7, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “A Republican winter may be coming for Ukraine,” Washington Post, November 7, 2022,

James Marson, “Russia Announces a Withdrawal From Kherson, Only Regional Ukrainian Capital It Held,” Wall Street Journal, November 9, 2022,

Jared Malsin and Ann M. Simmons, “Ukrainian Forces Enter Kherson as Russia Completes Retreat,” Wall Street Journal, November 11, 2022,

Alice Speri, “Leaked Document Reveals Why Interpol Overturned U.S. ‘Red Notice’ Against Putin Associate Yevgeny Prigozhin,” Intercept, November 11, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “After midterms, U.S. and European support for Ukraine endures,” Washington Post, November 11, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Retreat & Kyiv’s Dangerous Hope,” Puck, November 15, 2022,

Seung Min Kim and Zeke Miller, “Biden calls ‘emergency’ meeting after missile hits Poland,” Associated Press, November 15, 2022,

James Crisp, Joe Barnes, and Ben Riley-Smith, “Russia ‘ultimately responsible’ for Poland missile strike, say Western allies,” Telegraph, November 16, 2022,

Vanessa Gera, Zeke Miller, and Michael Balsamo, “Poland: Russian-made missile fell on our country, killing 2,” , November 16, 2022,

Daniel Michaels, Laurence Norman, and Drew Hinshaw, “NATO Says Missile That Hit Poland Was Likely Ukraine Air Defense,” Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2022,

David Benfell, “@JuliaIoffe's latest newsletter this morning notes that Ukraine hotly disputes this view, insisting that the missile was Russian. . . .” Twitter, November 17, 2022,

Julia Ioffe to Tomorrow Will Be Worse list, “DeSantis’s Chris Christie Syndrome,” Puck, November 17, 2022,

Luke Harding, “‘Russian warship, go fuck yourself’: what happened next to the Ukrainians defending Snake Island?” Guardian, November 19, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Biden’s Price of Peace,” Puck, November 22, 2022,

Efraim Zuroff and Per Anders Rudling, “Russia’s ‘denazification’ lie and the whitewash of Roman Shukhevych,” Times of Israel, November 22, 2022,

Júlia Ledur, “What Russia has gained and lost so far in Ukraine, visualized,” Washington Post, November 21, 2022,

Laurence Norman and Stephen Fidler, “Vladimir Putin’s Red Lines, War Aims Shift in Ukraine,” Wall Street Journal, November 27, 2022,

Peter Beaumont, “Vladimir Putin better informed now about Ukraine war, says US,” Guardian, December 4, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Shadow Fleet,” Puck, December 6, 2022,

Peter Stone, “Top US conservatives pushing Russia’s spin on Ukraine war, experts say,” Guardian, December 6, 2022,

Paola Tamma, “Hungary vetoes Ukraine aid, EU seeks alternative solution,” Politico, December 6, 2022,

Isabelle Khurshudyan, “On east front with Ukrainian troops: Constant shelling, no heat or coffee,” Washington Post, December 7, 2022,

Andrew Roth, “Vladimir Putin says Russia’s war in Ukraine could be ‘long-term process,’” Guardian, December 7, 2022,

Julia Ioffe, “‘Putin’s Chef’: The Man Behind Russia’s Shadow Army,” Puck, December 13, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Ukraine’s resilience sets a global standard,” Washington Post, December 14, 2022,

Shane Harris et al., “No conclusive evidence Russia is behind Nord Stream attack,” Washington Post, December 21, 2022,

Richard M. Nixon [Justin Sherin], “Briefing,” Patreon, December 21, 2022,

David French, “The Oddly Intense Anger Against Zelensky, Explained,” Atlantic, December 23, 2022,

Craig Hooper, “Ukraine Converts $21.9 Billion In U.S. Military Surplus Into Fearsome Force,” Forbes, December 26, 2022,

Michael Sallah and Mike Wereschagin, “Ukraine President Volodymyr Zelenskyy’s secret call to Mitch McConnell puts squeeze on oligarchs,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 29, 2022,

Catherine Belton, “Putin, unaccustomed to losing, is increasingly isolated as war falters,” Washington Post, December 30, 2022,

Peter Beaumont and Pjotr Sauer, “Russia replaces general in charge of Ukraine war in latest military shake-up,” Guardian, January 11, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “The Putin Poison Pill,” Puck, January 17, 2023,

Adam Taylor, “Putin says Russia’s economy beat expectations. Did sanctions fail?” Washington Post, January 18, 2023,

Rachel Koning Beals, “Russia-Ukraine war leaves Doomsday Clock closest to ‘crisis’ hour of midnight in report’s 76-year history,” Bloomberg, January 24, 2023,

Michael R. Gordon and Gordon Lubold, “U.S. Leans Toward Providing Abrams Tanks to Ukraine,” Wall Street Journal, January 24, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “The Putin Super Power Myth,” Puck, January 24, 2023,

Olga Lautman and Jeff Stein, “Putin’s Ukraine Folly Enables Kremlin Rivals,”, January 24, 2023,

John Mecklin, “A time of unprecedented danger: It is 90 seconds to midnight,” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, January 24, 2023,

Karen DeYoung, “U.S. will supply M1 tanks to Ukraine, as Germany approves Leopards,” Washington Post, January 25, 2023,

Bojan Pancevski and Bertrand Benoit, “Germany to Send Tanks to Ukraine, With U.S. Set to Follow,” Wall Street Journal, January 25, 2023,

Dion Nissenbaum, Benoit Faucon, and Gordon Lubold, “Israel Strikes Iran Amid New International Push to Contain Tehran,” Wall Street Journal, January 29, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Plot Against America,” Puck, January 31, 2023,

Karin Fischer, “The power and vulnerability of colleges amid rising authoritarianism,” Chronicle of Higher Education, February 8, 2023,

Francesca Ebel and Mary Ilyushina, “Russians abandon wartime Russia in historic exodus,” Washington Post, February 13, 2023,

Fiona Hill and Angela Stent, “The Kremlin’s Grand Delusions,” Foreign Affairs, February 15, 2023,

Richard M. Nixon [Justin Sherin], “Putin’s Strengths,” Patreon, February 16, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “A year after invasion, has Russia already lost?” Washington Post, February 17, 2023,

Al Jazeera, “Russia’s Wagner fighters suffer 30,000 casualties in Ukraine: US,” February 18, 2023,

Robyn Dixon and Catherine Belton, “Putin, czar with no empire, needs military victory for his own survival,” Washington Post, February 19, 2023,

Maria Katamadze, “Can Wagner head Yevgeny Prigozhin challenge Putin?” Deutschewelle, February 19, 2023,

Roula Khalaf, Raphael Minder, and Henry Foy, “Poland calls for Nato security guarantees to postwar Ukraine,” Financial Times, February 19, 2023,

Anton Troianovski and Valerie Hopkins, “One Year Into War, Putin Is Crafting the Russia He Craves,” New York Times, February 19, 2023,

Anne Applebaum, “Biden Went to Kyiv Because There’s No Going Back,” Atlantic, February 20, 2023,

Missy Ryan et al., “Biden makes surprise visit to Ukraine ahead of Russian invasion anniversary,” Washington Post, February 20, 2023,

Marc Santora, Peter Baker, and Michael D. Shear, “Biden Visits Kyiv, Ukraine’s Embattled Capital, as Air-Raid Siren Sounds,” New York Times, February 20, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Biden in Kyiv and Warsaw is a reminder of who really leads Europe,” Washington Post, February 20, 2023,

Evan Vucci et al., “Biden in Ukraine ahead of war anniversary: ‘Kyiv stands,’” Associated Press, February 20, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “Peace & Gossip in Munich,” Puck, February 21, 2023,

Tom Nichols, “Putin’s Desperate Hours,” Atlantic, February 21, 2023,

Ann M. Simmons, “Putin Suspends Nuclear-Arms Treaty Between Russia, U.S.,” Wall Street Journal, February 21, 2023,

Evan Vucci, John Leicester, and Zeke Miller, “How do you sneak a US president into a warzone without anyone noticing?” Associated Press, February 21, 2023,

Ed Pilkington and J Oliver Conroy, “Putin aiming to divide US public opinion with nuclear treaty pullout, experts say,” Guardian, February 22, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “An awkward tension lies beneath the West’s support for Ukraine,” Washington Post, February 27, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Oligarchs Fall in Line,” Puck, February 28, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Putin retreats deeper into his labyrinth,” Washington Post, March 7, 2023,

Dan Sabbagh, Philip Oltermann, and Lorenzo Tondo, “Officials believe pro-Ukraine group may have sabotaged Nord Stream – reports,” Guardian, March 7, 2023,

Nathaniel Taplin, “How Russia Supplies Its War Machine,” Wall Street Journal, March 10, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “Putin’s Boy from Tallahassee,” Puck, March 14, 2023,

Erin Banco and Sarah Anne Aarup, “‘Hunting rifles’ — really? China ships assault weapons and body armor to Russia,” Politico, March 16, 2023,

Dan Ladden-Hall, “Prigozhin Says Jealous Kremlin Deliberately Stopped Wagner Taking Bakhmut,” March 16, 2023,

Nicolas Camut, “China’s Xi to visit Putin in Russia next week,” Politico, March 17, 2023,

Mike Corder and Raf Casert, “International court issues war crimes warrant for Putin,” Associated Press, March 17, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “20 years later, U.S. invasion of Iraq hangs over war in Ukraine,” Washington Post, March 17, 2023,

Emma Graham-Harrison and Pjotr Sauer, “Joe Biden hails decision to issue ICC arrest warrant against Vladimir Putin,” Guardian, March 18, 2023,

Thalif Deen, “War Criminals & Military Aggressors Who Occupy Seats in the Security Council,” Inter Press Service, March 20, 2023,

Alberto Nardelli, Jorge Valero, and Samy Adghirni, “Hungary Blocked Joint EU Statement on Putin’s ICC Arrest Warrant,” Bloomberg, March 20, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “Xi Jinping, Superstar,” Puck, March 21, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Xi meets Putin in show of anti-West unity, but there’s unease, too,” Washington Post, March 21, 2023,

Deutschewelle, “Ukraine updates: Medvedev says Putin arrest would be ‘war,’” March 23, 2023,

Francesca Ebel, “Russia is shipping very old tanks west, signaling shortage in Ukraine,” Washington Post, March 23, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “Biden’s Private Ukraine Deadline,” Puck, March 28, 2023,

Georgi Kantchev and Evan Gershkovich, “Russia’s Economy Is Starting to Come Undone,” Wall Street Journal, March 28, 2023,

Pjotr Sauer and Andrew Roth, “Putin prepares Russia for ‘forever war’ with west as Ukraine invasion stalls,” Guardian, March 28, 2023,

Ahmed Twaij, “Bush did what Putin’s doing — so why is he getting away?” al Jazeera, March 28, 2023,

Lili Bayer and Leyla Aksu, “Finland cleared to join NATO following Turkish vote,” Politico, March 30, 2023,

Joe Parkinson and Drew Hinshaw, “Evan Gershkovich Loved Russia, the Country That Turned on Him,” Wall Street Journal, March 31, 2023,

Andrew Roth and Pjotr Sauer, “Russian defector sheds light on Putin paranoia and his secret train network,” Guardian, April 5, 2023,

Tom Mutch, “Soldiers Make Secret Pact to ‘Destroy’ Putin’s Empire From Within,” Daily Beast, April 9, 2023,

Jenny Strasburg, “Russia Ordered to Pay Ukraine’s Naftogaz $5 Billion for Assets Seized in Crimea,” Wall Street Journal, April 13, 2023,

Alex Horton, “Russia’s commando units gutted by Ukraine war, U.S. leak shows,” Washington Post, April 14, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The U.S.’s gloominess on the war in Ukraine is now clear to see,” Washington Post, April 14, 2023,

Naiara Galarraga Gortázar, “Russian foreign minister’s meeting with Brazilian President Lula rankles the West,” El País, April 18, 2023,

Stephen Sestanovich, “Ukraine’s Counteroffensive: Will It Retake Crimea?” Council on Foreign Relations, April 19, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Brazil’s Lula reaches out to China and Russia, stoking U.S. unease,” Washington Post, April 19, 2023,

Roman Olearchyk and Henry Foy, “Jens Stoltenberg vows Nato will stand with Ukraine for ‘as long as it takes,’” Financial Times, April 20, 2023,

Ian Lovett and Ann M. Simmons, “Ukrainian Forces Recapture Land Across Key River in South, Think Tank Says,” Wall Street Journal, April 23, 2023,

Peter Beaumont, “Russian forces ‘forcibly evacuating’ civilians in Kherson, says Ukraine,” Guardian, April 24, 2023,

Samantha de Bendern, “Putin claims he’s cancelling public celebrations over safety fears. The truth is more humiliating,” Guardian, May 2, 2023,

Patrick Tucker, “Without A New Draft, Russian Offensive Operations Are Over, US Intel Chiefs Say,” Defense One, May 4, 2023,

Henry Foy et al., “Military briefing: the drone attack on the Kremlin,” Financial Times, May 5, 2023,

Brad Lendon, Josh Pennington, and Uliana Pavlova, “Wagner chief says his forces are dying as Russia’s military leaders ‘sit like fat cats,’” CNN, May 5, 2023,

Matthew Luxmoore and Ann M. Simmons, “Wagner Leader Reverses Course on Plan to Withdraw From Bakhmut,” Wall Street Journal, May 7, 2023,

Matthew Luxmoore, “Ukraine Regains Ground Around Bakhmut as Fighting Rages,” Wall Street Journal, May 10, 2023,

Pjotr Sauer, “Russian troops fall back to ‘defensive positions’ near Bakhmut,” Guardian, May 12, 2023,

Francesca Ebel and Mary Ilyushina, “Russia dismisses report that Wagner boss offered to reveal troop positions,” Washington Post, May 15, 2023,

Shane Harris and Isabelle Khurshudyan, “Wagner chief offered to give Russian troop locations to Ukraine, leak says,” Washington Post, May 15, 2023,

Allan Woods, “Why Vladimir Putin isn’t shutting down the outspoken ‘thug’ running the Wagner Group,” Toronto Star, May 15, 2023,

Chris Cook, “Estonian PM pleads with companies to resist ‘ghost trade’ with Russia,” Financial Times, May 17, 2023,

Anna Nemtsova, “I’ve never seen the Kremlin so rattled,” Washington Post, May 17, 2023,

Yaroslav Trofimov and Matthew Luxmoore, “Brutal Battle for Bakhmut Leaves Russia With an Uncertain Victory,” Wall Street Journal, May 21, 2023,

Philip Breedlove, Wesley Clark, and Ben Hodges, “Why Isn’t the Pentagon Helping the International Court Prosecute Putin?” Defense One, May 23, 2023,

Julian Borger, “Wagner chief warns of revolution and says 20,000 fighters killed in Bakhmut,” Guardian, May 24, 2023,

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, “Wagner Chief Prigozhin Says Russia’s Plan To ‘Demilitarize’ Ukraine Has Failed,” May 24, 2023,

Vazha Tavberidze, “Interview: The ‘War Of Clans For Putin’s Throne Has Begun,’” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, May 24, 2023,

Robyn Dixon, “Russians snitch on Russians who oppose war with Soviet-style denunciations,” Washington Post, May 27, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “Yalta 2023: Planning for Life After the Russian Invasion,” Puck, May 30, 2023,

Richard Milne, Adam Samson, and Felicia Schwartz, “West steps up pressure on Turkey to admit Sweden into Nato,” Financial Times, May 30, 2023,

Bojan Pancevski, Laurence Norman, and James Marson, “Ukraine and Allies Plan Peace Summit Without Russia,” Wall Street Journal, May 30, 2023,

Max Seddon and Christopher Miller, “Vladimir Putin vows retaliation for drone attack on Moscow,” Financial Times, May 30, 2023,

Patrick Tucker, “Estonia Will Ask For a Clearer Path for Ukraine to Join NATO,” Defense One, May 30, 2023,

Nataliya Vasilyeva, “James Cleverly backs Ukraine’s right to attack Russia after Moscow’s ‘Beverly Hills’ hit by drones,” Telegraph, May 30, 2023,

Leila Abboud, Raphael Minder, and Henry Foy, “Emmanuel Macron backs Nato membership ‘path’ for Ukraine,” Financial Times, May 31, 2023,

Svitlana Morenets, “Russia may be devoured by its neighbours,” Telegraph, May 31, 2023,

Patrick Tucker, “Macron Will Push NATO For ‘Concrete’ Security Guarantee for Ukraine,” Defense One, May 31, 2023,

John Hudson and Dan Lamothe, “Biden shows growing appetite to cross Putin’s red lines,” Washington Post, June 1, 2023,

Missy Ryan, “U.S. rebuffs cease-fire calls in its strategy for Ukraine resilience,” Washington Post, June 2, 2023,

Lewis Page, “A horrifying embarrassment for Putin stands to test Zelensky’s nerves of steel,” Telegraph, June 4, 2023,

Gabriel Gavin and Veronika Melkozerova, “Dam sabotage creates Ukraine’s worst environmental disaster ‘since Chernobyl,’” Politico, June 6, 2023,

Samuel Granados and Ruby Mellen, “Maps show how damaged Kakhovka dam hurts both Ukraine and Russia,” Washington Post, June 6, 2023,

Hamish de Bretton-Gordon, “We are now dangerously close to nuclear war,” Telegraph, June 7, 2023,

Paul Ronzheimer, Gabriel Gavin, and Victor Jack, “Zelenskyy denies Ukraine involvement in Nord Stream pipeline blasts,” Politico, June 7, 2023,

Anne Applebaum, “The True Purpose of Ukraine’s Counteroffensive,” Atlantic, June 8, 2023,

Veronika Melkozerova, “Russia bombs school where flood evacuees were sheltering after Zelenskyy visits Kherson,” Politico, June 8, 2023,

Zoya Sheftalovich, “Ukraine counteroffensive: Kyiv claims gains in Bakhmut,” Politico, June 8, 2023,

Shaun Walker, “‘Three months ago, this wasn’t possible’: exiled Russians dare to dream of Putin’s fall,” Guardian, June 10, 2023,

Andrew Stanton, “Millions of Chinese Troops ‘Needed’ in Putin’s War, Russian TV Host Says,” Newsweek, June 11, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Ukraine’s current counteroffensive may dictate the fate of the war,” Washington Post, June 11, 2023,

Dion Nissenbaum, “Chinese Parts Help Iran Supply Drones to Russia Quickly, Investigators Say,” Wall Street Journal, June 12, 2023,

Gabriel Gavin, “Putin admits Russia doesn’t have enough weapons and drones,” Politico, June 13, 2023,

Tim Lister et al., “Russian accounts admit Ukrainian forces are making some gains in heavy fighting,” CNN, June 13, 2023,

Max Seddon, “Putin sides with Russia’s military in clash with Wagner,” Financial Times, June 14, 2023,

Sam Skove, “Ukraine War Could Last a Decade, Top Ukrainian Official Says,” Defense One, June 14, 2023,

Reid Standish, “How Chinese Parts Make It To The Battlefield In Ukraine,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, June 14, 2023,

Con Coughlin, “Putin is retreating into dangerous fantasies,” Telegraph, June 15, 2023,

Mstyslav Chernov and Lori Hinnant, “Russia had means, motive and opportunity to destroy Ukraine dam, drone photos and information show,” Associated Press, June 19, 2023,

Francesca Ebel and Kamila Hrabchuk, “Delivering mail in war-ravaged Ukraine: ‘There are still people living here,’” Washington Post, June 22, 2023,

Alaric DeArment, “The Con Artists Who Blame Ukraine Aid for America’s Social Problems,” New Republic, June 27, 2023,

John Hudson and Shane Harris, “CIA director, on secret trip to Ukraine, hears plan for war’s endgame,” Washington Post, June 30, 2023,

Keith Gessen, &ldlquo;Could Putin Lose Power?” New Yorker, July 1, 2023,

Max Seddon et al., “Xi Jinping warned Vladimir Putin against nuclear attack in Ukraine,” Financial Times, July 4, 2023,

Pjotr Sauer, “Kremlin denies China’s president urged Putin not to use nuclear arms in Ukraine,” Guardian, July 5, 2023,

Ben Makuch, “Russian Militia Linked to American Neo-Nazis, Anti-Trans Figures,” Intercept, July 8, 2023,

Joe Barnes, Roland Oliphant, and Tony Diver, “Ukraine to be offered ‘Nato-lite’ protection,” Telegraph, July 10, 2023,

Lily Bayer, “Turkey agrees to back Sweden’s NATO membership bid,” Politico, July 10, 2023,

Emily Rauhala, Kareem Fahim, and Michael Birnbaum, “Turkey drops opposition to Sweden’s NATO bid on eve of summit,” Washington Post, July 10, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “A fateful summit 15 years ago hangs over the NATO meeting in Vilnius,” Washington Post, July 10, 2023,

Robyn Dixon, Kareem Fahim, and David L. Stern, “Russia’s war might have a new casualty: The Putin-Erdogan bond,” Washington Post, July 13, 2023,

Laura Kayali, “Sorry Russia, the Baltic Sea is NATO’s lake now,” Politico, July 13, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Zelensky’s ‘guilt-based’ diplomacy leaves its mark on NATO summit,” Washington Post, July 13, 2023,

Daniel Ofman, “Why is Russia’s ruble dropping in value?” World, July 14, 2023,

Lorenzo Tondo, “‘Every morning, I curse Putin’: Ukrainian village’s sole resident defiant amid the ruins,” Guardian, July 15, 2023,

Matthew Mpoke Bigg, Daniel Victor, and Ivan Nechepurenko, “Russia Pulls Out of the Black Sea Grain Deal,” New York Times, July 17, 2023,

Nicolas Camut and Veronika Melkozerova, “Blasts reported on key bridge linking occupied Crimea to Russia,” Politico, July 17, 2023,

Fredrick Kunkle, David L. Stern, and Mary Ilyushina, “Ukraine hits Crimean Bridge, but railway undamaged; Russia halts grain deal,” Washington Post, July 17, 2023,

Shaun Walker and Emma Graham-Harrison, “Two dead after explosions on Kerch Bridge linking Crimea and Russia,” Guardian, July 17, 2023,

Mirko Fuchs, “Russian men keep fleeing abroad to avoid fighting in Ukraine,” Deutschewelle, July 18, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “Ukraine’s Summer War of Attrition,” Puck, July 18, 2023,

Mary Ilyushina, “Prigozhin says Wagner mercenary group for now will not fight in Ukraine,” Washington Post, July 19, 2023,

John Hudson and Isabelle Khurshudyan, “Ukraine begins firing U.S.-provided cluster munitions at Russian forces,” Washington Post, July 20, 2023,

Sarah Anne Aarup, Sergey Panov, and Douglas Busvine, “China secretly sends enough gear to Russia to equip an army,” Politico, July 24, 2023,

Melissa Lawford, “‘It’s guns versus butter’: Russia on the brink as Putin’s war chest empties,” Telegraph, July 24, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The moral dilemma of sending cluster munitions to Ukraine,” Washington Post, July 24, 2023,

Rozina Sabur, “Ukraine launches main thrust of its counter-offensive against Russia,” Telegraph, July 26, 2023,

Christopher Miller, “Military briefing: Ukraine switches to artillery power for eastern push,” Financial Times, July 27, 2023,

Adam Taylor, “African nations aren’t tilting toward Putin’s Russia,” Washington Post, July 27, 2023,

Andrew Osborn, “Russia’s Medvedev: We’d have to use a nuclear weapon if Ukrainian offensive was a success,” Reuters, July 30, 2023,

Joe Barnes, “Elon Musk ‘refuses to turn on Starlink’ for Crimea drone attack,” Telegraph, July 31, 2023,

Owen Matthews, “Vladimir Putin is finally losing his psychological grip,” Telegraph, July 31, 2023,

Julia Ioffe, “The Ukraine ‘Israel Model” & Its Discontents,” Puck, August 1, 2023,

Dominic Nicholls, “The state of Ukraine’s counter-offensive,” Telegraph, August 5, 2023,

Daniel Boffey, “Ukrainian forces cross Dnipro River in bid to breach southern frontline,” Guardian, August 9, 2023,

Gabriel Gavin, “Russia risks war with NATO in Black Sea, former top commander in Europe warns,” Politico, August 16, 2023,

Yaroslav Trofimov, “Should the West Fear Putin’s Fall?” Wall Street Journal, August 18, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Ukraine’s hopes for maximal victory look remote,” Washington Post, August 21, 2023,

Tony Barber, “The delusions that put Putin on the path to war,” Financial Times, August 23, 2023,

Guardian, “Nato pledges ‘strong solidarity’ with Romania over likely Russian drone debris,” September 6, 2023,

Jason Lemon, “Russian General Admits Ukraine Just a ‘Stepping Stone’ to Invade Europe,” Newsweek, September 9, 2023,

Guardian, “Ukraine regains control of strategic Black Sea oil rigs, intelligence service says,” September 11, 2023,

Sam Skove, “Navies face ‘dreadnought moment’ as Ukraine destroys more Russian warships, British admiral says,” Defense One, September 13, 2023,

Adam Taylor, “Kim Jong Un’s visit to Russia hints at grim battlefield math for Putin,” Washington Post, September 14, 2023,

Isabelle Khurshudyan et al., “Ukraine breaches Russian defensive line on southern front,” Washington Post, September 23, 2023,

Joe Barnes, “Ukraine makes ‘tactical breakthrough’ after breaching Russian defences,” Telegraph, September 25, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Trump’s favorite European leader does Russia’s work in Europe,” Washington Post, September 27, 2023,

Lewis Page, “Not enough Bears: Russia’s Black Sea Fleet is pulling out of Crimea,” Telegraph, October 3, 2023,

Lili Bayer, “European leaders seethe over Putin-Orbán meeting,” Guardian, October 20, 2023,–meeting

Arpan Rai, “Putin ally Lukashenko calls for ceasefire in ‘stalemate’ Ukraine war: ‘No one can do anything,’” Independent, October 30, 2023,

Gregorio Sorgi, Jacopo Barigazzi, and Veronika Melkozerova, “Ukraine should start EU membership talks, Commission says,” Politico, November 8, 2023,

Shane Harris and Isabelle Khurshudyan, “Ukrainian military officer coordinated Nord Stream pipeline attack,” Washington Post, November 11, 2023,

Washington Post, “ In Ukraine, a war of incremental gains as counteroffensive stalls,” December 4, 2023,

Washington Post, “Miscalculations, divisions marked offensive planning by U.S., Ukraine,” December 4, 2023,

Douglas Busvine, “Sanctions aren’t working: How the West enables Russia’s war on Ukraine,” Politico, December 11, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Ukraine’s Zelensky and Hungary’s Orban reflect a divided Washington,” Washington Post, December 12, 2023,

Jakob Hanke Vela, “Orbán names his price,” Politico, December 13, 2023,

Emily Rauhala and Beatriz Ríos, “E.U. agrees to open membership talks for Ukraine,” Washington Post, December 14, 2023,

Barbara Moens et al., “EU threatens to silence Hungary if it blocks Ukrainian funds,” Politico, January 26, 2024,

Henry Foy, Andy Bounds, and Marton Dunai, “Brussels threatens to hit Hungary’s economy if Viktor Orbán vetoes Ukraine aid,” Financial Times, January 28, 2024,

Marton Dunai and Henry Foy, “Hungary vows to defy EU ‘blackmail’ over Ukraine funding,” Financial Times, January 29, 2024,

Gregorio Sorgi, Barbara Moens, and Elisa Braun, “EU approves €50B Ukraine aid as Viktor Orbán folds,” Politico, February 1, 2024,

James Angelos, “Trump’s already back, America has ditched Ukraine. What does Europe do now?,” Politico, February 8, 2024,

Liz Goodwin and Mariana Alfaro, “Aid bill for Ukraine, Israel on track to pass Senate early this week,” Washington Post, February 11, 2024,

Zachary Basu, “House’s Ukraine showdown escalates with calls to bypass Johnson,” Axios, February 13, 2024,

Robyn Dixon, “Bullet-riddled body found in Spain was Russian defector, Ukraine says,” Washington Post, February 20, 2024,

Miguel González and Carlos E. Cué, “Gunmen sent by Moscow killed defector sheltering in Alicante, Spanish intelligence services say,” El País, February 22, 2024,

  1. [1]Reuters, “Ukraine puts destroyed Russian tanks on display in Kyiv,” August 25, 2022,

156 thoughts on “Imperialism · Russia · Ukraine

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