Imperialism · United States · Afghanistan


United States


Fig. 1. Undated photograph credited to Jane Mingay in Agence France-Presse story via the Pakistan Express-Tribune,[1] fair use.

Fig. 2. Cartoon by Joel Pett, July 23, 2021, via GoComics,[2] fair use.

Fig. 3. Cartoon by Brian Adcock, August 17, 2021, for the Guardian,[3] fair use.

George W. Bush, “Text: President Bush Addresses the Nation,” Washington Post, September 20, 2001,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “US ‘threatened to bomb’ Pakistan,” September 22, 2006,

Mark Danner, “US Torture: Voices from the Black Sites,” New York Review of Books, April 9, 2009,

Alexander Abad-Santos, “This 13-Year-Old Is Scared When the Sky Is Blue Because of Our Drones,” October 29, 2013,

Akhilesh Pillalamarri, “Why Is Afghanistan the ‘Graveyard of Empires’?” Diplomat, June 30, 2017,

Kevin Gosztola, “FBI Affidavit in Assange Case Shows Government is Criminalizing Publication of Afghanistan War Logs,” Shadowproof, April 16, 2019,

Craig Whitlock, “At war with the truth,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019,

Craig Whitlock, “Stranded without a strategy,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019,

Craig Whitlock, “Built to fail,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019,

Craig Whitlock, “Consumed by corruption,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019,

Craig Whitlock, “Unguarded nation,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019,

Craig Whitlock, “Overwhelmed by opium,” Washington Post, December 9, 2019,

Marjorie Cohn, “Team Trump Tried to Bully the ICC Into Dropping War Crimes Probe But Failed,” Truthout, March 10, 2020,

Gordon Lubold and Yaroslav Trofimov, “Afghan Government Could Collapse Six Months After U.S. Withdrawal, New Intelligence Assessment Says,” Wall Street Journal, June 23, 2021,

Ayaz Gul, “Khan: Pakistan Can Never Again Be US Partner in War,” Global Security, June 30, 2021,

Richard Dannatt, “The West has squandered its early success in Afghanistan,” Telegraph, July 1, 2021,

Danielle Sheridan, Ben Farmer, and Sami Yousafzai, “Taliban has won the war in Afghanistan, says Lord Dannatt as UK and US troops pull out,” Telegraph, July 1, 2021,

Gordon Lubold and Nancy A. Youssef, “U.S. Shuts Down Bagram Air Base as Afghanistan Pullout Speeds Up,” Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2021,

Ehsanullah Amiri and Gordon Lubold, “After U.S.’s Bagram Exit, Afghans Face the Taliban Alone,” Wall Street Journal, July 5, 2021,

Yaroslav Trofimov and Ehsanullah Amiri, “Taliban Find New Revenues as They Seize Afghanistan’s U.S.-Built Border Gateway,” Wall Street Journal, July 5, 2021,

Miriam Berger, “More than 1,000 Afghan soldiers flee into Tajikistan as Taliban extends control, Tajik officials say,” Washington Post, July 6, 2021,

Kathy Gannon, “After troops exit, safety of US Embassy in Kabul top concern,” Associated Press, July 6, 2021,

Kathy Gannon, “US left Afghan airfield at night, didn’t tell new commander,” Associated Press, July 6, 2021,

Lara Seligman, “U.S. completes 90 percent of Afghanistan withdrawal,” Politico, July 6, 2021,

R. W. Apple, Jr., “A Military Quagmire Remembered: Afghanistan as Vietnam,” New York Times, October 31, 2021,

Anne Gearan, Karen DeYoung, and Tyler Pager, “Biden tells Americans ‘we cannot continue the cycle’ in Afghanistan as he announces troop withdrawal,” Washington Post, April 15, 2021,

Cleve R. Wootson, Jr., Dan Lamothe, and John Wagner, “Biden forcefully defends Afghan pullout despite Taliban gains,” Washington Post, July 8, 2021,

Susannah George, “Taliban’s rapid advance across Afghanistan puts key cities at risk of being overtaken,” Washington Post, July 9, 2021,

Dan Lamothe, “Top U.S. commander in Afghanistan steps down, marking a symbolic end to 20 years of war,” Washington Post, July 12, 2021,

Sandi Sidhu, Anna Coren, and Helen Regan, “Afghan interpreter for US Army was beheaded by Taliban. Others fear they will be hunted down too,” Cable News Network, July 23, 2021,

Susannah George and Aziz Tassal, “Taliban advances into major Afghan cities for first time in two decades,” Washington Post, August 1, 2021,

Michael Evans and Hugh Tomlinson, “US abandoning Afghanistan to civil war, says General David Petraeus,” Times, August 2, 2021,

Ehsanullah Amiri, Alan Cullison, and Saeed Shah, “Taliban Seize Capital of Afghanistan’s Nimroz Province and Kill Official in Kabul,” Wall Street Journal, August 6, 2021,

Susannah George, “Pace of Taliban advance quickens as militants overrun three major cities in a single day,” Washington Post, August 8, 2021,

Akhtar Mohammad Makoii and Luke Harding, “Taliban capture sixth provincial capital in northern Afghanistan,” Guardian, August 9, 2021,

Al Jazeera, “Taliban seizes eighth Afghan provincial capital in five days,” August 10, 2021,

Kathy Gannon and Tameem Akhgar, “US vows to isolate Taliban if they take power by force,” Associated Press, August 10, 2021,

Dan Lamothe et al., “U.S. officials warn collapse of Afghan capital could come sooner than expected,” Washington Post, August 10, 2021,

Reuters, “Taliban flashpoints in Afghanistan,” August 10, 2021,

Tameem Akhgar and John Gambrell, “Taliban complete northeast Afghan blitz as more cities fall,” Associated Press, August 11, 2021,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Afghanistan war: Biden says he does not regret troop withdrawal,” August 11, 2021,

Deutsche Welle, “Afghanistan: Taliban take control of Herat in major victory for militants,” August 12, 2021,

Liv Klingert, “Foreign minister: Germany won’t give aid to Afghanistan if Sharia law is enforced,” Politico, August 12, 2021,

Stephen Losey et al., “More US Troops Heading into Afghanistan as Taliban Conquest Approaches Tipping Point,”, August 12, 2021,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Afghanistan’s rapid collapse is part of a long, slow U.S. defeat,” Washington Post, August 12, 2021,

Jon Lee Anderson, “The Return of the Taliban,” New Yorker, August 13, 2021,

Susannah George et al., “Mass Afghan government surrenders as Taliban fighters overrun three key cities in sweeping territorial gains,” Washington Post, August 13, 2021,

Melissa Mahtani et al., “US to send troops to help evacuate personnel in Afghanistan, as Kandahar becomes latest city to fall,” Cable News Network, August 13, 2021,

Roland Oliphant, “Will the Taliban take over Afghanistan? Here’s what we know so far,” Telegraph, August 13, 2021,

Karen DeYoung et al., “Biden authorizes additional troops to Kabul as Taliban closes in on capital,” Washington Post, August 14, 2021,

Greg Jaffe, “From hubris to humiliation: America’s warrior class contends with the abject failure of its Afghanistan project,” Washington Post, August 14, 2021,

Alia Shoaib, “Why the US-trained Afghan National Army have been defeated with ease by the Taliban,” Business Insider, August 14, 2021,

Susannah George, “Afghanistan’s military collapse: Illicit deals and mass desertions,” Washington Post, August 15, 2021,

Susannah George and Bryan Pietsch, “Taliban enters Kabul, leaving Afghan government on brink of collapse,” Washington Post, August 15, 2021,

Susannah George et al., “Afghan government collapses as Taliban sweeps in, U.S. sends more troops to aid chaotic withdrawal,” Washington Post, August 15, 2021,

Christina Goldbaum and Najim Rahim, “A Week Into Taliban Rule, One City’s Glimpse of What the Future May Hold,” New York Times, August 15, 2021,

Ahmad Seir, Rahim Faiez, and Jon Gambrell, “Taliban seize Jalalabad, cut off Afghan capital from east,” Washington Post, August 15, 2021,

Ahmad Seir et al., “Taliban fighters enter Kabul, await a ‘peaceful transfer’ of power,” Los Angeles Times, August 15, 2021,

Times of Israel, “Afghan government set to hand over power to Taliban in stunning collapse,” August 15, 2021,

Yaroslav Trofimov, “Afghanistan’s Taliban Seize Jalalabad as Panic Grips Kabul,” Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2021,

Yaroslav Trofimov, Dion Nissenbaum, and Margherita Stancati, “‘Saigon on Steroids’: The Desperate Rush to Flee Afghanistan,” Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2021,

Charlie Faulkner and Ben Farmer, “Desperate Afghans plunge to deaths from departing US planes as Kabul airport overrun,” Telegraph, August 16, 2021,

Anne Gearan, “Biden blames others for swift collapse in Afghanistan, defends his decision to withdraw troops,” Washington Post, August 16, 2021,

Guardian, “‘There are no women in the streets’ – the day life changed in Kabul,” August 16, 2021,

Sarah Lazare, “We Can’t Let the Generals Who Lied About the Afghanistan War Define Its Legacy,” In These Times, August 16, 2021,

Heather Cox Richardson, “August 16, 2021,” Letters from an American, August 16, 2021,

Fareed Zakaria, “We lost the war in Afghanistan long ago,” Washington Post, August 16, 2021,

Naomi Conrad, Masood Saifullah, and Birgitta Schülke-Gill, “In Kabul, terrified Afghans wait for the call to safety,” Deutsche Welle, August 18, 2021,

Ben Doherty, Warren Murray, and agencies, “Afghanistan: reports emerge of Taliban beating Afghans seeking to flee Kabul,” Guardian, August 18, 2021,

Joyce Sohyun Lee et al., “With the Taliban now in control, here’s what Afghans are seeing in Kabul,” Washington Post, August 18, 2021,

Ahmad Massoud, “The mujahideen resistance to the Taliban begins now. But we need help,” Washington Post, August 18, 2021,

Larisa Brown et al., “Planes leaving half empty after Taliban set up ring of steel,” Times, August 19, 2021,

Eric Levitz, “The Media Is Helping Hawks Win the War Over Biden’s Withdrawal,” New York, August 19, 2021,

Ezzatullah Mehrdad, Dan Lamothe, and Kareem Fahim, “Chaos persists at Kabul airport, imperiling Afghanistan evacuation effort,” Washington Post, August 19, 2021,

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, “U.S. Airlift From Kabul Gains Speed As Afghans Defy Taliban In Several Cities,” August 19, 2021,

Monique Rivalland and Georgina Roberts, “How Afghanistan’s ambitious young women feel now,” Times, August 19, 2021,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Afghanistan: Taliban ‘tortured and massacred’ men from Hazara minority,” August 20, 2021,

Susannah George, “The treacherous journey into Kabul airport to escape Taliban-controlled Afghanistan,” Washington Post, August 20, 2021,

Ellen Knickmeyer, Robert Burns, and Matthew Lee, “Biden to address chaotic Kabul evacuation amid criticism,” Associated Press, August 20, 2021,

Danielle Pletka et al., “What Went Wrong in Afghanistan?” Wall Street Journal, August 21, 2021,

Barbara Starr et al., “ISIS terror threat forces US military to establish alternate routes to Kabul airport,” Cable News Network, August 21, 2021,

Emily Stewart, “The history of US intervention in Afghanistan, from the Cold War to 9/11,” Vox, August 21, 2021,

Associated Press, “The Latest: Pentagon asks airlines for help moving evacuees,” August 22, 2021,

David Roberts, [Twitter thread], Thread Reader App, August 22, 2021,

Tim Shipman, “Tony Blair attacks Joe Biden’s ‘imbecilic’ Afghanistan retreat as Kabul chaos deepens,” Times, August 22, 2021,

Steve Hendrix et al., “Taliban sends hundreds of fighters to final province beyond its control,” Washington Post, August 23, 2021,

Kevin Liptak, “Biden decides to keep August 31 deadline to withdraw from Afghanistan as evacuations accelerate,” Cable News Network, August 24, 2021,

Stephanie Nebehay and Emma Farge, “UN rights boss says she has credible reports of Taliban executions,” Reuters, August 24, 2021,

Rachel Pannett, Ellen Francis, and Adam Taylor, “Taliban doubles down on Aug. 31 deadline, says Afghans no longer allowed to reach Kabul airport,” Washington Post, August 24, 2021,

David Leonhardt to The Morning list, “A better Afghan policy,” New York Times, August 25, 2021,

Phillip Walter Wellman, “US Woman Under Taliban’s Watch Won’t Leave Kabul Without Her Staff and Hundreds of Rescue Animals,”, August 25, 2021,

David Smith, “Biden warns masterminds of deadly Kabul bombings: ‘We will make you pay,’” Guardian, August 26, 2021,

Yaroslav Trofimov, Nancy A. Youssef, and Sune Engel Rasmussen, “Kabul Airport Attack Kills 13 U.S. Service Members, at Least 90 Afghans,” Wall Street Journal, August 26, 2021,

Tom Yun, “What is ISIS-K? A look at the Afghan-based terrorist group that threatens both Taliban and U.S. forces,” CTV News, August 26, 2021,

George Monbiot, “Bloodhounds,” August 27, 2021,

Graeme Wood, “What Comes Next in Afghanistan,” Atlantic, August 27, 2021,

Sayed Ziarmal Hashemi et al., “U.S. presses on with evacuations despite fears of more attacks,” Los Angeles Times, August 27, 2021,

Susannah George, “Fear and anticipation on the streets of Kabul as Afghans adapt to Taliban rule,” Washington Post, August 29, 2021,

Marjorie Cohn, “As Biden Threatens More War, Don’t Forget the Afghanistan Invasion Was Illegal,” Truthout, August 30, 2021,

Rachel Pannett et al., “Last U.S. military flight leaves Kabul; Biden to address nation Tuesday,” Washington Post, August 30, 2021,

Rachel Pannett, Haq Nawaz Khan, and Siobhán O’Grady, “Panjshir Valley, last resistance holdout in Afghanistan, falls to the Taliban,” Washington Post, September 6, 2021,

Alex Horton et al., “Examining a ‘righteous’ strike,” Washington Post, September 10, 2021,

Shabana Basij-Rasikh, “My father refused to be a refugee. I turned him into one. I’m remembering his garden,” Washington Post, September 16, 2021,

Emma Graham-Harrison, “Taliban ban girls from secondary education in Afghanistan,” Guardian, September 17, 2021,

Alex Horton et al., “U.S. military admits ‘horrible mistake’ in Kabul drone strike that killed 10 Afghans,” Washington Post, September 17, 2021,

Julia Ioffe, “The Divorce Heard Around Washington,” Puck News, September 17, 2021,

Shah Meer Baloch and Julian Borger, “Biden administration delivers brusque message to Pakistan,” Guardian, October 10, 2021,

Dan Lamothe and Joby Warrick, “Afghanistan has become a terrorism staging ground again, leak reveals,” Washington Post, April 22, 2023,

  1. [1]Agence France-Presse, “More than 10,000 civilian casualties in Afghan war since 2016, reveals UN report,” Pakistan Express-Tribune, February 15, 2018,
  2. [2]Joel Pett, [cartoon], GoComics, July 23, 2021,
  3. [3]Brian Adcock, “Brian Adcock on the threat to women’s rights in Afghanistan – cartoon,” Guardian, August 17, 2021,

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