COVID-19 pandemic

COVID-19 Pandemic

Fig. 1. Cartoon by Peter Brookes, October 3, 2020, via the Times, fair use.

Fig. 2. Cartoon by Matt Pritchett, October 3, 2020, via the Telegraph, fair use.

Fig. 3. Photograph by author, November 8, 2022.

Fig. 4. A bar at the intersection of Brownsville and Cochran Mill Roads, South Park Township, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Photograph by author, July 29, 2020. An earlier order restricting indoor dining and alcohol consumption took effect on July 10[1] and the incubation period was, at least at the time, usually about five days.[2] On July 30, it was reported that Allegheny County, which includes South Park Township, set a record for COVID-19 hospitalizations,[3] but county health officials insisted that a recent spike in cases was linked to bars.[4] Many in Pittsburgh, a “drinking town,” were more inclined to believe bar owners than health officials.

Fig. 5. Screenshot from Allegheny County Coronavirus page as of July 29, 2020.

Figs. 6 and 7. Images posted by Pittsburgh mayor Bill Peduto of a proclamation requiring city employees be vaccinated against COVID-19 in a tweet which was deleted before I could embed it. Downloaded November 1, 2021. I see there are a few typos.

From the beginning, the COVID-19 pandemic has been politicized, both with the unlikely lab leak hypothesis, which enables white Christian nationalists to blame Anthony Fauci,[5] and with Donald Trump’s re-election effort in 2020 and subsequent coup attempt.

In general, my observation has been that resistance to any effort at COVID-19 mitigation, whether lockdowns, masking, or vaccines, has been a sign of fealty to Donald Trump, but it now appears it may be an ideological litmus test for Republicans in the 2024 campaign,[6] just as strident opposition to abortion has been, albeit for a different reason:

Ruth Ben-Ghiat, a professor of history at New York University and author of Strongmen: Mussolini to the Present, sees [Florida Governor and presumptive 2024 presidential candidate Ron DeSantis’s COVID-19 policies as part of his effort to use Florida as a testing ground for an American model of autocracy. Wearing a mask or getting vaccinated are acts of collective caretaking, she says. “Autocrats want to turn everyone against each other. They don’t want you to have solidarity. They want radical individualism. It makes people paranoid of the federal government. The real goal is to elevate their own [power and judgment].”[7]

Stephanie Soucheray, “Study of 72,000 COVID-19 patients finds 2.3% death rate,” University of Minnesota, February 24, 2020,

Dana Milbank, “For Trump, a reckoning has come,” Washington Post, February 28, 2020,

Paul Waldman, “How coronavirus has deeply flummoxed conservative media,” Washington Post, February 28, 2020,

Nitasha Tiku, “Gig workers face the spread of the new coronavirus with no safety net,” Washington Post, February 29, 2020,

Amy Goldstein, “Worries about medical bills and lost pay may hamper coronavirus efforts in the United States,” Washington Post, March 2, 2020,

Tony Romm, “Fake cures and other coronavirus conspiracy theories are flooding WhatsApp, leaving governments and users with a ‘sense of panic,’” Washington Post, March 2, 2020,

Sara R. Collins and David Blumenthal, “Without universal healthcare, coronavirus puts us all at risk,” Los Angeles Times, March 5, 2020,

Megan Rose Dickey, “Senator urges Uber, Lyft, Instacart and others to offer gig workers financial security in light of COVID-19 concerns,” TechCrunch, March 6, 2020,

Mariel Garza, “Why aren’t we paying people with the coronavirus to stay home?” Los Angeles Times, March 6, 2020,

Ashley Parker, Yasmeen Abutaleb, and Lena H. Sun, “Squandered time: How the Trump administration lost control of the coronavirus crisis,” Washington Post, March 7, 2020,

Mekhla Raina, “Uber says it will compensate drivers diagnosed with coronavirus,” SaltWire, March 7, 2020,

James Hamblin, “What Will You Do If You Start Coughing?” Atlantic, March 11, 2020,

Erin B. Logan, “World Health Organization deems COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, a ‘pandemic,’” Los Angeles Times, March 11, 2020,

Taylor Telford and Thomas Heath, “Dow enters bear market after coronavirus declared pandemic,” Washington Post, March 11, 2020,

Jonathan Allen and Steve Holland, “Life upended for Americans as U.S. scrambles to contain coronavirus threat,” Financial Post, March 12, 2020,

Susan B. Glasser, “A President Unequal to the Moment,” New Yorker, March 12, 2020,

Thomas Heath, Taylor Telford, and Heather Long, “Dow plunges 10 percent despite Fed lifeline as coronavirus panic grips investors,” Washington Post, March 12, 2020,

David Wallace-Wells, “America Is Broken,” New York, March 12, 2020,

John Cassidy, “What Would a Proper Coronavirus Stimulus Plan Look Like?” New Yorker, March 14, 2020,

Sarah Ferris et al., “House passes sweeping coronavirus response package,” Politico, March 14, 2020,

Jennifer Gonnerman, “How Prisons and Jails Can Respond to the Coronavirus,” New Yorker, March 14, 2020,

Hanna Kozlowska, “Coronavirus is revealing ugly truths about social structure in the US,” Quartz, March 14, 2020,

Natasha Lindstrom, “Officials: 2 coronavirus cases reported in Pittsburgh,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, March 14, 2020,

New York Times, “There’s a Giant Hole in Pelosi’s Coronavirus Bill,” March 14, 2020,

Anne Applebaum, “The Coronavirus Called America’s Bluff,” Atlantic, March 15, 2020,

Associated Press, “U.S. moves nearer to shutdown amid coronavirus fears,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, March 15, 2020,

Bloomberg, “CDC says U.S. gatherings of over 50 people should not be held for eight weeks,” Los Angeles Times, March 15, 2020,

Eric Heyl, “Four Coronavirus Cases Now Confirmed In Allegheny County,” Patch, March 15, 2020,

Brent Kendall, Chad Day, and Alex Leary, “U.S. Officials Urge More Action to Combat Coronavirus,” Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2020,

Don Lee and Laura King, “Fed slashes rate to near zero to counter coronavirus as Fauci warns ‘worst is yet ahead,’” Los Angeles Times, March 15, 2020,

Heather Long, “Federal Reserve slashes interest rates to zero as part of wide-ranging emergency intervention,” Washington Post, March 15, 2020,

Rebecca Davis O’Brien and Valerie Bauerlein, “How Coronavirus Remade American Life in One Weekend,” Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2020,

Wes Venteicher and Theresa Clift, “California plans to use private hotels, motels to shelter homeless people as coronavirus spreads,” Sacramento Bee, March 15, 2020,

Associated Press, “Stocks plunge 12% as coronavirus shuts businesses’ doors,” Los Angeles Times, March 16, 2020,

Olivia Goldhill, “Coronavirus prevention is far more accessible for the rich,” Quartz, March 16, 2020,

Eric Levitz, “In the Age of the Coronavirus, Biden’s ‘Results’ Require Bernie’s ‘Revolution,’” New York, March 16, 2020,

Nick Miroff et al., “States begin imposing harsher measures to contain coronavirus as U.S. cases rise sharply,” Washington Post, March 16, 2020,

Reuters, “New York and Los Angeles close restaurants to curb coronavirus outbreak,” Telegraph, March 16, 2020,

Associated Press, “U.S. stocks climb 6% the day after biggest loss since 1987,” Los Angeles Times, March 17, 2020,

Adam Gaffney, “Trump sees the coronavirus as a threat to his self-interest – not to people,” Guardian, March 17, 2020,

Maria Godoy, “How COVID-19 Kills: The New Coronavirus Disease Can Take A Deadly Turn,” National Public Radio, March 17, 2020,

Heather Long, “Americans are very likely to get $1,000 (or more) checks. Here’s what you need to know,” Washington Post, March 17, 2020,

Eoin Higgins, “Refusal by Pelosi to Consider Universal Cash Payments in Response to Coronavirus Pandemic ‘Maddening,’ Say Progressives,” Common Dreams, March 18, 2020,

David J. Lynch, Thomas Heath, and Taylor Telford, “U.S. markets fall sharply as rampant volatility takes hold,” Washington Post, March 18, 2020,

Preetika Rana, “U.S. Spending on Ride-Hailing With Uber, Lyft Falls as Coronavirus Spreads,” Wall Street Journal, March 18, 2020,

Jim Tankersley and Ben Casselman, “Washington Weighs Big Bailouts to Help U.S. Economy Survive Coronavirus,” New York Times, March 18, 2020,

Funda Ustek-Spilda et al., “The untenable luxury of self-isolation,” New Internationalist, March 18, 2020,

Jeff Stein et al., “Senate Republicans release massive economic stimulus bill for coronavirus response,” Washington Post, March 19, 2020,

Kate Aronoff, “The Democrats Screwed Up,” New Republic, March 20, 2020,

Thomas Heath and Taylor Telford, “U.S. markets wrap up worst week since the 2008 financial crisis,” Washington Post, March 20, 2020,

Tim Higgins, “Elon Musk’s Defiance in the Time of Coronavirus,” Wall Street Journal, March 20, 2020,

David J. Lynch and Heather Long, “U.S. economy deteriorating faster than anticipated as 80 million Americans are forced to stay at home,” Washington Post, March 20, 2020,

Isabel V. Sawhill, “The middle class faces its greatest threat since the 1930s,” Brookings, March 20, 2020,

Kevin D. Williamson, “History Called — and Senator Burr Called His Broker,” National Review, March 20, 2020,

Michael Hudson, “A debt jubilee is the only way to avoid a depression,” Washington Post, March 21, 2020,

Jack Morse, “Ventilator manufacturers aren’t impressed by Elon Musk’s offer,” Mashable, March 21, 2020,

Zachary Shahan, “Elon Musk: Should Have 1000 Ventilators Next Week, + 250,000 N95 Masks For Hospitals Tomorrow,” CleanTechnica, March 21, 2020,

Betsy Woodruff Swan, “DOJ seeks new emergency powers amid coronavirus pandemic,” Politico, March 21, 2020,

Luke Taylor, “When coronavirus is behind us, will you still think of restaurant and bar workers?” Vox, March 21, 2020,

Sydney Brownstone and Brendan Kiley, “50,000 N95 masks delivered to UW researcher’s home thanks to Elon Musk, Tesla,” Seattle Times, March 22, 2020,

Ian Kullgren, “Congress should bail out gig workers, Cohn says,” Politico, March 22, 2020,

David Remnick, “How the Coronavirus Shattered Trump’s Serene Confidence,” New Yorker, March 22, 2020,

Kim Hart, “The coronavirus economy will devastate those who can least afford it,” Axios, March 23, 2020,

Ben White, “Great Depression 2? Worries about a coronavirus-induced calamity pile up,” Politico, March 23, 2020,

Michael Hirsh, “Is $2 Trillion Too Little, Too Late?” Foreign Policy, March 25, 2020,

Yascha Mounk, “This Is Just the Beginning,” Atlantic, March 25, 2020,

Manu Raju et al., “White House, Senate reach historic $2 trillion stimulus deal amid growing coronavirus fears,” CNN, March 25, 2020,

Brian C. Rittmeyer, “Wolf allows gun stores to reopen on limited basis during coronavirus shutdown,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, March 25, 2020,

David Blanchflower, “Pandemic Economics: ‘Much Worse, Very Quickly,” New York Review of Books, March 26, 2020,

Justin Lahart, “Washington’s Trillions Alone Can’t Stop the Jobpocalypse,” Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2020,

Heather Long and Alyssa Fowers, “A record 3.3 million Americans filed for unemployment benefits as the coronavirus slams economy,” Washington Post, March 26, 2020,

John Wagner, Paul Kane, and Mike DeBonis, “House leaders seek to expedite emergency aid package amid uncertainty about GOP lawmaker delaying measure,” Washington Post, March 26, 2020,

William Wan and Aaron Blake, “Coronavirus modelers factor in new public health risk: Accusations their work is a hoax,” Washington Post, March 27, 2020,

Erica Werner, Paul Kane, and Mike DeBonis, “Trump signs $2 trillion coronavirus bill into law as companies and households brace for more economic pain,” Washington Post, March 27, 2020,

Steve Hanley, “Tesla Cuts Jobs In Nevada, Sends Ventilators To New York,” Clean Technica, March 29, 2020,

Sarah Jones, “Dear Rich People: Please Stop Hoarding Things,” New York, March 30, 2020,

Katherine Mangan, “As Liberty University Reports First Covid-19 Case, Students and Parents Grapple With Conflicting Information,” Chronicle of Higher Education, March 30, 2020,

Nick Martin, “This Is Crisis Colonization,” New Republic, March 30, 2020,

Joe Pinsker, “The Four Possible Timelines for Life Returning to Normal,” Atlantic, March 30, 2020,

Ariana Eunjung Cha et al., “Faced with a crush of patients, besieged NYC hospitals struggle with life-or-death decisions,” Washington Post, March 31, 2020,

Thomas Heath and Jacob Bogage, “Dow caps worst-ever first quarter with a more than 400-point slide,” Washington Post, March 31, 2020,

Carolyn Y. Johnson, “Testing coronavirus survivors’ blood could help reopen U.S.,” Washington Post, March 31, 2020,

Amber Phillips, “What you really need to know from Tuesday’s White House coronavirus briefing,” Washington Post, March 31, 2020,

Eric Levitz, “Coronavirus Creates an Opening for Progressivism — Also Barbarism,” New York, April 1, 2020,

Dylan Matthews, “Coronavirus could lead to the highest unemployment levels since the Great Depression,” Vox, April 1, 2020,

Kathryn Krawczyk, “’Ventilators’ donated by Elon Musk can’t be used on coronavirus patients, health officials say,” Week, April 2, 2020,

Heather Long, “Over 10 million Americans applied for unemployment benefits in March as economy collapsed,” Washington Post, April 2, 2020,

Tony Romm, “Uber drivers and other gig economy workers were promised unemployment benefits. It may be a long wait,” Washington Post, April 2, 2020,

Rich Tenorio, “In virus epicenter NYC, disaster guru puts blame squarely on Trump White House,” Times of Israel, April 2, 2020,

Christopher Weaver, “Questions About Accuracy of Coronavirus Tests Sow Worry,” Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2020,

Shawn Boburg et al., “Inside the coronavirus testing failure: Alarm and dismay among the scientists who sought to help,” Washington Post, April 3, 2020,

Hailey Branson-Potts, “Pastor who refuses to cancel Sunday services because of coronavirus greeted by police,” Los Angeles Times, April 5, 2020,

Emma Brown, Beth Reinhard, and Aaron C. Davis, “Coronavirus death toll: Americans are almost certainly dying of covid-19 but being left out of the official count,” Washington Post, April 5, 2020,

Madasyn Lee, “Pennsylvania issues safety guidelines for essential businesses,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 5, 2020,

Ewan Palmer, “Middle-aged crowd break COVID-19 stay-at-home order to watch Pink Floyd cover band, chant ‘f*** the police’ as officers arrive,” Newsweek, April 6, 2020,

Teghan Simonton, “Pennsylvania is getting worse at social distancing, data shows,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 6, 2020,

Vanessa Williams, “U.S. government is urged to release race, ethnicity data on covid-19 cases,” Washington Post, April 6, 2020,

Aaron Blake, “The timeline of Trump’s coronavirus response is increasingly damning,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020,

Reis Thebault, Andrew Ba Tran, and Vanessa Williams, “The coronavirus is infecting and killing black Americans at an alarmingly high rate,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020,

Paul Waldman, “The real reason Trump is obsessed with hydroxychloroquine,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020,

Caitlin Oprysko, “Jerry Falwell Jr. says warrants are out for 2 journalists after critical stories on coronavirus decision,” Politico, April 8, 2020,

Heather Long and Andrew Van Dam, “6.6 million Americans filed for unemployment last week, bringing the pandemic total to over 17 million,” Washington Post, April 9, 2020,

Jennifer Levitz, Mike Cherney, and Daniel Michaels, “U.S. Coronavirus Death Toll Passes Italy, Becoming World’s Highest,” Wall Street Journal, April 11, 2020,

Marilynn Marchione, “Heart woes spur partial stop of malaria drug study for virus,” Associated Press, April 13, 2020,

Eric Morath, Harriet Torry, and Gwynn Guilford, “A Second Round of Coronavirus Layoffs Has Begun. Few Are Safe,” Wall Street Journal, April 14, 2020,

Wall Street Journal, “Testing for Coronavirus: What We Know About Covid-19 Tests and Treatment,” April 14, 2020,

Megan Guza, “Pennsylvania orders businesses to turn away customers who don’t wear masks,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 15, 2020,

David Harrison, “Lack of Savings Worsens the Pain of Coronavirus Downturn,” Wall Street Journal, April 15, 2020,

Lizzie Widdicombe, “The Coronavirus Pandemic Peaks in New York’s Hospitals,” New Yorker, April 15, 2020,

Justin Lahart, “Great Depression Unemployment Levels Are on Tap,” Wall Street Journal, April 16, 2020,

Heather Long, “U.S. now has 22 million unemployed as economy sinks toward Depression-like scenario,” Washington Post, April 16, 2020,

Marc Fisher, Clarence Williams, and Lori Rozsa, “Will Americans wear masks to prevent coronavirus spread? Politics, history, race and crime factor into tough decision,” Washington Post, April 18, 2020,

Amy Goldstein, “First, the coronavirus pandemic took their jobs. Then, it wiped out their health insurance,” Washington Post, April 18, 2020,

Andy Sheehan, “Coronavirus In Pennsylvania: Gov. Tom Wolf Says State Will Start Gradually Reopening On May 8,” KDKA-TV, April 20, 2020,

Eric Heyl, “Coronavirus: Allegheny County Deaths Up Signficantly,” Patch, April 21, 2020,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Trump wants to lift lockdowns. Other countries’ attempts show why the U.S. isn’t ready,” Washington Post, April 21, 2020,

Jason Togyer, “Transparency in a time of pandemic,” Columbia Journalism Review, April 21, 2020,

Aaron Rupar, “Trump and Fox News want to send their hydroxychloroquine hype down the memory hole,” Vox, April 22, 2020,

Michael D. Shear and Maggie Haberman, “Health Dept. Official Says Doubts on Hydroxychloroquine Led to His Ouster,” New York Times, April 22, 2020,

Rachel Siegel and Andrew Van Dam, “4.4 million Americans sought jobless benefits last week, as economic pain continued across the United States,” Washington Post, April 23, 2020,

Andy Sullivan, “Americans too scared to go to work risk losing unemployment aid, experts say,” Reuters, April 23, 2020,

Associated Press, “FDA warns against using the drugs that Trump touts for coronavirus,” Los Angeles Times, April 24, 2020,

Michelle Boorstein, “Church donations have plunged because of the coronavirus. Some churches won’t survive,” Washington Post, April 24, 2020,

Allyson Chiu, Katie Shepherd, and Brittany Shammas, “Trump comments prompt doctors, and Lysol, to warn against injecting disinfectants,” Washington Post, April 24, 2020,

Anna Sanders and Chris Sommerfeldt, “A spike in New Yorkers ingesting household cleaners following Trump’s controversial coronavirus comments,” New York Daily News, April 24, 2020,

Phoebe Weston, “‘We did it to ourselves’: scientist says intrusion into nature led to pandemic,” Guardian, April 25, 2020,

Helena Bottemiller Evich, “USDA let millions of pounds of food rot while food-bank demand soared,” Politico, April 26, 2020,

Emma Brown et al., “U.S. deaths soared in early weeks of pandemic, far exceeding number attributed to covid-19,” Washington Post, April 27, 2020,

Zak Cheney-Rice, “Even Naked, America Cannot See Itself,” New York, April 27, 2020,

Taylor Telford and Kimberly Kindy, “Trump to order meat plants to stay open in pandemic, person familiar with action says,” Washington Post, April 28, 2020,

Ann Colwell and Rob McLean, “Meat plant workers to Trump: Employees aren’t going to show up,” CNN, April 29, 2020,

Justin Lahart, “Why the Economy Was Even Worse than the GDP Report,” Wall Street Journal, April 29, 2020,

Heather Long, “Fed chair warns of ‘heartbreaking’ scenario as U.S. economy suffers worst first quarter since Great Recession,” April 29, 2020,

Kari Paul, “Elon Musk rails against ‘fascist’ shelter-in-place orders in Tesla earnings call,” Guardian, April 29, 2020,

John Cassidy, “Who’s Right About the Economy—Jared Kushner or the Chairman of the Federal Reserve?” New Yorker, April 30, 2020,

Sarah Chaney and Kate King, “Over 3.8 Million Americans Filed for Jobless Benefits Last Week as States Struggle With Coronavirus Claims Surge,” Wall Street Journal, April 30, 2020,

Anneken Tappe, “30 million Americans have filed initial unemployment claims since mid-March,” CNN, April 30, 2020,

Joby Warrick et al., “Chinese lab conducted extensive research on deadly bat viruses, but there is no evidence of accidental release,” Washington Post, April 30, 2020,

William Gumede, “The impact of coronavirus could compare to the Great Depression,” Al Jazeera, May 3, 2020,

Helen Davidson, “WHO says it has no evidence to support ‘speculative’ Covid-19 lab theory,” Guardian, May 4, 2020,

Ed Kilgore, “Could Trump Go the Way of Herbert Hoover?” New York, May 4, 2020,

Sarah Kaplan and Joel Achenbach, “Researchers hypothesize that a highly contagious strain of the coronavirus is spreading, but other experts remain skeptical,” Washington Post, May 5, 2020,

Sam Stanton, “Judge rejects Lodi church’s bid to resume in-person services, says California order legal,” Sacramento Bee, May 5, 2020,

Ralph Vartabedian, “Scientists have identified a new strain of the coronavirus that appears to be more contagious,” Los Angeles Times, May 5, 2020,

Associated Press, “3.2 million more filed jobless claims last week; more than 30 million since coronavirus hit,” Los Angeles Times, May 7, 2020,

Alexander Bolton, “Schumer, Pelosi set to unveil ‘Rooseveltian’ relief package,” Hill, May 7, 2020,

Andy Sullivan and Brad Brooks, “‘The government is failing us’: Laid-off Americans struggle in coronavirus crisis,” Reuters, May 7, 2020,

John Cassidy, “The Most Alarming Thing About the Worst Jobs Report in History,” New Yorker, May 8, 2020,

Heather Long, “Jobless rate soared to 14.7% in April as U.S. shed 20.5 million jobs amid coronavirus pandemic,” Washington Post, May 8, 2020,

Ben Mathis-Lilley, “Multiple White House Staffers Diagnosed With COVID-19 as Trump, Pence Hold Photo-Ops With the Elderly,” Slate, May 8, 2020,

Erica Werner, Jeff Stein, and Heather Long, “Confronted with horrendous jobs report, White House and congressional Democrats aren’t even talking,” Washington Post, May 9, 2020,

Robert Klemko, Meagan Flynn, and Tim Craig, “Colorado restaurant that illegally reopened without social distancing now ordered to close,” Washington Post, May 11, 2020,

Faiz Siddiqui, “Tesla’s Elon Musk reopens factory, defying county orders and daring officials to arrest him,” Washington Post, May 11, 2020,

Holly Yan, “5 common arguments for reopening the economy — and why experts say they are flawed,” CNN, May 11, 2020,

Mark Scott and Steven Overly, “‘Conspiracy bingo’: Trans-Atlantic extremists seize on the pandemic,” Politico, May 12, 2020,

Neena Satija, “‘Come on, we’re human beings’: Judges question response to coronavirus pandemic in federal prisons,” Washington Post, May 13, 2020,

Brandon Showalter, “3,000 Calif. churches vow to reopen on Pentecost Sunday, regardless of gov. orders,” Christian Post, May 13, 2020,

Tony Romm, “3 million Americans filed jobless claims last week, pushing eight-week total to 36.5 million,” Washington Post, May 14, 2020,

Tom McCarthy, “‘They don’t give him enough credit’: the voters who back Trump, even through the pandemic,” Guardian, May 18, 2020,

Associated Press, “2.4 million Americans sought jobless aid last week; 39 million since coronavirus struck,” Los Angeles Times, May 21, 2020,

Sarah Chaney and Kate King, “Workers File 2.4 Million Unemployment Claims,” Wall Street Journal, May 21, 2020,

Ariana Eunjung Cha and Laurie McGinley, “Antimalarial drug touted by President Trump is linked to increased risk of death in coronavirus patients, study says,” Washington Post, May 22, 2020,

Joanna Walters, “Donald Trump goes without mask at Michigan Ford plant despite company request,” Guardian, May 22, 2020,

Eric Morath, “The Job Market’s Long Road Back,” Wall Street Journal, May 23, 2020,

Antonio Olivo, Marissa J. Lang, and John D. Harden, “Crowded housing and essential jobs: Why so many Latinos are getting coronavirus,” Washington Post, May 25, 2020,

Taylor Telford, “The meat industry is trying to get back to normal. But workers are still getting sick — and shortages may get worse,” Washington Post, May 25, 2020,

Tony Romm, “Americans have filed more than 40 million jobless claims in past 10 weeks, as another 2.1 million filed for benefits last week,” Washington Post, May 28, 2020,

David G. Savage, “Supreme Court rejects challenge to California limits on church crowds during pandemic,” Los Angeles Times, May 29, 2020,

Mount Auburn Hospital, “Warmer Temperatures Slow COVID-19 Transmission, but Not by Much,” June 1, 2020,

Associated Press, “1.9 million seek jobless aid even as reopenings slow layoffs,” Los Angeles Times, June 4, 2020,

Jared S. Hopkins and Russell Gold, “Authors Retract Study That Found Risks of Using Antimalaria Drugs Against Covid-19,” Wall Street Journal, June 4, 2020,

Charles Piller and Kelly Servick, “Two elite medical journals retract coronavirus papers over data integrity questions,” Science, June 4, 2020, doi: 10.1126/science.abd1697

Eric Levitz, “Why the Shockingly Good Jobs Report Might Be Bad News,” New York, June 5, 2020,

Eli Rosenberg, “Unemployment rate drops to 13 percent, as the economy picked up jobs as states reopened,” Washington Post, June 5, 2020,

Alexis C. Madrigal, “America Is Giving Up on the Pandemic,” Atlantic, June 7, 2020,

Samantha Pell, Candace Buckner, and Jacqueline Dupree, “Coronavirus hospitalizations rise sharply in several states following Memorial Day,” Washington Post, June 9, 2020,

Dominic Rushe, “Fauci: coronavirus pandemic that ‘took over the planet’ is far from over,” Guardian, June 9, 2020,

Faiz Siddiqui, “Tesla defied county orders so it could restart production. Days later, workers tested positive for the coronavirus,” Washington Post, June 9, 2020,

Irin Carmon, “An Epidemiologist’s Lessons From the ACT UP Era, for Today’s Protesters,” New York, June 10, 2020,

Rachel Siegel, Thomas Heath, and Jeff Stein, “Dow slides more than 1,800 points on fears of coronavirus resurgence, more economic pain,” Washington Post, June 11, 2020,

Olivia Rockeman and Jill Ward, “Millions of Job Losses Are at Risk of Becoming Permanent,” Bloomberg, June 14, 2020,

AnnaMaria Andriotis, “Americans Skip Millions of Loan Payments as Coronavirus Takes Economic Toll,” Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2020,

David Shaywitz, “Three Recent Reversals Highlight the Challenges of COVID Science,” Bulwark, June 22, 2020,

Annie Lowrey, “The Second Great Depression,” Atlantic, June 23, 2020,

Neil Paine and Amelia Thomson-DeVeaux, “What Economists Fear Most During This Recovery,” FiveThirtyEight, June 23, 2020,

John Shumway, “‘People Don’t Care’: Recent Jump In Allegheny County Coronavirus Cases Linked To People In Their 20s, 30s,” KDKA-TV, June 23, 2020,

Teghan Simonton, “61 new coronavirus cases reported in Allegheny County, highest in 2 months,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 26, 2020,

Hannah Wiley, “‘No masks. No vaccines.’ Battle is brewing over coronavirus immunizations in California,” Sacramento Bee, June 26, 2020,

Samson X. Horne, “Allegheny County reports 90 new coronavirus cases, the highest daily total for county,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 27, 2020,

KDKA-TV, “‘For The First Time…Allegheny Co. Led The State In The Number Of New COVID-19 Cases’: Allegheny Co. Officials Ban On-Site Consumption Of Alcohol At Local Bars,” June 28, 2020,

Madasyn Lee, “Allegheny County exceeds highest coronavirus case total with 96 new cases,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 28, 2020,

Megan Tomasic, “505 new coronavirus cases, 3 deaths reported in Pa.,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 28, 2020,

Sarah Kaplan and Joel Achenbach, “This coronavirus mutation has taken over the world. Scientists are trying to understand why,” Washington Post, June 29, 2020,

KDKA-TV, “Allegheny Co. Health Officials: Spike In New Coronavirus Cases Linked To Bars, Not Protests,” June 29, 2020,

Teghan Simonton, “83 new cases of coronavirus in Allegheny County, no new deaths,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 29, 2020,

Amelia Thomson-DeVeaux and Likhitha Butchireddygari, “For Black Americans, Wearing A Mask Comes With Complicated Anxieties,” FiveThirtyEight, June 30, 2020,

Hannah Dineen, “Uber driver denies unmasked riders, fired for complaints,” News Center Maine, July 1, 2020,

Greg Ip, “A Recovery That Started Out Like a V Is Changing Shape,” Wall Street Journal, July 1, 2020,

WTAE, “Masks are now mandatory in all public spaces in Pennsylvania,” July 1, 2020,

Catherine Rampell, “The U.S. job market is still in very bad shape. Just wait until the fiscal time bomb goes off,” Washington Post, July 2, 2020,

Eli Rosenberg, Heather Long, and Jeff Stein, “The U.S. economy added 4.8 million jobs in June, but fierce new headwinds have emerged,” Washington Post, July 2, 2020,

Andy Sheehan, “Allegheny County Closes Bars, Restaurants, Casinos And All Activities That Involve Over 25 People For One Week,” KDKA-TV, July 2, 2020,

Teghan Simonton, “Allegheny County tops 230 new coronavirus cases,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 2, 2020,

Priya Elan, “The data is in: men are too fragile to wear Covid-19 masks. Grow up, guys,” Guardian, July 3, 2020,

Maria Simbra, “‘It’s Negligence’: Young People Hosting Coronavirus Parties, Betting On Who Gets Infected First,” KDKA-TV, July 3, 2020,

Laura Meckler, “With pressure and threats, Trump pushes to fully reopen schools. Schools say: Not so fast,” Washington Post, July 8, 2020,

WTAE, “Allegheny County issues new 2-week order prohibiting indoor dining and alcohol consumption at restaurants and bars,” July 8, 2020,

Madasyn Lee, “Allegheny County reports 158 new coronavirus cases, 12 hospitalizations,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 9, 2020,

Lauren Hilgers, “How Two Waves of Coronavirus Cases Swept Through the Texas Panhandle,” New Yorker, July 10, 2020,

Laurie McGinley and Josh Dawsey, “Touting criticized study, White House presses FDA to authorize hydroxychloroquine — again,” Washington Post, July 10, 2020,

Samson X. Horne, “Allegheny County reports 215 new coronavirus cases, 1 new death,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 11, 2020,

Campbell Robertson and Sarah Mervosh, “Pittsburgh Seemed Like a Virus Success Story. Now Cases Are Surging,” New York Times, July 13, 2020,

Ben Eisen and David Benoit, “‘This Is Not a Normal Recession’: Banks Ready for Wave of Coronavirus Defaults,” Wall Street Journal, July 14, 2020,

Hamza Shaban, “White House tells 18 million unemployed workers to ‘Find Something New’ in ad campaign,” Washington Post, July 14, 2020,

Molly Roberts, “Anthony Fauci built a truce. Trump is destroying it,” Washington Post, July 16, 2020,

Peter Dockrill, “Older Kids May Transmit COVID-19 as Much as Adults Do, New Evidence Shows,” Science Alert, July 20, 2020,

Paul Hannon, “Economic Recovery Is Under Way but Fighting Flare-Ups Is Key,” Wall Street Journal, July 20, 2020,

Tom McCarthy, “US public increasingly skeptical of Covid-19 death toll, poll finds,” Guardian, July 21, 2020,

Justin Lahart, “Jobs Warning Light Starts Flashing,” Wall Street Journal, July 23, 2020,

Eli Rosenberg, “‘A Band-Aid on a bullet wound’: Workers are getting laid off anew as PPP runs out,” Washington Post, July 23, 2020,

Justin Lahart, “Kids at Home Could Put the Economy in Detention,” Wall Street Journal, July 24, 2020,

Marc Santia, “Lyft Driver Says He Was Attacked, Then Arrested After Refusing Rider Without Mask,” WNBC, July 24, 2020,

Joshua Emerson Smith, “A COVID-19 death renews questions of Uber and Lyft’s responsibility to drivers,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 24, 2020,

David Fickling, “The Gig Economy Compromised Our Immune System,” Yahoo!, July 25, 2020,

Rong-Gong Lin, II, Melody Gutierrez, and Anita Chabria, “Coronavirus ravages California’s Central Valley, following a cruel and familiar path,” Los Angeles Times, July 28, 2020,

Jamie Martines, “State: Brighton Rehab nursing home failed to get proper approval to use hydroxychloroquine on residents,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 28, 2020,

Griff Witte, Ariana Eunjung Cha, and Josh Dawsey, “At the heart of dismal U.S. coronavirus response, a fraught relationship with masks,” Washington Post, July 28, 2020,

Ryan Deto, “Pittsburgh’s restaurant workers say they are bearing all the brunt of the region’s coronavirus spike, but are seeing little benefits,” Pittsburgh City Paper, July 29, 2020,

Steven Adams, “Allegheny County sets record for new coronavirus hospitalizations; sees triple-digit cases for 8th straight day,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 30, 2020,

Heather Long, “This recession is already deep. If Congress fails to act, a lot of damage could be permanent,” Washington Post, July 30, 2020,

Apoorva Mandavilli, “Children May Carry Coronavirus at High Levels, Study Finds,” New York Times, July 30, 2020,

Rachel Siegel and Andrew Van Dam, “U.S. economy contracted at fastest quarterly rate on record from April to June as coronavirus walloped workers, businesses,” Washington Post, July 30, 2020,

Teghan Simonton, “Allegheny County data shows parties becoming a growing source of coronavirus,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 30, 2020,

Eli Rosenberg, Erica Werner, and Jeff Stein, “30 million unemployed lose extra jobless benefits, as talks between Congress and the White House are at an impasse,” Washington Post, July 31, 2020,

Benjamin Lee and William V. Raszka, “COVID-19 Transmission and Children: The Child Is Not to Blame,” Pediatrics 146, no. 1 (August 2020), doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-004879

Paul Kane, “Congress deeply unpopular again as gridlock on coronavirus relief has real-life consequences,” Washington Post, August 1, 2020,

Kyle Swenson, “Ten bucks left, no place to go: How the pandemic and a broken unemployment system are upending people’s lives,” Washington Post, August 1, 2020,

Sanjay Gupta and Andrea Kane, “Do some people have protection against the coronavirus?” CNN, August 2, 2020,

Christine Hauser, “The Mask Slackers of 1918,” New York Times, August 3, 2020,

Anna Palmer and Jake Sherman, “Will they ever get a deal?” Politico, August 3, 2020,

Dillon Carr, “Restaurants and bars banding together to give Gov. Wolf an ultimatum,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 4, 2020,

Christopher Rugaber, “Gone for good? Evidence signals many jobs aren’t coming back,” Associated Press, August 5, 2020,

Dillon Carr, “Restaurants back down from ultimatum, request meeting with Gov. Wolf,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 6, 2020,

Tom Wolf, [Twitter thread], Thread Reader App, August 6, 2020,

Jeff Stein, Erica Werner, and Renae Merle, “Trump attempts to wrest tax and spending powers from Congress with new executive actions,” Washington Post, August 8, 2020,

Jason Togyer, “What will ‘normal’ mean after COVID-19?” Columbia Journalism Review, August 11, 2020,

Dillon Carr, “As deadline approaches, restaurants vary on defying Wolf’s capacity order, other restrictions,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 13, 2020,

Heather Long, “The recession is over for the rich, but the working class is far from recovered,” Washington Post, August 13, 2020,

Denise Lu, “The True Coronavirus Toll in the U.S. Has Already Surpassed 200,000,” New York Times, August 13, 2020,

Dillon Carr, “Some tavern owners make their own pandemic rules, call on governor to adjust state’s,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 14, 2020,

Nick Matoney, “Restaurant revolution: Some owners in Pennsylvania plan to expand capacity despite mandate,” WTAE, August 14, 2020,

Teghan Simonton, “Braddock restaurant owner apologizes for comparing Gov. Wolf, Levine to Nazis,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 14, 2020,

Leila Miller, “Low-wage workers face retaliation for demanding COVID-19 safety measures at work,” Los Angeles Times, August 15, 2020,

Christopher Rugaber, “Rise in jobless claims reflects still-struggling US economy,” Associated Press, August 20, 2020,

Jacqueline Howard and Sandee LaMotte, “Kids can carry coronavirus in respiratory tract for weeks, study suggests,” CNN, August 28, 2020,

Marianne Levine, “Schumer rips ’emaciated’ Republican coronavirus relief plan,” Politico, September 3, 2020,

Robert Costa and Philip Rucker, “Woodward book: Trump says he knew coronavirus was ‘deadly’ and worse than the flu while intentionally misleading Americans,” Washington Post, September 9, 2020,

Kimberly Kindy, “More than 200 meat plant workers in the U.S. have died of covid-19. Federal regulators just issued two modest fines,” Washington Post, September 13, 2020,

Paula Reed Ward, “Brentwood restaurant defies order to close for covid-19 violations, faces court action,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 18, 2020,

Megan Guza, “Allegheny County restaurant task force shuts down 2 repeat offenders for covid-19 violations,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 22, 2020,

Josie Ensor, “New coronavirus mutation could be evolving to get around mask-wearing and hand-washing,” Telegraph, September 24, 2020,

Megan Guza, “Allegheny County lifts covid restrictions in favor of state mitigation orders,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 24, 2020,

Megan Guza And Julia Felton, “Pittsburgh doctors discuss Trump’s covid risk factors,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, October 2, 2020,

Robert Mackey, “Trump Is Hospitalized With Covid-19, Days After Mocking Biden for Wearing a Mask,” Intercept, October 2, 2020,

Andrew Restuccia, “Trump and His Aides Have Long Played Down Importance of Face Masks, Distancing,” Wall Street Journal, October 2, 2020,

Associated Press, “Trump said to be improving but next 48 hours ‘critical,’” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, October 3, 2020,

Gina Kolata and Apoorva Mandavilli, “Trump’s Covid Treatments Are Aimed at Preventing Severe Illness,” New York Times, October 3, 2020,

Maeve Reston and Gregory Krieg, “White House sows confusion about Trump’s condition as source tells reporters next 48 hours will be critical,” CNN, October 3, 2020,

Derek Hawkins et al., “President’s blood oxygen levels dropped twice in recent days, doctors say,” Washington Post, October 4, 2020,

Colby Itkowitz et al., “Chief of staff says next 48 hours ‘critical’ as Trump says he’s doing well,” Washington Post, October 4, 2020,

Laura King and Chris Megerian, “Trump stages drive-by for supporters after doctors disclose more serious symptoms,” Los Angeles Times, October 4, 2020,

John Wagner et al., “Trump at hospital after positive coronavirus test; Kellyanne Conway, two senators test positive,” Washington Post, October 4, 2020,

Melissa Healy, “Trump received dexamethasone for COVID-19. Here’s what that says about his condition,” Los Angeles Times, October 5, 2020,

Felicia Sonmez et al., “Trump returns to White House from hospital; may not be ‘out of the woods,’ doctor says,” Washington Post, October 5, 2020,

Soo Kim, “Donald Trump ‘Gasping for Air’ Video Raises Questions About President’s Health,” Newsweek, October 6, 2020,

Jason Togyer, “Will the sons of steelworkers see Trump’s COVID-19 behavior as strong, or reckless?” Columbia Journalism Review, October 6, 2020,

Josh Margolin and Lucien Bruggeman, “34 people connected to White House, more than previously known, infected by coronavirus: Internal FEMA memo,” ABC News, October 7, 2020,

Jonathan Roeder, Jordyn Holman, and Mary Schlangenstein, “‘People are suffering’: Corporate America lashes Trump after stimulus call,” Sydney Morning Herald, October 7, 2020,

Olivia Nuzzi, “The Entire Presidency Is a Superspreading Event,” New York, October 9, 2020,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “White House hosted Covid ‘superspreader’ event, says Dr Fauci,” October 10, 2020,

KDKA-TV, “Brentwood Restaurant That Sued Allegheny County Over Coronavirus Restrictions Files For Bankruptcy,” October 9, 2020,

Derek Thompson, “The COVID-19 Fall Surge Is Here. We Can Stop It,” Atlantic, October 12, 2020,

Jeff Stein, [Twitter thread], Thread Reader App, October 13, 2020,

Megan Guza, “Pa. health officials aim to avoid shutdown despite covid uptick,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, October 14, 2020,

Jason DeParle, “8 Million Have Slipped Into Poverty Since May as Federal Aid Has Dried Up,” New York Times, October 15, 2020,

William Rivers Pitt, “Trump Got the Best COVID Treatment. For the Rest of Us He Wants ‘Herd Immunity,’” Truthout, October 15, 2020,

Antonia Noori Farzan et al. “U.S. surpasses 64,000 new coronavirus infections two days in a row for first time since late July,” Washington Post, October 16, 2020,

Karen Kaplan, “U.S. deaths are about 300,000 higher than expected since the coronavirus arrived,” Los Angeles Times, October 20, 2020,

Alexander Zhang, “The Forgotten Third Amendment Could Give Pandemic-Struck America a Way Forward,” Atlantic, October 21, 2020,

Elliot Hannon, “Trump Says ‘We’re Rounding the Turn’ the Same Day the U.S. Approaches Record Number of New Coronavirus Cases,” Slate, October 23, 2020,

Ryan Sabalow, “‘That is unacceptable.’ California megachurch faces local backlash for dismissing COVID-19,” Sacramento Bee, October 23, 2020,

William Wan and Jacqueline Dupree, “America hits highest daily number of coronavirus cases since pandemic began,” Washington Post, October 23, 2020,

Hannah Knowles and Jacqueline Dupree, “Full hospitals, talk of rationing care: New wave of coronavirus cases strains resources,” Washington Post, October 25, 2020,

Dominic Rushe, “For most Americans the crisis is far from over whatever the GDP numbers may say,” Guardian, October 29, 2020,

Melissa Healy, “Super-spreading Trump rallies led to more than 700 COVID-19 deaths, study estimates,” Los Angeles Times, October 31, 2020,

Molly Kinder, Laura Stateler, and Julia Du, “Windfall profits and deadly risks: How the biggest retail companies are compensating essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic,” Brookings, November 2020,

Erika Edwards, “More than 61,000 children got Covid-19 last week, a record,” NBC News, November 2, 2020,

Shelby Cassesse, “Coronavirus In Pittsburgh: Allegheny County Seeing Substantial Transmission Rate,” KDKA-TV, November 14, 2020,

Betsy McKay and Erin Ailworth, “Covid Is Resurging, and This Time It’s Everywhere,” Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2020,

Lenny Bernstein, “With hospitals slammed by covid-19, doctors and nurses plead for action by governors,” Washington Post, December 3, 2020,

Elizabeth Dwoskin, “Facebook steps up campaign to ban false information about coronavirus vaccines,” Washington Post, December 3, 2020,

Reuters, “Uber asks U.S. CDC to consider ride-hail drivers essential for Covid vaccine distribution,” CNBC, December 4, 2020,

Abha Bhattarai and Hannah Denham, “Stealing to survive: More Americans are shoplifting food as aid runs out during the pandemic,” Washington Post, December 10, 2020,

Paula Reed Ward, “Crack’d Egg flouts shutdown as deputies quarantined for dining, taking photos with owner,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 14, 2020,

Paula Reed Ward, “Restaurant owner sues Braddock mayor, claims defamation,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 14, 2020,

Heather Long, “Nearly 8 million Americans have fallen into poverty since the summer,” Washington Post, December 16, 2020,

Natalie Grover, “What do we know about the fast-spreading Covid variant in UK?” Guardian, December 20, 2020,

Jon Henley et al., “EU to hold crisis talks as countries block travel from UK over new Covid strain,” Guardian, December 20, 2020,

Royce Jones, “COVID-19 In Pittsburgh: Several Restaurants Defy Statewide Restrictions, Stay Open For Indoor Dining,” KDKA-TV, December 20, 2020,

Jeff Stein, and Mike DeBonis, “Senate majority leader announces approximately $900 billion deal on emergency relief package,” Washington Post, December 20, 2020,

Dillon Carr, “Restaurant and bar owners decry Gov. Tom Wolf’s orders, encourage others to open,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 21, 2020,

Rebecca Ballhaus, “Trump Asks Congress to Amend Covid-19 Package, Boost Direct Payments,” Wall Street Journal, December 22, 2020,

Molly Kinder and Laura Stateler, “Amazon and Walmart have raked in billions in additional profits during the pandemic, and shared almost none of it with their workers,” Brookings, December 22, 2020,

Teghan Simonton and Joyce Hanz, “4 Allegheny County restaurants defy orders to close for violating covid restrictions,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 23, 2020,

Suzanne Malveaux, Phil Mattingly, and Clare Foran, “House fails to pass measure to increase stimulus checks to $2,000,” CNN, December 24, 2020,

Natalie Andrews and Andrew Restuccia, “Trump Signs Covid-19 Aid Bill Averting Government Shutdown,” Wall Street Journal, December 27, 2020,

Tami Luhby, Sarah Westwood, and Nikki Carvajal, “Unemployment benefits lapse for jobless Americans as Trump holds out on signing relief bill,” CNN, December 27, 2020,

Ryan W. Miller, “How will you know when it’s your turn for a COVID vaccine? It’s complicated,” South Bend Tribune, December 28, 2020,

Mike DeBonis and Tony Romm, “McConnell blocks Democrats’ attempt to quickly approve $2,000 stimulus checks amid pressure on GOP to act,” Washington Post, December 29, 2020,

Burgess Everett, “Trump leans on McConnell for $2,000 checks amid GOP resistance,” Politico, December 29, 2020,

Mike DeBonis, [Twitter thread], Thread Reader App, December 30, 2020,

Tony Romm and Karoun Demirjian, “McConnell says push by Democrats, Trump for $2,000 stimulus checks has ‘no realistic path to quickly pass the Senate,’” Washington Post, December 30, 2020,

David Wallace-Wells, “America’s Vaccine Rollout Is Already a Disaster,” New York, December 30, 2020,

Christopher Dean Hopkins and Ashish Valentine, “Some Health Care Workers Are Hesitant About Getting COVID-19 Vaccines,” National Public Radio, January 1, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Allegheny County argues Crack’d Egg can’t hide from covid restrictions under bankruptcy filing,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 5, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Judge rules against Crack’d Egg, health department case can proceed,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 7, 2021,

David Leonhardt, “A Vaccine Road Trip,” New York Times, January 22, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Judge to rule on Crack’d Egg restaurant closure order next week,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 29, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Crack’d Egg restaurant asks to withdraw bankruptcy filing,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, February 2, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Judge orders Crack’d Egg to follow covid rules or close,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, February 3, 2021,

Paul Martino, “After Defying Health Department, Crack’d Egg Follows Judge’s Ruling And Closes,” KDKA-TV, February 4, 2021,

Logan Mohtashami, “The last stand for forbearance housing market crash bros?” Housing Wire, February 8, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Crack’d Egg seeks stay to injunction while appeal is heard,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, February 8, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Judge rules against Crack’d Egg restaurant: ‘They’ve largely chosen their fate here,’” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, February 17, 2021,

Melissa Healy, “California’s coronavirus strain looks increasingly dangerous: ‘The devil is already here,’” Los Angeles Times, February 23, 2021,

Sam Baker, “The danger of a fourth wave,” Axios, March 4, 2021,

Isaac Stanley-Becker, “GOP governors scorn pandemic restrictions as they compete for primacy in a pro-Trump party,” Washington Post, March 5, 2021,

Benjamin Wallace-Wells, “The Vaccine Resisters,” New Yorker, March 5, 2021,

Lena H. Sun and Lenny Bernstein, “Fully vaccinated people can visit with nearby grandchildren, dine indoors with one another, CDC says,” Washington Post, March 8, 2021,

Sarah Jones, “The Year of Lost Opportunities,” New York, March 10, 2021,

Tony Romm, “Biden signs $1.9 trillion stimulus into law; some could see stimulus payments this weekend,” Washington Post, March 11, 2021,

John Torres, “‘Vaccine passports’: Will they be available in the U.S. in time for summer?” NBC News, March 14, 2021,

Christopher Rowland, Emily Rauhala, and Miriam Berger, “Drug companies defend vaccine monopolies in face of global outcry,” Washington Post, March 20, 2021,

April Dembosky, “It’s not Tuskegee. Current medical racism fuels Black Americans’ vaccine hesitancy,” Los Angeles Times, March 25, 2021,

Natalie Grover, “New Covid vaccines needed globally within a year, say scientists,” Guardian, March 29, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Crack’d Egg asks court to allow maskless customers in restaurant,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, March 29, 2021,

Julie Steenhuysen, “T cells induced by COVID-19 infection respond to new virus variants: U.S. study,” Reuters, March 30, 2021,

Zeynep Tufekci, “The Fourth Surge Is Upon Us. This Time, It’s Different,” Atlantic, March 30, 2021,

Laurel Wamsley, “Florida Gov. DeSantis Rejects Vaccine Passports As ‘Completely Unacceptable,’” National Public Radio, March 30, 2021,

Kathryn Watson, “White House leaves vaccine ‘passports’ to private sector,” CBS News, March 30, 2021,

Erin Banco, “CDC: Vaccinated Americans can now travel,” Politico, April 2, 2021,

Philip Bump, “Vaccine skepticism and disregard for containment efforts go hand in hand,” Washington Post, April 2, 2021,

Megan Guza, “Judge: Crack’d Egg can’t flout covid rules while waiting to appeal ruling,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 2, 2021,

Hindu, “U.S. defends restrictions on export of COVID-19 vaccine raw materials amid India’s request to lift ban,” April 23, 2021,

Joanna Slater, “India’s devastating outbreak is driving the global coronavirus surge,” Washington Post, April 19, 2021,

Katie Camero, “If you’ve had COVID, your first vaccine dose may cause worse side effects. Here’s why,” Miami Herald, April 20, 2021,

Shaikh Azizur Rahman and Emma Graham-Harrison, “India’s Covid death toll at record high, but true figure likely to be worse,” Guardian, April 24, 2021,

Jonathan Chait, “COVID Is Going Away, and It’s Making Some Trump Fans Crazy,” New York, April 27, 2021,

Lena H. Sun, “CDC says fully vaccinated Americans can go without masks outdoors, except in crowded settings,” Washington Post, April 27, 2021,

Chris Megerian, “Biden’s coronavirus success threatened by political divisions he pledged to heal,” Los Angeles Times, April 27, 2021,

Sally Robertson, “Previously infected vaccinees broadly neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern,” News-Medical, May 2, 2021,

Apoorva Mandavilli, “Reaching ‘Herd Immunity’ Is Unlikely in the U.S., Experts Now Believe,” New York Times, May 3, 2021,

Dan Diamond, Tyler Pager, and Jeff Stein, “Biden commits to waiving vaccine patents, driving wedge with pharmaceutical companies,” Washington Post, May 5, 2021,

Rong-Gong Lin, II, “Confidence grows that COVID-19 vaccines hold their own against variants,” Los Angeles Times, May 10, 2021,

German Lopez, “Got the vaccine? Experts say you can relax about your Covid-19 risk now. Really,” Vox, May 11, 2021,

Deborah Netburn, “Did the coronavirus escape from a lab? The idea deserves a second look, scientists say,” Los Angeles Times, May 13, 2021,

Cassie Miller, “Fully vaxxed Pennsylvanians can go mask-free, state health officials confirm,” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, May 13, 2021,

Zeke Miller and Michael Balsamo, “‘Great day for America’: Vaccinated can largely ditch masks,” Associated Press, May 13, 2021,

Teghan Simonton and Megan Guza, “Western Pa. businesses grapple with mask policies after CDC, state updates guidance,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, May 13, 2021,

Leana S. Wen, “The CDC shouldn’t have removed restrictions without requiring proof of vaccination,” Washington Post, May 13, 2021,

Shannon McDonagh, “Here is what every country’s vaccine passport should have, according to the UN,” EuroNews, May 14, 2021,

Jamie Grierson, “Fake Covid vaccine and test certificate market is growing, researchers say,” Guardian, May 16, 2021,

Sarah Anne Hughes, “Voters back curtailing Wolf’s emergency powers in win for GOP lawmakers,” Spotlight PA, May 19, 2021,

Ballotpedia News, “The State and Local Tap: Pennsylvania voters pass constitutional amendments to limit governor’s emergency orders,” May 22, 2021,

Jackie Drees, “Vaccine passports: 23 states with bans, limitations & green lights,” Becker’s Healthcare, May 26, 2021,

Elizabeth Cohen, “Interest in vaccinations increased after CDC announced new mask guidance,” CNN, May 27, 2021,

Alexandra Villarreal, “US taking ‘very close look’ at vaccine passports for international travel,” Guardian, May 28, 2021,

Matthew Rozsa, “A virologist unpacks the lab leak hypothesis,” Salon, May 29, 2021,

Daniel Villarreal, “Matt Gaetz Says Anthony Fauci ‘Has Blood on His Hands, And Now the Country Knows It,’” Newsweek, June 4, 2021,

Sarah Anne Hughes, “Legislature votes to immediately end Pa.’s coronavirus disaster declaration while keeping waivers in place,” Spotlight PA, June 10, 2021,

Megan Guza, “As some Pennsylvanians skip second covid shot, experts caution one dose ‘not enough,’” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 13, 2021,

Maggie Fox, “NIH researchers find more evidence Covid was circulating in the US in December 2019,” CNN, June 15, 2021,

Talal Ansari and Jason Douglas, “Delta Covid-19 Variant Likely to Become Dominant in U.S., CDC Director Says,” Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2021,

Kevin Rector et al., “Many L.A. cops and firefighters aren’t vaccinated against COVID-19. Is this a public safety threat?” Los Angeles Times, June 19, 2021,

John Blake, “They lost their loved ones to Covid. Then they heard from them again,” CNN, June 20, 2021,

Adam Cancryn and David Lim, “Biden administration likely to miss July 4 vaccine target as new Covid strain surges,” Politico, June 22, 2021,

Dan Diamond, “153 people resigned or were fired from a Texas hospital system after refusing to get vaccinated,” Washington Post, June 22, 2021,

Tala Michel Issa, “Is it safe to mix-and-match COVID-19 vaccines? Here’s what we know so far,” Al Arabiya, June 23, 2021,

Dhruv Khullar, “One half of America is protected. The other is approaching a perilous moment in the pandemic,” New Yorker, June 23, 2021,

Don Sweeney and Katie Camero, “Face masks not necessary in US to curb Delta variant, CDC chief says,” Sacramento Bee, June 30, 2021,

Maggie Fox, “Unvaccinated people are ‘variant factories,’ infectious diseases expert says,” CNN, July 3, 2021,

Courtney Ann Jackson, “Mississippi doctors still urging folks to get vaccinated as Delta variant becomes dominant COVID strain,” WLBT, July 5, 2021,

Alisa Odenheimer and Damian Shepherd, “Pfizer Shot Halts Severe Illness in Israel as Delta Spreads,” Bloomberg, July 5, 2021,

Max Boot, “Republicans are preventing America from reaching Biden’s vaccination goal,” Washington Post, July 6, 2021,

Philip Bump, “A third of White conservatives refuse to get vaccinated — a refusal shown in polling and the real world,” Washington Post, July 6, 2021,

Peter Jamison, “Their neighbors called covid-19 a hoax. Can these ICU nurses forgive them?” Washington Post, July 6, 2021,

Ron Kampeas, “In latest Nazi analogy, Marjorie Taylor Greene invokes ‘medical brown shirts’ in decrying vaccination outreach,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, July 7, 2021,

Joel Achenbach, “New study on delta variant reveals importance of receiving both vaccine shots, highlights challenges posed by mutations,” Washington Post, July 8, 2021,

Maggie Fox, “Pfizer sees waning immunity from its Covid-19 vaccine, says developing new booster,” CNN, July 8, 2021,

Berkeley Lovelace, Jr., “Pfizer says it is developing a Covid booster shot to target the highly transmissible delta variant,” CNBC, July 8, 2021,

Grace Panetta, “GOP Rep. Lauren Boebert calls Biden’s door-to-door vaccinators ‘needle Nazis,’” Yahoo! News, July 8, 2021,

Paul Waldman, “Right-wing anti-vaccine hysteria is increasing. We’ll all pay the price,” Washington Post, July 8, 2021,

Yasmeen Abutaleb et al., “Pfizer expected to brief U.S. officials in coming days on the need for a booster shot,” Washington Post, July 10, 2021,

Helen Branswell, “WHO director-general slams notion of Covid-19 vaccine booster doses given global health needs,” Stat, July 12, 2021,

Nathan Jeffay, “In world first, COVID boosters rolled out for some at-risk Israelis,” Times of Israel, July 12, 2021,

Maria Cheng, “WHO: Rich countries should donate vaccines, not use boosters,” Associated Press, July 13, 2021,

Tim Fitzsimons and The Associated Press, “Top Tennessee health official says she was fired after efforts to get teens vaccinated,” NBC News, July 13, 2021,

Brett Kelman, “Tennessee abandons vaccine outreach to minors — not just for COVID-19,” Nashville Tennessean, July 13, 2021,

Ed Kilgore, “The Willfully Unvaccinated Are the Newest Republican Martyrs,” New York, July 13, 2021,

David Rasbach and Robert Mittendorf, “Even if U.S.-Canada border reopens July 21, one group won’t be allowed for ‘quite a while,’” Sacramento Bee, July 13, 2021,

Hannah Knowles, “DeSantis sells ‘Don’t Fauci My Florida’ merch as new coronavirus cases near highest in nation,” Washington Post, July 14, 2021,

Luke Money and Rong-Gong Lin, II, “Tougher tactics targeting the unvaccinated needed to stop new COVID-19 spike, experts say,” Los Angeles Times, July 14, 2021,

Dan Diamond, Hannah Knowles, and Tyler Pager, “Vaccine hesitancy morphs into hostility, as opposition to shots hardens,” Washington Post, July 15, 2021,

Ed Pilkington and Lauren Aratani, “US seeing ‘pandemic of the unvaccinated’ as cases rise in every state,” Guardian, July 16, 2021,

Joel Achenbach, “In this summer of covid freedom, disease experts warn: ‘The world needs a reality check,’” Washington Post, July 17, 2021,

Melanie Evans and Julie Wernau, “Unvaccinated Americans Are Behind Rising Covid-19 Hospitalizations,” Wall Street Journal, July 18, 2021,

Michael Laris and Lori Aratani, “Unruly airplane passengers are straining the system for keeping peace in the sky,” Washington Post, July 18, 2021,

Caroline Wheeler and Louise Eccles, “Johnson swelters over ‘freedom day’ mayhem,” Times, July 18, 2021,

Libby Cathey, “Biden tries to clarify comment that Facebook is ‘killing people,’ ABC News, July 19, 2021,

Amanda Coletta, “Canada to open border to fully vaccinated U.S. citizens on Aug. 9,” Washington Post, July 19, 2021,

Christopher Hope, “Freedom Day farce as Boris Johnson urged to end ‘pingdemic,’” Telegraph, July 19, 2021,

Kim Mackrael, “Canada to Reopen Border for Fully Vaccinated U.S. Tourists in August,” Wall Street Journal, July 19, 2021,

Greg Sargent, “A vile new Trump-GOP claim about vaccines suggests trouble ahead,” Washington Post, July 19, 2021,

Brianna Abbott, “Delta Variant Accounts for 83% of Known U.S. Covid-19 Cases,” Wall Street Journal, July 20, 2021,

Michael M. Grynbaum, Tiffany Hsu, and Zolan Kanno-Youngs, “On Fox News, Vaccination Pleas Intensify, but Skepticism Persists,” New York Times, July 20, 2021,

Bryan Pietsch, “Twitter suspends Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene for spreading covid-19 misinformation,” Washington Post, July 20, 2021,

Reis Thebault, “In latest clash over Wuhan lab, Fauci tells Sen. Rand Paul: ‘You do not know what you’re talking about,’” Washington Post, July 20, 2021,

Jeremy Kohler, “GOP Legislators in Missouri Oppose Vaccine Efforts as State Becomes COVID Hotspot,” Pro Publica, July 21, 2021,

David Leonhardt, “Why Aren’t the Vaccines Approved?” New York Times, July 21, 2021,

Kari Paul, “‘A systemic failure’: vaccine misinformation remains rampant on Facebook, experts say,” Guardian, July 21, 2021,

Dennis Pillion, “‘I’m sorry, but it’s too late’: Alabama doctor on treating unvaccinated, dying COVID patients,” Advance Local, July 21, 2021,

Katherine S. Xue, “Coexisting With The Coronavirus,” New Yorker, July 21, 2021,

Siobhan Hughes, “Bill Would Strip Social Media of Protections for Health Misinformation,” Wall Street Journal, July 22, 2021,

Rob Stein and Selena Simmons-Duffin, “The Delta Variant Will Drive A Steep Rise In U.S. COVID Deaths, A New Model Shows,” National Public Radio, July 22, 2021,

Jenny Deam, Ryan Gabrielson, and Bianca Fortis, “‘Don’t You Work With Old People?’: Many Elder-Care Workers Still Refuse to Get COVID-19 Vaccine,” Pro Publica, July 23, 2021,

Dan Diamond and Tyler Pager, “‘Patience has worn thin’: Frustration mounts over vaccine holdouts,” Washington Post, July 23, 2021,

David Frum, “Vaccinated America Has Had Enough,” Atlantic, July 23, 2021,

Madeline Wells, “SF Bay Area restaurants are still struggling. Returning customers don’t see that,” SFGate, July 23, 2021,

David Connett, “Anger over Sajid Javid’s advice to not ‘cower’ from Covid,” Guardian, July 24, 2021,

Oliver Laughland and Jessica Glenza, “Inside a Tennessee hospital grappling with Delta and vaccine hesitancy,” Guardian, July 24, 2021,

Annie Linskey, Tyler Pager, and Dan Diamond, “Surge of covid delta variant poses new political threat to Biden and his agenda,” Washington Post, July 24, 2021,

Chandelis Duster, “Fauci: ‘We’re going in the wrong direction’ on Covid-19 cases,” CNN, July 25, 2021,

Dan Diamond, “Doctors, nurses and medical groups call for mandatory coronavirus vaccinations for health workers,” Washington Post, July 26, 2021,

Emma Fitzsimmons, “New York City and California will require workers to be vaccinated or face testing,” New York Times, July 26, 2021,

Summer Lin, “Got your COVID vaccine? Stay out, says California restaurateur decrying ‘stupidity,’” Sacramento Bee, July 26, 2021,

Justine McDaniel and Chris A. Williams, “More COVID-19 shots are being given in Pa. and N.J. as delta variant spurs outbreaks in U.S.,” Philadelphia Inquirer, July 26, 2021,

Yasmeen Abutaleb, Joel Achenbach, Dan Diamond, and Adam Taylor, “CDC urges vaccinated people in covid hot spots to resume wearing masks indoors,” Washington Post, July 27, 2021,

Paul Guggenheimer, “What the CDC mask recommendations mean for Western Pennsylvanians,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 27, 2021,

Simone Jasper, “Is it a HIPAA violation to ask someone about their COVID vaccine status? What to know,” Sacramento Bee, July 27, 2021,

Tyler Pager and Eli Rosenberg, “Biden plans to require federal workers to be vaccinated or undergo repeated tests,” Washington Post, July 27, 2021,

Jaclyn Peiser, “Evangelical pastor demands churchgoers ditch their masks: ‘Don’t believe this delta variant nonsense,’” Washington Post, July 27, 2021,

Sabrina Siddiqui and Tarini Parti, “CDC Urges Vaccinated People to Resume Wearing Masks Indoors in Some Areas,” Wall Street Journal, July 27, 2021,

Paul Waldman, “I’m tired of being nice to vaccine refusers,” Washington Post, July 27, 2021,

Alexis Benveniste, “These companies are requiring Covid-19 vaccines for their employees,” CNN, July 28, 2021,

Justine Coleman, “Pfizer vaccine effectiveness drops to 84 percent after six months: data,” Hill, July 28, 2021,

Chris Hippensteel, “Allegheny County not returning to masking; that could change if cases rise, Fitzgerald says,” Public Source, July 28, 2021,

Jacqueline Howard, “Pfizer data suggest third dose of Covid-19 vaccine ‘strongly’ boosts protection against Delta variant,” CNN, July 28, 2021,

Justin Miller and David Wallace-Wells, “What If Vaccines Don’t Really Stop the Virus From Spreading?” New York, July 28, 2021,

David Leonhardt to Morning list, “A confusing message,” New York Times, July 28, 2021,

Stephen Losey, “DoD Making Masks Mandatory Again, Even for the Vaccinated, in Some Places,”, July 28, 2021,

Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Myanmar could become Covid ‘super-spreader’ state, says UN expert,” Guardian, July 28, 2021,

Erika D. Smith, “I wish I could be angry with the unvaccinated. Being Black makes that complicated,” Los Angeles Times, July 28, 2021,

Yasmeen Abutaleb, Carolyn Y. Johnson, and Joel Achenbach, “‘The war has changed’: Internal CDC document urges new messaging, warns delta infections likely more severe,” Washington Post, July 29, 2021,

Timothy Bella, “Tucker Carlson falsely claims Anthony S. Fauci ‘created’ covid,” Washington Post, July 29, 2021,

Democracy Now! “‘We Can’t Trust the Unvaccinated’: Dr. Leana Wen on Vaccine Mandates & How to Stop the Delta Variant,” July 29, 2021,

Anne Flaherty and Arielle Mitropoulos, “CDC mask decision followed stunning findings from Cape Cod beach outbreak,” ABC News, July 29, 2021,

Melody Schreiber, “Please Don’t Rush to Get a Third Covid Shot,” New Republic, July 29, 2021,

Sabrina Siddiqui and Paul Kiernan, “Biden Says Federal Employees Must Get Covid-19 Shots or Wear Masks, Test Regularly,” Wall Street Journal, July 29, 2021,

Isaac Stanley-Becker, “Charlie Kirk’s pro-Trump youth group stokes vaccine resistance as covid surges again,” Washington Post, July 29, 2021,

Leana S. Wen, “The CDC needs to make clear: The problem is the unvaccinated,” Washington Post, July 29, 2021,

Brianna Abbott, “CDC Says New Mask Guidelines Informed by Cape Cod Outbreak,” Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2021,

Ariana Eunjung Cha, Rose Hansen, and Jacqueline Dupree, “‘A rush to get shots,’” Washington Post, July 30, 2021,

Carolyn Y. Johnson, Yasmeen Abutaleb, and Joel Achenbach, “CDC study shows three-fourths of people infected in Massachusetts coronavirus outbreak were vaccinated but few required hospitalization,” Washington Post, July 30, 2021,

Adrienne LaFrance, “‘Why Are We Not Vaccinating Children Under 12?’” Atlantic, July 30, 2021,

David Litt, “Republicans used to laud ‘personal responsibility’. Not with Covid,” Guardian, July 30, 2021,

Ruth Marcus, “Require the vaccine. It’s time to stop coddling the reckless,” Washington Post, July 30, 2021,

Brian Stelter and Oliver Darcy, “White House blasts Covid coverage,” CNN, July 30, 2021,

Natasha Korecki, Erin Banco, and Adam Cancryn, “Tensions rise within Biden team over mask reversal,” Politico, August 2, 2021,

Erin McCarthy and Justine McDaniel, “Philly region seeing a ‘substantial’ spread of COVID-19, expanding the area where indoor masks are recommended,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 2, 2021,

Jimmy Vielkind and Zusha Elinson, “Louisiana and San Francisco Area to Reinstate Indoor Mask Mandates,” Wall Street Journal, August 2, 2021,

Erin Arvedlund, “Can bosses insist you get a COVID vaccine? Yes, but with caveats,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 3, 2021,

Joseph Ax and Nathan Layne, “Delta variant surges across U.S. South; political leaders clamp down again,” Reuters, August 3, 2021, copy in possession of author

Alexis Benveniste, “New York City will require vaccines for entry to restaurants and gyms,” CNN, August 3, 2021,

Juliette Kayyem, “Unvaccinated People Need to Bear the Burden,” Atlantic, August 3, 2021,

Olivier Knox to Daily 202 list, “Alex Azar says Democrats must show ‘political graciousness’ about vaccines,” Washington Post, August 4, 2021,

Aparna Nathan, “Delta-plus and lambda variants don’t yet warrant panic for vaccinated people, Philly experts say,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 4, 2021,

Bryan Pietsch, Adela Suliman, and Hannah Knowles, “WHO calls for moratorium on booster vaccine shots through September, citing global disparity,” Washington Post, August 4, 2021,

Jennifer Rubin, “Americans have had it with vaccine refusers and anti-mandate politicians,” Washington Post, August 4, 2021,

Jenny Jarvie, Richard Read, and Molly Hennessy-Fiske, “With Delta surging, America is dangerously divided over vaccines,” Los Angeles Times, August 5, 2021,

Justine McDaniel, Allison Steele, and Erin McCarthy, “‘Enough is enough’: Gov. Murphy’s outburst was the latest sign of rising anger over pandemic divide,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 5, 2021,

Associated Press, “U.S. now averaging 100,000 new coronavirus infections a day,” Los Angeles Times, August 6, 2021,

Annie Linskey, “Biden officials weigh using regulatory powers to spur vaccine mandates,” Washington Post, August 6, 2021,

Andrew Nikiforuk, “Alberta Joins Team ‘Just Give Up,’” Tyee, August 6, 2021,

Todd Zywicki, “Why I’m Suing Over My Employer’s Vaccine Mandate,” Wall Street Journal, August 6, 2021,

Rowena Mason and Jessica Elgot, “JCVI ‘largely opposed’ to Covid vaccination for children under 16,” Guardian, August 7, 2021,

Erin McCarthy and Justine McDaniel, “Pa., N.J., and Del. leaders weigh vaccine-verification options, but largely hold off on mandates,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 7, 2021,

Luke Money and Faith E. Pinho, “Wary of ‘breakthrough’ infections, some vaccinated people eye another shot. Is it needed?” Los Angeles Times, August 7, 2021,

Josh Glancy, “Calling Covid experts arrogant and wrong doesn’t make you a nutjob,” Times, August 8, 2021,

Edward Helmore, “Rightwing radio host and anti-vaxxer dies of Covid,” Guardian, August 8, 2021,

Barbara Starr, Kaitlan Collins, and Zachary Cohen, “Pentagon moves to mandate Covid-19 vaccine for active duty military members,” CNN, August 9, 2021,

Wes Venteicher, “California correctional officers union to fight new COVID-19 vaccine mandate, memo says,” Sacramento Bee, August 9, 2021,

Justine McDaniel et al., “As cases rise, so do new rules: Philly adds a mask mandate, Pa. to require vaccination or tests for some workers,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 10, 2021,

Brianna Abbott, “Covid-19 Rise, Vaccine Hesitancy Frustrate Doctors in Hospitals Saturated by the Delta Variant,” Wall Street Journal, August 12, 2021,

Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court won’t block Indiana University vaccine mandate as Justice Barrett rejects student plea,” Washington Post, August 12, 2021,

Natasha Lindstrom, “Out-of-state covid hot spots ‘desperate’ to transfer patients to Western Pa. hospitals,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 12, 2021,

Lindsay F. Wiley and Steve Vladeck, “Why Carefully Designed Public Vaccination Mandates Can—and Should—Withstand Constitutional Challenge,” Lawfare, August 12, 2021,

Marley Parish, “Penn State won’t mandate COVID-19 vaccines, prompting questions about priorities,” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, August 13, 2021,

Brad Reed, “Georgia county shuts down all of its schools for two weeks after mass COVID-19 outbreak,” Raw Story, August 13, 2021,

Times of Israel, “Israel becomes first country in world to give COVID boosters to over-50s,” August 13, 2021,

Helen Ubiñas, “Stop begging the COVID bullies. We can’t ‘nice’ people into doing the right thing,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 13, 2021,

Aya Elamroussi, “‘This is starting to look really ominous in the South,’ expert says, as US is among nations with highest rate of new Covid-19 cases,” CNN, August 14, 2021,

Meagan Flynn, “Get the vaccine or get fired? In Shenandoah Valley, some nurses choose termination,” Washington Post, August 14, 2021,

Michael Savage, “New Covid variants ‘will set us back a year’, experts warn UK government,” Guardian, August 14, 2021,

Wes Venteicher, “California unions for firefighters, blue collar workers challenge Newsom’s vaccine rules,” Sacramento Bee, August 14, 2021,

Sharon LaFraniere, “U.S. to Advise Boosters for Most Americans 8 Months After Vaccination,” New York Times, August 16, 2021,

Nick Matoney, “CDC: Several counties in Western Pa. now at high level of community transmission of COVID-19,” WTAE, August 16, 2021,

Paige Williams, “Mississippi’s Hospital System Is Rapidly Approaching Statewide Failure,” New Yorker, August 17, 2021,

Timothy Bella, “An Alabama doctor watched patients reject the coronavirus vaccine. Now he’s refusing to treat them,” Washington Post, August 18, 2021,

Erin McCarthy and Laura McCrystal, “U.S. has a plan for coronavirus booster shots. Pa. and Philly say they’re ready,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 18, 2021,

Andrew Nikiforuk, “How Wildfire Smoke Supercharges the COVID Virus,” Tyee, August 18, 2021,

Sabrina Siddiqui and Anna Wilde Mathews, “Biden Tells Nursing Homes to Vaccinate Staffs to Keep Medicare, Medicaid Funds,” Wall Street Journal, August 18, 2021,

Del Quentin Wilber, “Biden administration plans to offer COVID booster shots after 8 months,” Los Angeles Times, August 18, 2021,

Aaron Blake, “The GOP is losing the argument on coronavirus mandates,” Washington Post, August 19, 2021,

Rhys Blakely, “Double Covid vaccine doesn’t stop symptoms for half of Delta cases,” Times, August 19, 2021,

Krutika Amin and Cynthia Cox, “Unvaccinated COVID-19 hospitalizations cost the U.S. health system billions of dollars,” Peterson Foundation on Healthcare and Kaiser Family Foundation, August 20, 2021,

Max Hauptman, “Vaccine resistance in the military remains strong, a dilemma for Pentagon as mandate looms,” Washington Post, August 21, 2021,

Hannah Knowles, “A Texas GOP official’s covid-19 death went viral. Then came calls for vaccination — and bitter divides,” Washington Post, August 21, 2021,

Katie MacBride, [Twitter thread], Thread Reader App, August 21, 2021,

Guardian, “Trump booed after telling supporters to get Covid vaccine,” August 22, 2021,

Aaron Blake, “The GOP fought mandates by emphasizing the vaccines’ emergency status. Now what?” Washington Post, August 23, 2021,

Ben Guarino, Laurie McGinley, and Tyler Pager, “Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine wins full FDA approval, potentially persuading the hesitant to get a shot,” Washington Post, August 23, 2021,

Jason Laughlin and Marie McCullough, “Facing new vaccine mandates, more Philly-area residents are agreeing to COVID-19 shots,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 23, 2021,

Ivana Saric, “The fight over mask mandates in schools turns violent,” Axios, August 23, 2021,

Adela Suliman and Bryan Pietsch, “Third Pfizer dose significantly lowers risk of infection in seniors, Israeli data shows,” Washington Post, August 23, 2021,

Paul Waldman, “Time to say it: We’re done with the vaccine refusers,” Washington Post, August 23, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward and Tony LaRussa, “Federal judge reinstates mandatory masks at North Allegheny,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 23, 2021,

Stacey Colino, “How to handle the infuriating ‘here we go again’ feeling as the delta variant rages,” Washington Post, August 24, 2021,

Ellen Nakashima, Yasmeen Abutaleb, and Joel Achenbach, “Biden receives inconclusive intelligence report on covid origins,” Washington Post, August 24, 2021,

Stephanie Armour and Jared S. Hopkins, “Biden Administration Likely to Approve Covid-19 Boosters at Six Months,” Wall Street Journal, August 25, 2021,

Dan Diamond, “‘I’m still not planning to get it’: FDA approval not swaying some vaccine holdouts,” Washington Post, August 25, 2021,

Sam Baker, “Coronavirus cases are soaring, especially in the South,” Axios, August 26, 2021,

Karen Gallardo, “On the front lines, here’s what the seven stages of severe COVID-19 look like,” Los Angeles Times, August 26, 2021,

Jeannie Suk Gersen, “Should the Government Impose a National COVID-Vaccination Mandate?” New Yorker, August 26, 2021,

Michael McGough, “Sacramento hospitals ‘at capacity’ and COVID deaths at 6-month high as delta spreads,” Sacramento Bee, August 26, 2021,

Sudhin Thanawala and Jay Reeves, “Virus surge breaks hospital records amid rising toll on kids,” Sacramento Bee, August 26, 2021,

Marisa Fernandez, “As hospitals fill, more ambulances forced to wait,” Axios, August 27, 2021,

Hailey Branson-Potts, “Mortuaries fill, hospitals clog in rural California towns with low vaccination rates,“ Los Angeles Times, August 28, 2021,

Andrew Seidman, “Mask and vaccine mandates have broad support, polls show. But some Pa. Republicans are campaigning against them,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 29, 2021,

Stephen Caruso, “Pa. GOP candidate says he’ll bring ‘strong men’ to intimidate pro-mask school boards,” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, August 30, 2021,

Laura Meckler, “Biden administration opens civil rights investigations over bans on school mask mandates,” Washington Post, August 30, 2021,

Megan Guza and Julia Felton, “Pennsylvania mandates masks in K-12 schools, day cares,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 31, 2021,

Rong-Gong Lin, II, “Anti-vaccine forces pushing ivermectin. It can be toxic, dangerous, officials say,” Los Angeles Times, August 31, 2021,

Public Source, “School masking required across PA as COVID cases rise,” August 31, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Legal experts say Wolf administration has authority to issue mask mandate,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 31, 2021,

Joshua Eaton and Joe Murphy, “15 million Covid vaccine doses thrown away in the U.S. since March, new data shows,” NBC News, September 1, 2021,

Paul Farhi, “Four conservative radio talk-show hosts bashed coronavirus vaccines. Then they got sick,” Washington Post, September 1, 2021,

Nancy Gibbs, “Do the unvaccinated deserve scarce ICU beds?” Washington Post, September 1, 2021,

Uché Blackstock, “Two words no parent of a sick child should have to hear: ‘At capacity,’” Washington Post, September 2, 2021,

Ben Casselman, “Federal Jobless Aid, a Lifeline to Millions, Reaches an End,” New York Times, September 2, 2021,

Hannah Knowles and Timothy Bella, “A hospital refused to give ivermectin to a covid patient. Then a judge ordered doctors to administer it,” Washington Post, September 2, 2021,

Emma Goldberg and Emily Anthes, “Hospitalizations for children sharply increase as Delta surges, C.D.C. studies find,” New York Times, September 3, 2021,

Maddie Hanna, “Now that Pa. has a school mask mandate, has the rancor subsided? It has not,” Philadelphia Inquirer, September 3, 2021,

Luke Money, “ICU beds filling up in San Joaquin Valley, triggering hospital surge order,” Los Angeles Times, September 3, 2021,

Tyler Pager and Laurie McGinley, “Top federal health officials warn that booster shots initially may be limited to Pfizer recipients,” Washington Post, September 3, 2021,

Katie Balevic, “3 Washington schools went into lockdown after far-right anti-mask protestors tried to access property,” Insider, September 4, 2021,

John Cassidy, “It’s Still the Coronavirus Economy,” New Yorker, September 4, 2021,

Mary Papenfuss, “15 Miami-Dade Public School Staff Members Die Of COVID In Just 10 Days,” Yahoo! News, September 4, 2021,

Yoree Koh, “Child Covid-19 Cases Rise in States Where Schools Opened Earliest,” Washington Post, September 5, 2021,

Renatta Signorini, “Greater Latrobe, Derry Area students plan walkouts to protest mask mandate,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 6, 2021,

Lara Korte, “The man who started the movement to recall Gov. Gavin Newsom has COVID-19,” Sacramento Bee, September 7, 2021,

Andrea Salcedo, “Ohio judge reverses colleague’s decision on covid patient’s ivermectin treatment: ‘Judges are not doctors,’” Washington Post, September 7, 2021,

Anne Branigin, “As pandemic aid ends, these women feel left behind at a crucial time: ‘The recovery hasn’t happened,’” Lily, September 8, 2021,

Matthew Perrone and Dee-Ann Durbin, “COVID-19 surge in the US: The summer of hope ends in gloom,” Associated Press, September 8, 2021,

Lizzie Roberts and Paul Nuki, “Don’t start booster vaccine doses too soon, warns JCVI scientist,” Telegraph, September 8, 2021,

Sharon Lerner, Mara Hvistendahl, and Maia Hibbett, “NIH Documents Provide New Evidence U.S. Funded Gain-of-Function Research in Wuhan,” Intercept, September 9, 2021,

Annie Linskey et al., “Biden announces sweeping new vaccine mandates for businesses, federal workers,” Washington Post, September 9, 2021,

Eileen Drage O’Reilly, “Monster risk: Fauci says COVID cases 10x too high,” Axios, September 9, 2021,

Hayley Fowler, “Biden’s COVID vaccine mandate ‘raises more questions than it answers.’ What to know,” Sacramento Bee, September 10, 2021,

Joan E. Greve and Richard Luscombe, “‘Have at it’: Joe Biden dares vaccine mandate opponents to take him on,” Guardian, September 10, 2021,

Michael Hiltzik, “Here’s why Biden’s vaccine mandate is right — and should stand up to legal challenges,” Los Angeles Times, September 10, 2021,

Lena H. Sun and Joel Achenbach, “Unvaccinated people were 11 times more likely to die of covid-19, CDC report finds,” Washington Post, September 10, 2021,

Annabelle Timsit, “GOP governors threaten to sue over mandates; Biden says, ‘have at it,’” Washington Post, September 10, 2021,

Timothy Bella, “Alabama man dies after being turned away from 43 hospitals as covid packs ICUs, family says,” Washington Post, September 12, 2021,

Jamie Martines and Angie Couloumbis, “Pa. school mask lawsuit backed by group that challenged 2020 election results,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 12, 2021,

Paula Aceves, “The Fake Vaxx Card Next to You,” New York, September 14, 2021,

Julia Felton, “Pa. officials: 94% of covid cases were in unvaccinated or not fully vaccinated people,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 14, 2021,

Heather Long and Amy Goldstein, “Poverty fell overall in 2020 due to massive stimulus checks and unemployment aid, U.S. Census says,” Washington Post, September 14, 2021,

Betsy Phillips, “I was supposed to have life-saving surgery. Tennessee’s covid-19 surge cost me a hospital bed,” Washington Post, September 14, 2021,

Sarah Pulliam Bailey, “This pastor will sign a religious exemption for vaccines if you donate to his church,” Washington Post, September 15, 2021,

Jenny Deam, “A Boy Went to a COVID-Swamped ER. He Waited for Hours. Then His Appendix Burst,” ProPublica, September 15, 2021,

Julia Felton, “Breakthrough covid cases jump in Allegheny County,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 15, 2021,

Julia Felton, “Feds seize 2 shipments of fake covid vaccination cards in Pittsburgh,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 15, 2021,

Rebecca Boone, “COVID-19 surge forces health care rationing in parts of West,” ABC News, September 16, 2021,

Julia Felton, “‘This is the worst I’ve seen’: Longer waits reported at Western Pa. hospitals,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 16, 2021,

Amy Hudak, “Wait times growing at Pittsburgh area hospital emergency rooms,” WPXI, September 16, 2021,

Oni Blackstock and Uché Blackstock, “We’re not calling out Nicki Minaj. We’re calling her in,” Washington Post, September 17, 2021,

Maggie Fox, “Moderna’s vaccine is the most effective, but Pfizer and J&J also protect well, CDC-led study says,” CNN, September 17, 2021,

Michael Hiltzik, “‘Death panels’ arrive — in COVID-stricken Republican Idaho,” Los Angeles Times, September 17, 2021,

Carolyn Y. Johnson, Laurie McGinley, and Joel Achenbach, “FDA panel endorses coronavirus boosters for older adults and those at risk of serious illness,” Washington Post, September 17, 2021,

Times of Israel, “Study: COVID booster recipients 20 times more protected against serious illness,” September 17, 2021,

Mike Palm, “Westmoreland, Allegheny covid cases reach totals not seen since January,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 18, 2021,

Ryan Deto, “Allegheny County ran out of pediatric ICU beds and added tents to increase bed capacity,” Pittsburgh City Paper, September 20, 2021,

Robbie Whelan, “Doctors Left to Decide Who Gets Extra Covid-19 Vaccines Amid Booster Debate,” Wall Street Journal, September 20, 2021,

Leana S. Wen, “The CDC should let Americans decide for themselves if their risk warrants getting a booster shot,” Washington Post, September 21, 2021,

Jared S. Hopkins and Felicia Schwartz, “FDA Clears Covid-19 Booster Shots From Pfizer for High-Risk People,” Wall Street Journal, September 22, 2021,

Sarah Knapton, “Nowhere left for Covid to go to mutate into a deadly variant, says Oxford vaccine creator, ” Telegraph, September 22, 2021,

Emily Davies and Jasmine Hilton, “Without pandemic unemployment assistance, many navigate an uncertain economic future,” Washington Post, September 23, 2021,

Lauran Neergaard and Mike Stobbe, “CDC panel recommends Pfizer booster shots for seniors, declines them for healthcare workers,” Los Angeles Times, September 23, 2021,

Public Source, “Allegheny County prepares for boosters; local COVID cases remain high,” September 23, 2021,

George Monbiot, “Spirited Away,” September 24, 2021,

Lena H. Sun and Laurie McGinley, “Pfizer booster now available to older Americans and those at higher-risk, including on the job, as CDC chief partly overrules panel,” Washington Post, September 24, 2021,

Aaron Blake, “The question Republicans still can’t really answer on vaccine mandates,” Washington Post, September 25, 2021,

Richard Winton, “All California prison guards, staff must get COVID-19 vaccine, federal judge rules,” Los Angeles Times, September 27, 2021,

Jim Salter, “COVID-related attacks prompt hospital to issue panic buttons,” Associated Press, September 28, 2021,

Aaron Blake, “The evidence is building: Vaccine mandates work — and well,” Washington Post, September 29, 2021,

Christina Baker Kline, “My father should be in surgery rehab. But with beds full of the unvaccinated, he died in covid quarantine,” Washington Post, September 29, 2021,

Mark Berman, “As coronavirus cases mount and vaccine mandates spread, holdouts plague police and fire departments,” Washington Post, October 2, 2021,

Michael Brice-Saddler and Jasmine Hilton, “Thousands of D.C. health care workers remain unvaccinated amid flurry of religious exemption requests,” Washington Post, October 2, 2021,

Mike Baker, “In Alaska’s Covid Crisis, Doctors Must Decide Who Lives and Who Dies,” New York Times, October 3, 2021,

Kim Bellware, “Workers with unvaccinated spouses will pay more for insurance, a Louisiana health system says,” Washington Post, October 5, 2021,

Reuters, “U.S. CDC’s Walensky says COVID-19 death 7-day average remains constant at 1,400 per day,” October 6, 2021,

Hannah Knowles and Caroline Anders, “Hospital system says it will deny transplants to the unvaccinated in ‘almost all situations,’” Washington Post, October 6, 2021,

Jamie Gumbrecht, “Pfizer seeks FDA authorization of Covid-19 vaccine for children ages 5 to 11,” CNN, October 7, 2021,

Katie Camero, “UCLA doctor ‘willing to lose everything’ escorted from work for refusing COVID vaccine,” Sacramento Bee, October 7, 2021,

Faiz Siddiqui, “Elon Musk announces Tesla is moving its headquarters from California to Texas,” Washington Post, October 7, 2021,

Antony Currie, “Tesla’s move to Texas further mars ESG credentials,” Reuters, October 8, 2021,

Justin Lahart, “Jobs Forecasters Got Schooled—Here’s Why,” Wall Street Journal, October 8, 2021,

Jason Laughlin, “Vaccines continue to protect against COVID-19, but latest Pa. data show signs of waning effectiveness,” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 8, 2021,

Heather Long, “America’s unemployed are sending a message: They’ll go back to work when they feel safe – and well-compensated,” Washington Post, October 8, 2021,

Josh Mitchell, “U.S. Economy Added Only 194,000 Jobs in September,” Wall Street Journal, October 8, 2021,

Ben Sales, “A Proud Boys-sympathizing rabbi in Florida has provided 200 vaccine exemption requests,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 8, 2021,

Justin Wolfers, “Non-farm payrolls in September rose by only +194k, after +366k last month. . . .” Twitter, October 8, 2021,

Alex Horton, “Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops have not yet complied with vaccine mandate as deadlines near,” Washington Post, October 10, 2021,

Tami Luhby, “Unemployment benefits ended, but hiring did not surge in September,” CNN, October 10, 2021,

Lizette Alvarez, “Florida teachers are quitting their jobs in droves — and who can blame them?” Washington Post, October 11, 2021,

Tom Frieden, “Pfizer and Moderna’s mRNA vaccines are our best chance to end this pandemic. Break up their duopoly,” Washington Post, October 12, 2021,

Jeff Tiedrich, “holy fucking shit, vaccine mandates are causing . . . ,” Twitter, October 12, 2021,

Dan Whitcomb, “Texas governor bars all COVID-19 vaccine mandates in state, rips Biden for ‘bullying,’” Reuters, October 12, 2021,

Tom Hals, “Texas vaccine mandate ban may be trumped by federal law but could cause uncertainty,” Reuters, October 13, 2021,

Kate Merriman, “Pennsylvania hits 70% COVID-19 vaccination rate for adults,” WGAL, October 14, 2021,

Ryan Young, Jason Morris, and Ray Sanchez, “Five times as many police officers have died from Covid-19 as from gunfire since start of pandemic,” CNN, October 16, 2021,

Tawnya Panizzi, Renatta Signorini, and Natasha Lindstrom, “‘You can’t fix it with facts’: Doctors share patients’ excuses for covid vaccine refusal,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, October 17, 2021,

Eric Berger, “Police departments face a shortage as unions enable officers to refuse vaccines,” Guardian, October 18, 2021,

Linda Geddes, “Without Covid-19 jab, ‘reinfection may occur every 16 months,’” Guardian, October 19, 2021,

Fola Akinnibi, “NYC, other big cities confront police-union blowback on vaccine mandates,” Sacramento Bee, October 20, 2021,

Sarah Boden, “Experts question the science of police union’s challenge to Allegheny County’s vaccine mandate,” WESA, October 20, 2021,

John Byrne, “Chicago police union official compares vaccine standoff with mayor to ‘Hunger Games,’” Sacramento Bee, October 20, 2021,

Nolan Hicks, “New York’s Orthodox neighborhoods lagging in COVID shots, records show,” New York Post, October 20, 2021,

Peter Loftus and Felicia Schwartz, “Moderna and J&J Covid-19 Boosters, Mixing and Matching Authorized by the FDA,” Wall Street Journal, October 20, 2021,

Don Sweeney, “In-n-Out livid after city closes San Francisco restaurant over COVID vaccine rules,” Sacramento Bee, October 20, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Pa. Commonwealth Court panel hears argument on masking in schools,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, October 20, 2021,

Megan Guza, “Pittsburgh police lose 2nd officer to covid-19,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, October 21, 2021,

Marion Renault, “Red America’s Compassion Fatigue: A Report From Mobile, Alabama,” New Republic, October 21, 2021,

Don Sweeney, “Another In-N-Out faces fines in California as chain battles COVID vaccine rules,” Sacramento Bee, October 21, 2021,

Zak Cheney-Rice, “The Police’s Farcical War on Vaccine Mandates,” New York, October 22, 2021,

Eric Ting, “Contra Costa County says In-N-Out surrenders, will halt indoor dining at all locations,” SFGate, October 27, 2021,

Josh Funk, “Report: At least 59,000 meat workers caught COVID, 269 died,” Sacramento Bee, October 28, 2021,

Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court won’t block vaccine mandate for Maine health-care workers with religious objections,” Washington Post, October 29, 2021,

Howard Blume, “They stuck to their anti-vax beliefs. Now these teachers and school workers are out of jobs,” Los Angeles Times, October 29, 2021,

Priscella Vega, “Sheriff warns vaccine mandate causing ‘mass exodus’ among personnel,” Los Angeles Times, October 31, 2021,

Ryan Deto, “Three Pittsburgh Police officers have died of COVID in just over a month,” Pittsburgh City Paper, November 2, 2021,

Megan Guza, “Pittsburgh police sergeant dies after covid complications,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, November 2, 2021,

Shira Hanau, “Marjorie Taylor Greene blames ‘vaccine Nazis’ for ‘ruining our country’ months after Holocaust museum apology,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, November 3, 2021,

Nancy A. Youssef, “Thousands in Air Force, Space Force Seek Exemption From Covid-19 Vaccines,” Wall Street Journal, November 3, 2021,

Eli Rosenberg, “White House vaccine rule would require companies and workers to comply by Jan. 4,” Washington Post, November 4, 2021,

Martin Espinoza, “COVID-19 again on the rise in Sonoma County,” Santa Rosa Press-Democrat, November 5, 2021,

Nicole Ford, “Hundreds of Pittsburgh police officers considering retiring, leaving job,” WPXI, November 5, 2021,

Megan Guza, “Pittsburgh police union file grievance over covid vaccine mandate,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, November 5, 2021,

Brent Kendall and Sabrina Siddiqui, “Federal Appeals Court Temporarily Blocks Biden Administration Vaccine Rules for Private Employers,” Wall Street Journal, November 6, 2021,

Paula Reed Ward, “Pennsylvania court throws out state’s school mask mandate,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, November 10, 2021,

Amelia Winger, “Not done with the virus: Allegheny County reports rising cases despite decline last month,” Public Source, November 10, 2021,

Andrea Salcedo, “San Francisco police officer dies of covid while on leave for failing to meet vaccination requirement,” Washington Post, November 11, 2021,

Samantha Lock, “Austria province to place millions of unvaccinated people in Covid lockdown,” Guardian, November 11, 2021,

Charlie Savage, “Appeals Court Extends Block on Biden’s Vaccine Mandate for Employers,” New York Times, November 12, 2021,

Rich Haridy, “Real-world data finds 3rd COVID vaccine dose greatly boosts protection,” New Atlas, November 16, 2021,

Elliot Douglas and Rina Goldenberg, “COVID: Germany introduces new measures to curb the pandemic,” Deutschewelle, November 18, 2021,

Tobias Großekemper, “The Violence of the Fourth Wave: ‘One Thing We Have Learned Is that COVID Is an Asshole,’” Spiegel, November 19, 2021,

Laurie McGinley, “FDA authorizes Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna boosters for all adults,” Washington Post, November 19, 2021,

Bojan Pancevski, “Austria Becomes First in Europe to Impose Vaccine Mandate, Return to Lockdown,” Wall Street Journal, November 19, 2021,

Lena H. Sun, Laurie McGinley, and Frances Stead Sellers, “With federal sign-offs, all American adults now eligible for coronavirus vaccine boosters,” Washington Post, November 19, 2021,

“ICU is full of the unvaccinated – my patience with them is wearing thin,” Guardian, November 21, 2021,

Steve Beynon, “Soldiers Who Refuse Vaccination Can Still Serve, But Their Careers Are Over,”, November 22, 2021,

Anthony Faiola, “Squeezed by mandates and restrictions, Europe’s anti-vaxxers rebel,” Washington Post, November 22, 2021,

Annie Linskey and Tyler Pager, “U.S. to restrict travel from South Africa and other countries as it assesses risks of new omicron variant,” Washington Post, November 26, 2021,

Gabriele Steinhauser, “Omicron Identified as Covid-19 ‘Variant of Concern,’ Triggering Global Fears,” Wall Street Journal, November 26, 2021,

Peta Thornycroft and Will Brown, “Will the omicron variant bypass vaccines? South African experts say it will take ‘weeks’ to find out,” Telegraph, November 26, 2021,

Times of Israel, “S. African expert downplays threat from Omicron: ‘We won’t have a severe epidemic,’” November 26, 2021,

Joe Wallace, Quentin Webb and Paul Vigna, “Stocks, Oil Drop Sharply on Concerns Over New Covid-19 Variant,” Wall Street Journal, November 26, 2021,

Chico Harlan and Lesley Wroughton, “Omicron variant detected from Britain to Hong Kong as countries race to impose controls,” Washington Post, November 27, 2021,

Carl Zimmer, “New Virus Variant Stokes Concern but Vaccines Still Likely to Work,” New York Times, November 27, 2021,

Rachel Pannett, “As omicron variant is detected around the world, travel bans may be too late, experts say,” Washington Post, November 28, 2021,

Eddie, “One party prevented my family from being evicted . . . .” Twitter, November 30, 2021,

Adam Taylor, “As omicron variant alarm spreads, countries mull a radical ‘pandemic treaty,’” Washington Post, November 30, 2021,

Justin Huggler, “Angela Merkel backs compulsory Covid jabs as Germany agrees de facto lockdown for unvaccinated,” Telegraph, December 2, 2021,

Associated Press, “California parents knowingly sent child to school with COVID,” Sacramento Bee, December 4, 2021,

Carlos del Rio, “Omicron is everywhere! All evidence still suggests . . .” Twitter, December 4, 2021,

Carolyn Thompson, “More omicron detected as hospitals strain under delta surge,” Sacramento Bee, December 4, 2021,

Daniel Wood and Geoff Brumfiel, “Pro-Trump counties now have far higher COVID death rates. Misinformation is to blame,” National Public Radio, December 5, 2021,

Megan Guza, “Allegheny County health director: ‘I don’t expect the situation to improve soon,’” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 8, 2021,

Michael Rubinkam, “COVID surge: Pennsylvania hospital chain runs out of beds,” Associated Press, December 8, 2021,

Joseph Walker, “Pfizer Says Booster Is Effective Against Omicron but Variant Evades Two Doses,” Wall Street Journal, December 8, 2021,

Clayton Dalton, “In New Mexico, the Pandemic Rages On,” New Yorker, December 9, 2021,

Megan Guza, “Covid-driven hospital surge ‘not a sustainable situation’ in Western Pa., expert says,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 9, 2021,

Sarah Gantz and Stacey Burling, “Pa. hospitals are really busy. They beg you to get your flu and COVID-19 vaccines,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 10, 2021,

Maddie Hanna, “Pa. Supreme Court strikes down school mask mandate imposed by Wolf administration,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 10, 2021,

Konstantin Toropin, “Oklahoma Guard Leader Tells Vaccine Refusers to Prepare for ‘Career Ending Federal Action,’”, December 10, 2021,

Lolita C. Baldor, “Navy Commander Fired After Refusing to Get COVID Vaccine,”, December 11, 2021,

Associated Press, “US air force discharges 27 service members for refusing Covid vaccine,” Guardian, December 13, 2021,

Jeff Himler, “Covid cases create ‘desperate’ situation at Westmoreland hospitals,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 14, 2021,

Mark Honigsbaum, “The Deep Roots of Vaccine Hesitancy,” New York Review of Books, December 14, 2021,

Deb Erdley, “Westmoreland Co. lawmaker offers to help with vaccine exemptions as covid-19 infections surge,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 15, 2021,

Heather Hollingsworth, “US COVID death toll hits 800,000, a year into vaccine drive,” Associated Press, December 15, 2021,

Lolita C. Baldor, “Across services, troops face discipline for refusing vaccine,” Sacramento Bee, December 16, 2021,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Anti-5G necklaces found to be radioactive,” December 17, 2021,

Stacey Burling, “COVID-19 may have killed people who never tested positive for the virus, NJ report finds,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 17, 2021,

Jamie Martines, “Everything you need to know to stay COVID-safe during a second pandemic winter,” Spotlight PA, December 17, 2021,

Ann E. Marimow, “Appeals court reinstates Biden’s vaccine policy for businesses, setting up a likely showdown at Supreme Court,” Washington Post, December 17, 2021,

Justine McDaniel and Erin McCarthy, “Full ICUs, 100 dying a day: The winter coronavirus surge is straining Pa.’s health-care system,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 17, 2021,

Paul Waldman, “The red covid wave is here,” Washington Post, December 17, 2021,

Ed White, “Hits ‘keep coming’: Hospitals struggle as COVID beds fill,” Associated Press, December 18, 2021,

Ellen Francis and Meryl Kornfield, “New York coronavirus cases hit record high for second straight day as omicron upends holiday plans,” Washington Post, December 18, 2021,

Chico Harlan, “Highly vaccinated countries thought they were over the worst. Denmark says the pandemic’s toughest month is just beginning,” Washington Post, December 18, 2021,

Jill Colvin, “Trump reveals he got COVID-19 booster shot; crowd boos him,” Associated Press, December 20, 2021,

Rong-Gong Lin, II, and Emily Alpert Reyes, “California braces for Omicron wave amid grim forecasts, concerns for hospitals,” Los Angeles Times, December 20, 2021,

Angela Haupt, “Thousands who ‘followed the rules’ are about to get covid. They shouldn’t be ashamed,” Washington Post, December 22, 2021,

Christyn Allen, “Meadville Medical Center pleads for Community’s Help,” Erie News Now, December 23, 2021,

Lolita C. Baldor, “More Marines Discharged Over Vaccine Refusal, Total at 169,”, December 23, 2021,

Olafimihan Oshin, “Trump pushes back on Candace Owens: ‘People aren’t dying when they take the vaccine,’” Hill, December 23, 2021,

WTAE, “City of Pittsburgh says 85.85% of city employees are vaccinated, 278 face discipline due to mandate,” December 23, 2021,

Megan Guza, “Pennsylvania, Allegheny County report record covid cases,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 24, 2021,

Philip Marcelo, Anne D’Innocenzio, and Bobby Caina Calvan, “Omicron is latest blow to pandemic-weary front-line workers,” Associated Press, December 24, 2021,

Ariana Eunjung Cha and Jacqueline Dupree, “Omicron and children: Pediatric hospitals in parts of U.S. filling fast,” Washington Post, December 24, 2021,

Brittny Mejia, “ICU doctors, nurses demoralized over ‘needless’ COVID-19 misery. ‘Patients are still dying,’” Los Angeles Times, December 24, 2021,

Aila Slisco, “75 Percent of Unvaxxed Trump Voters Vow to Never Get Jab After Ex-President’s Urging: Poll,” Newsweek, December 24, 2021,

Sarah Bahr and Mike Baker, “Another Christmas of Death and Distress in America’s I.C.U.s,” New York Times, December 25, 2021,

Brittny Mejia, “COVID stole the heart of my family. It also divided it,” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 2021,

Sarah Zhang, “Omicron Is Pushing America Into Soft Lockdown,” Atlantic, December 26, 2021,

Yasmeen Abutaleb, “CDC cuts isolation time recommended for people with asymptomatic coronavirus infections,” Washington Post, December 27, 2021,

WBUR, “Mass. hospitals welcome National Guard members, cancel non-urgent procedures as cases rise,” December 27, 2021,

Peter Weber, “Candace Owens claims Trump supports COVID vaccines because he’s ‘old’ and ‘came from a time before TV,’” Week, December 27, 2022,

Tia Goldenberg, “Hard-hit by first waves of COVID, Israel’s ultra-Orthodox slow to get vaccinated,” Times of Israel, December 28, 2021,

Luke Money and Rong-Gong Lin, II, “California COVID-19 hospitalizations up 25% in last week,” Los Angeles Times, December 28, 2021,

Amy Spiro, “Israel eases quarantine rules for vaccinated as daily cases hit 3-month high,” Times of Israel, December 28, 2021,

Travis Tritten, “Pentagon Advises Booster Shots as COVID Cases Surge over Holidays,”, December 28, 2021,

Yasmeen Abutaleb, Sean Sullivan, and Eli Rosenberg, “New CDC guidelines were spurred by worries omicron surge could lead to breakdown in essential services,” Washington Post, December 29, 2021,

Joel Achenbach and Yasmeen Abutaleb, “Coronavirus risk calculations get harder as a study suggests rapid tests may be less effective at detecting omicron,” Washington Post, December 29, 2021,

Quint Forgey, “‘This was the moment’: CDC defends altered guidance amid Omicron surge,” Politico, December 29, 2021,

Molly Osberg, “The CDC Says We’re All Essential Workers Now,” New Republic, December 29, 2021,

Kathleen Foody, “New COVID-19 cases in US soar to highest levels on record,” Associated Press, December 30, 2021,

Hannah Sampson, “CDC warns against cruise travel after 5,000 new coronavirus cases in 2 weeks,” Washington Post, December 30, 2021,

Erin McCarthy, “Pa. nurses after 22 months of COVID-19 and a new surge: ‘It is so defeating,’” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 31, 2021,

Melody Schreiber, “America Quits the Fight Against Covid,” New Republic, December 31, 2021,

Paige Lavender, “Texas Gov. Asks For Federal Help With COVID Testing, Treatments As Cases Climb,” Huffington Post, January 1, 2022,

Bailey Aldridge, “CDC considers updating COVID isolation rules following pushback on testing, Fauci says,” Sacramento Bee, January 2, 2022,

Michael Bachner, “Up to a third of Israelis predicted to get COVID in next 3 weeks; tests running out,” Times of Israel, January 2, 2022,

Stephanie Farr, “Main Line Health pauses elective surgeries and procedures amid a surge in COVID-19 cases,” Philadelphia Inquirer, January 2, 2022,

Shaun Lintern and Gabriel Pogrund, “NHS struggles as sickness takes out 1 in 10 staff,” Times, January 2, 2022,

Donie O’Sullivan, “One of Marjorie Taylor Greene’s verified Twitter accounts permanently suspended from Twitter,” CNN, January 2, 2022,

Sarah Gantz and Aubrey Whelan, “Philly hospitals react to COVID-19 surge by canceling procedures, tightening visitor policies,” Philadelphia Inquirer, January 3, 2022,

Dan Lamothe, “Judge grants relief to Navy SEALs who refused coronavirus vaccine, sued Biden administration,” Washington Post, January 3, 2022,

Eugene Scott, “Marjorie Taylor Greene suspended from Facebook for 24 hours for covid-19 misinformation, one day after Twitter account suspension,” Washington Post, January 3, 2022,

Agence France-Presse, “Soaring Omicron could lead to more dangerous variants, WHO warns,” Times of Israel, January 4, 2022,

Steve Beynon, “‘He Is Not Your Commander-in-Chief:’ Texas Governor Promises Guardsmen He’ll Fight Biden Over Vaccine Mandate,”, January 4, 2022,

Luke Money, Rong-Gong Lin, II, and Emily Alpert Reyes, “Hospitals see big jumps in COVID-19 patients, but this surge is different from last winter,” Los Angeles Times, January 4, 2022,

Ovetta Wiggins, “Hogan declares 30-day state of emergency as state enters its ‘most challenging time’ of the pandemic,” Washington Post, January 4, 2022,

Age, “Djokovic’s views are wrong, but he shouldn’t be booed,” January 5, 2022,

Megan Guza, “Covid positivity rate in Allegheny skyrockets to 26% as omicron spreads,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 5, 2022,

Melissa Hernandez, “How politicized has vaccination become? Thousands of U.S. troops are disobeying orders that they get shots,” Los Angeles Times, January 5, 2022,

Spencer Kimball, “CDC declines to add Covid testing recommendation to updated isolation guidance despite criticism,” CNBC, January 5, 2022,

Sophia Tareen, “Chicago cancels classes after union backs remote learning,” Associated Press, January 5, 2022,

Lancaster Online, “COVID-19 patient counts set new records in Lancaster County and across Pennsylvania as hospital surge continues,” January 6, 2022,

Leana S. Wen, “Omicron is not a reason to keep schools closed,” Washington Post, January 6, 2022,

Robert Barnes and Ann E. Marimow, “Supreme Court seems skeptical of Biden’s vaccine rules for businesses, more receptive to policy for health-care workers,” Washington Post, January 7, 2022,

Justine McDaniel and Erin McCarthy, “About 90% of COVID-19 patients in some of Pa.’s hardest-hit hospitals are unvaccinated,” Philadelphia Inquirer, January 7, 2022,

Angie Schmitt, “Why I Soured on the Democrats,” Atlantic, January 7, 2022,

Will Sommer, “QAnon Star Who Said Only ‘Idiots’ Get Vax Dies of COVID,” Daily Beast, January 7, 2022,

James Tapper, Michael Savage, and Robin McKie, “End mass jabs and live with Covid, says ex-head of vaccine taskforce,” Guardian, January 8, 2022,

Michael E. Miller, “Novak Djokovic wins case against Australia over canceled visa, clearing path for him to play in Melbourne,” Washington Post, January 9, 2022,

Patrick Reilly, “Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez tests positive for COVID-19,” New York Post, January 9, 2022,

Melanie Evans, “Hospitals Cut Beds as Nurses Call In Sick With Covid-19,” Wall Street Journal, January 10, 2022,

Amy Graff, “Head of COVID response at UCSF: ‘I have not intubated a single COVID patient during this Omicron surge,’ SFGate, January 10, 2022,

Steve Lundeberg, “Oregon State research shows hemp compounds prevent coronavirus from entering human cells,” Oregon State University, January 10, 2022,

Erin McCarthy and Justine McDaniel, “Delco hospitals are full and an ER is closing as COVID-19 surge intensifies in Philly area,” Philadelphia Inquirer, January 10, 2022,

Derek Thompson, “Why More Americans Are Saying They’re ‘Vaxxed and Done,’” Atlantic, January 10, 2022,

Travis Caldwell and Deidre McPhillips, “Covid-19 hospitalizations reach record high, HHS data shows,” CNN, January 11, 2022,

Max Hoppenstedt and Jörn Meyn, “Were the Results of a Positive PCR Test Manipulated?” Spiegel, January 11, 2022,

Arwa Mahdawi, “Anti-vaxxers are touting another new Covid ‘cure’ – drinking urine. But they are not the only obstacles to ending the pandemic,” Guardian, January 11, 2022,

Scott Calvert and Ben Chapman, “Schools See Big Drop in Attendance as Students Stay Away, Citing Covid-19,” Wall Street Journal, January 12, 2022,

Kristin Gelineau, “Amid Djokovic backlash, Australia grapples with omicron wave,” Associated Press, January 12, 2022,

Sarah Jones, “We’re Having the Wrong Conversation About School,” New York, January 12, 2022,

Jon Pye and Rod McGuirk, “Djokovic: Not isolating after COVID infection was ‘error,’” Associated Press, January 12, 2022,

Hayley Smith, “With hospitals reeling, California tells COVID-positive medical workers to stay on the job,” Los Angeles Times, January 12, 2022,

Lindsey Tanner, “Low COVID-19 vaccination rates in kids ages 5 to 11 called a ‘gut punch,’ WTAE, January 12, 2022,

Rosalio Ahumada, “Sheriff to release 203 inmates to halt outbreak as COVID cases quadruple at Sacramento jails,” Sacramento Bee, January 13, 2022,

Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court blocks Biden’s workplace vaccine rules, allows requirement for health-care workers,” Washington Post, January 13, 2022,

David Ingram, “Quietly and over some objections, a national digital vaccine card has emerged,” NBC News, January 13, 2022,

Anthony Galloway, “Djokovic heading back into detention, deportation on hold,” Sydney Morning Herald, January 14, 2022,

Oliver Laughland, “Southern US hospitals grapple with staff shortages amid record Covid cases,” Guardian, January 14, 2022,

Michael E. Miller, “Novak Djokovic detained again just two days before start of Australian Open,” Washington Post, January 14, 2022,

Ben Rumsby and Simon Briggs, “Australian Open thrown into chaos as Novak Djokovic faces Sunday court hearing after government cancels visa again,” Telegraph, January 14, 2022,

Paul Karp, “Novak Djokovic leaves Australia after court upholds visa cancellation,” Guardian, January 16, 2022,

Michael E. Miller, “Novak Djokovic loses visa challenge, denting hopes of playing in the Australian Open,” Washington Post, January 16, 2022,

Tumaini Carayol, “Djokovic’s French Open title defence in doubt after Covid pass ruling,” Guardian, January 17, 2022,

Andrea Stanley, “People Are Hiding That Their Unvaccinated Loved Ones Died of COVID,” Atlantic, January 18, 2022,

Lenny Bernstein, “Inside a Rhode Island hospital E.R. overwhelmed by omicron,” Washington Post, January 19, 2022,

Christopher J. L. Murray, “COVID-19 will continue but the end of the pandemic is near,” Lancet 399, no. 10323 (January 19, 2022): 417-419, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00100-3

Jacob Gershman, “Judge Blocks Biden Covid-19 Vaccine Mandate for Federal Workers,” Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2022,

Paula Reed Ward, “Federal judge rejects request to reinstate universal masking in Upper St. Clair School District,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 21, 2022,

Tony LaRussa, “Federal court issues injunction ordering Upper St. Clair to keep mask requirement in place,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 23, 2022,

Melanie Phillips, “Libertarian right has lost its way over Covid,” Times, January 24, 2022,

Spencer Kimball, “Biden administration withdraws Covid vaccine mandate for businesses after losing Supreme Court case,” CNBC, January 25, 2022,

Michaeleen Doucleff, “A second version of omicron is spreading. Here’s why scientists are on alert,” National Public Radio, January 27, 2022,

Paula Reed Ward, “District court in Pittsburgh split on school masking, issue likely to be decided by appellate court,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 27, 2022,

Associated Press, “Pregnant New Zealand journalist stranded by quarantine rules says she turned to Taliban,” Guardian, January 29, 2022,

Megan Guza, “Finding hope amid darkness,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 30, 2022,

Leana S. Wen, “Yes, more variants may emerge in the future. That’s why we should lift restrictions now,” Washington Post, February 1, 2022,

Mitchell Willetts, “COVID has killed more Americans in 2022 than the flu has in 3 years, CDC data shows,” Sacramento Bee, February 1, 2022,

Dani Anguiano, “California county on track to be run by militia-aligned group,” Guardian, February 3, 2022,

Andre Damon, “End of COVID-19 hospital death reporting is ‘incomprehensible,’ says US health official,” World Socialist Web Site, February 3, 2022,

Shawna Mizelle, “US Army to begin discharging soldiers who refuse Covid-19 vaccination,” CNN, February 3, 2022,

Erin McCarthy and Justine McDaniel, “Less than a third of Pa. and N.J. elementary schoolers have been vaccinated against COVID-19, three months since the shot became available,” Philadelphia Inquirer, February 3, 2022,

Mathew Ingram to Media Today list, “Of platforms, publishers, and responsibility,” Columbia Journalism Review, February 4, 2022,

Associated Press, “‘It is an astronomically high number’: US Covid death toll surpasses 900,000,” Guardian, February 4, 2022,

Laura J. Nelson, “Online pastors, form letters: The cottage industry helping workers avoid vaccine mandates,” Los Angeles Times, February 6, 2022,

Anthony Faiola, “Canada’s Trumpian trucker protests show the global radicalization of anti-vaxxers,” Washington Post, February 8, 2022,

Renatta Signorini, “Hospital leaders hopeful as covid cases decline, staffing remains an issue,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, February 9, 2022,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Covid: Trucker protests may hit Super Bowl, US security agency says,” February 10, 2022,

Leyland Cecco, “Protesters defy order to clear bridge connecting Canada and US,” Guardian, February 11, 2022,

Amanda Coletta et al., “Police prepare to clear ‘Freedom Convoy’ protesters on Ontario border bridge. Tear gas used on Champs-Élysées crowd,” Washington Post, February 12, 2022,

Miguel Marquez, Jason Hanna, and Kim Berryman, “Canadian police begin attempt to clear protesters blocking Ambassador Bridge to US,” CNN, February 12, 2022,

Kayla Tarnowski and Julio Cesar Chavez, “Key bridge to U.S. remains closed as Canada police clear protesters,” Reuters, February 13, 2022,

Brian Wilk, “US Freedom Convoy met with support as they make stop in Erie,”, February 13, 2022,

Miriam Berger et al., “U.S.-Canada border crossing reopens after six-day blockade by ‘Freedom Convoy’ protesters,” Washington Post, February 14, 2022,

Amanda Coletta et al., “Trudeau invokes Emergencies Act against Canada’s ‘Freedom Convoy’ trucker protest,” Washington Post, February 14, 2022,

Paul Vieira and Kim Mackrael, “U.S.-Canada Bridge Reopens After Police Clear Protest,” Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2022,

Amol Rajan, “Novak Djokovic: I’m not anti-vax but will sacrifice trophies if told to get jab,” British Broadcasting Corporation, February 15, 2022,

Matthew Syed, “What Novak Djokovic revealed to me at lunch,” Times, February 16, 2022,

Ed Yong, “The Millions of People Stuck in Pandemic Limbo,” Atlantic, February 16, 2022,

Amanda Coletta et al., “Ottawa arrests two ‘Freedom Convoy’ protest organizers as police chief vows to ‘take back’ city,” Washington Post, February 17, 2022,

Melody Schreiber, “US has suffered more than 1m excess deaths during pandemic, CDC finds,” Guardian, February 17, 2022,

Oriana Gonzalez, “Canadian police arrest over 100 people in trucker protests,” Axios, February 18, 2022,

Jean Yi, “COVID-19 Isn’t Going Anywhere — And Americans Know It,” FiveThirtyEight, February 18, 2022,

Brenda Goodman, “As BA.2 subvariant of Omicron rises, lab studies point to signs of severity,” CNN, February 19, 2022,

Miriam Berger, “Police regain control of most of Canada’s capital, say protesters will continue to be identified and charged as holdouts persist,” Washington Post, February 20, 2022,

Melody Schreiber, “Why Is This Group of Doctors So Intent on Unmasking Kids?” New Republic, February 22, 2022,

Melissa Healy, “CDC significantly eases pandemic mask guidelines,” Los Angeles Times, February 25, 2022,

Sophia Schmidt, “Pennsylvania expected to follow CDC relaxation of mask guidance,” WHYY, February 25, 2022,

Alexandra Stevenson and Austin Ramzy, “‘I Don’t Dare Get the Shot’: Virus Ravages Unvaccinated Older Hong Kongers,” New York Times, February 25, 2022,

Agence France-Presse, “US health agency loosens COVID mask guidelines,” Raw Story, February 26, 2022,

John Shumway, “‘This Guidance Makes Sense:’ Infectious Disease Specialist Supports New CDC Guidance,” KDKA-TV, February 26, 2022,

Sergio Olmos, “‘Don Quixote-like quest’: Ukraine attack and easing Covid mandates leave US trucker protest on the fringe,” Guardian, February 27, 2022,

Chris Walker, “California ‘Freedom Convoy’ Cancels Trip to DC, Citing Low Participation,” Truthout, February 28, 2022,

Fontaine Glenn, “Protesters show support as Freedom Convoy travels to D.C.,”, March 2, 2022,

Paula Reed Ward, “Court throws out school mask lawsuits by Upper St. Clair, North Allegheny,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, March 2, 2022,

Jon LaPook, “America’s virus trackers show cautious optimism over state of coronavirus pandemic,” CBS News, March 6, 2022,

Tina Nguyen, “The G.O.P.’s New Trump-Putin Headache,” Puck News, March 7, 2022,

Jen Christensen and Holly Yan, “A 4th dose of Covid-19 vaccine will be needed, Pfizer’s CEO says, but the company is working on a shot to handle all variants,” CNN, March 13, 2022,

Keith Bradsher, “Surge of Omicron Infections Prompts Lockdowns in China,” New York Times, March 14, 2022,

Laurie McGinley, Tyler Pager, and Carolyn Y. Johnson, “Pfizer and BioNTech to seek authorization of second coronavirus booster shot for people 65 and older,” Washington Post, March 15, 2022,

David Stanway and Roxanne Liu, “China’s soaring COVID infections fuel concern about cost of containment,” Reuters, March 15, 2022,

Lenny Bernstein and Joel Achenbach, “A covid surge in Western Europe has U.S. bracing for another wave,” Washington Post, March 16, 2022,

Joe Davidson, “Airline passenger traffic dropped in the pandemic. But TSA seized more guns than ever,” Washington Post, March 18, 2022,

Moira Wyton, “It’s Not Over. Experts Warn of New COVID Wave,” Tyee, March 18, 2022,

Jon Kamp, “Omicron BA.2 Variant Represents Rising Share of U.S. Covid-19 Cases,” Wall Street Journal, March 22, 2022,

Laurie McGinley and Lena H. Sun, “FDA expected to authorize second coronavirus booster for 50 and older,” Washington Post, March 28, 2022,

Luke Money and Rong-Gong Lin, II, “Infectious Omicron BA.2 now dominant in U.S., with coronavirus spring rise likely,” Los Angeles Times, March 29, 2022,

Carolyn Y. Johnson, “FDA authorizes second coronavirus booster shot for people 50 and older,” Washington Post, March 29, 2022,

Tara Parker-Pope and Knvul Sheikh, “A New Wave of Covid-19 Is Coming. Here’s How to Prepare,” New York Times, April 1, 2022,

Mindy Fullilove et al., “The CDC is beholden to corporations and lost our trust. We need to start our own The People’s CDC,” Guardian, April 3, 2022,

Reuters, “U.S. poor died at much higher rate from COVID than rich – report,” April 4, 2022,

Lena H. Sun, “CDC, under fire for covid response, announces plans to revamp agency,” Washington Post, April 4, 2022,

Jennifer Abbasi, “Pushed to Their Limits, 1 in 5 Physicians Intends to Leave Practice,” Journal of the American Medical Association, March 30, 2022, doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.5074

Tierney Sneed, “CDC mask mandate for travelers no longer in effect following judge’s ruling, official says,” CNN, April 18, 2022,

Omar Abdel-Baqui, “Uber Drops Mask Requirement After Judge Voids Public Transportation Mandate,” Wall Street Journal, April 19, 2022,

Sarah Alessandrini, “Uber and Lyft drop mask requirements for drivers, passengers,” CNBC, April 19, 2022,

Lyft, “Update to Lyft’s Health Safety Guidelines,” April 19, 2022,

Michael Balsamo, “Justice Department to appeal order voiding travel mask mandate,” Los Angeles Times, April 20, 2022,

Katie Shepherd and Niha Masih, “Nearly 15 million deaths related to covid-19, WHO estimates,” Washington Post, May 5, 2022,

Yasmeen Abutaleb and Joel Achenbach, “Coronavirus wave this fall could infect 100 million, administration warns,” Washington Post, May 6, 2022,

Marc Fisher et al., “After 1 million deaths, covid leaves millions more forever changed,” Washington Post, May 7, 2022,

Katherine J. Wu, “A Negative COVID Test Has Never Been So Meaningless,” Atlantic, June 10, 2022,

Harold Brubaker, “Research behind COVID-19 vaccines reaps close to $1 billion in royalties for Penn,” Philadelphia Inquirer, June 12, 2022,

Chas Danner, “When Will the BA.5 Wave End?” New York, July 17, 2022,

Ellen McCarthy, “Meet the covid super-dodgers,” Washington Post, July 21, 2022,

Corinne Purtill, “New studies say Wuhan market is the only ‘plausible’ source of COVID-19 pandemic,&Rdquo; Los Angeles Times, July 26, 2022,

Katherine J. Wu, “America’s Fall Booster Plan Has a Fatal Paradox,” Atlantic, August 25, 2022,

Brenda Goodman, “CDC signs off on updated Covid-19 boosters,” CNN, September 1, 2022,

Laurie McGinley and Lena H. Sun, “What you need to know about fall booster shots of coronavirus vaccine,” Washington Post, September 2, 2022,

Hanna Webster, “Allegheny County residents could get new COVID-19 boosters as soon as next week,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 2, 2022,

Telegraph, “Covid app that detects virus in your voice ‘more accurate than lateral flow tests,’” September 4, 2022,

Cheryl Serra, “Study Finds Large Gap in Excess Deaths Along Partisan Lines After COVID-19 Vaccines Introduced,” Yale School of Public Health, November 3, 2022,

Helen Davidson and Verna Yu, “Clashes in Shanghai as protests over zero-Covid policy grip China,” Guardian, November 27, 2022,

Crawford Kilian, “China Is in Serious Trouble,” Tyee, November 28, 2022,

Devi Sridhar, “China’s Covid crisis demands terrible choices. The world will suffer if this goes wrong,” Guardian, November 28, 2022,

Reuters, “Twitter rolls back COVID misinformation policy,” November 29, 2022,

Katy Stech Ferek and Lindsay Wise, “Lawmakers Agree to Rescind Military’s Covid-19 Mandate in Defense Deal,” Wall Street Journal, December 6, 2022,

Paula Reed Ward, “Pittsburgh Regional employees sue over covid-19 vaccine mandate,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 6, 2022,

Christian Shepherd, “China eases covid testing and health code rules in wake of protests,” Washington Post, December 7, 2022,

Elon Musk, “My pronouns are Prosecute/Fauci,” Twitter, December 11, 2022,

Charlie Warzel, “Elon Musk Is a Far-Right Activist,” Atlantic, December 11, 2022,

Bloomberg, “China Estimates Covid Surge Is Infecting 37 Million People a Day,” December 23, 2022,

Mike Argento, “From pandemic to partisanship, Gov. Tom Wolf had a hard 8 years in office. He loved it all,” York Daily Record, January 11, 2023,

Katherine Eban, “Can America Learn This Pandemic’s Lessons Before the Next One Hits?” Vanity Fair, January 17, 2023,

Philip Bump, “Conservative doctors were more likely to see hydroxychloroquine as effective,” Washington Post, February 6, 2023,

Ciara Linnane, “Moderna’s COVID vaccine will remain free for all Americans in coup for Bernie Sanders,” MarketWatch, February 16, 2023,

Jennifer Miller, “Why are nurses quitting? Ask the nurse no hospital will hire,” Washington Post, February 21, 2023,

Michael R. Gordon and Warren P. Strobel, “Lab Leak Most Likely Origin of Covid-19 Pandemic, Energy Department Now Says,” Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2023,

Michael Hiltzik, “Despite latest reports, there’s still not a speck of evidence that COVID escaped from a Chinese lab,” Los Angeles Times, February 27, 2023,

Dhruv Khullar, “Lab Leaks and COVID-19 Politics,” New Yorker, March 3, 2023,

Ciara Linnane, “Leading infectious-disease expert says COVID-19 is now endemic, but Americans are divided on whether pandemic is over,” MarketWatch, March 10, 2023,

Karen Kaplan, “The problem with the lab leak theory,” Los Angeles Times, March 14, 2023,

Katherine J. Wu, “The Strongest Evidence Yet That an Animal Started the Pandemic,” Atlantic, March 16, 2023,

Marcia Frellick, “It’s (Finally) Time to Stop Calling It a Pandemic: Experts,” WebMD, March 17, 2023,

Katherine Eban, “Inside Ron DeSantis’s Plan to Ride Anti-vaxxism to the White House,” Vanity Fair, March 21, 2023,

Kelly Weill and Will Sommer, “Head of Ivermectin Group Accused of Stealing $350,000 in Donor Money,” Daily Beast, April 6, 2023,

Melanie Evans, “Nurses Flock Back to Hospitals After Leaving in the Pandemic,” Wall Street Journal, May 1, 2023,

Jamie Gumbrecht, Jacqueline Howard, and Deidre McPhillips, “WHO says Covid-19 is no longer a global health emergency,” CNN, May 5, 2023,

Joe Leahy and Clive Cookson, “China investigated Covid lab leak claims, says top scientist,” Financial Times, May 30, 2023,

Samuel Lovett and Paul Nuki, “Three things to watch as US intelligence prepares for Covid ‘lab leak’ reveal,” Telegraph, June 16, 2023,

Liam Mannix, “COVID-19 lab leak theory ends with a whimper, not a bang,” Sydney Morning Herald, June 27, 2023,

Cat Zakrzewski, “Judge blocks U.S. officials from tech contacts in First Amendment case,” Washington Post, July 4, 2023,

Ciara Linnane, “COVID pandemic is officially over in the U.S., excess-deaths data show,” MarketWatch, July 20, 2023,

Lena H. Sun, Lauren Weber, and Hayden Godfrey, “Doctors who put lives at risk with covid misinformation rarely punished,” Washington Post, July 26, 2023,

Jennifer Abbasi, “A Genetic Explanation for Why Some People Had Asymptomatic COVID-19,” Journal of the American Medical Association, August 2, 2023, doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.14703

  1. [1]WTAE, “Allegheny County issues new 2-week order prohibiting indoor dining and alcohol consumption at restaurants and bars,” July 8, 2020,
  2. [2]Rich Haridy, “Study affirms average Covid-19 incubation period is 5 days,” New Atlas, March 9, 2020,
  3. [3]Steven Adams, “Allegheny County sets record for new coronavirus hospitalizations; sees triple-digit cases for 8th straight day,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 30, 2020,
  4. [4]KDKA-TV, “Allegheny Co. Health Officials: Spike In New Coronavirus Cases Linked To Bars, Not Protests,” June 29, 2020,
  5. [5]Helen Davidson, “WHO says it has no evidence to support ‘speculative’ Covid-19 lab theory,” Guardian, May 4, 2020,; Michael R. Gordon and Warren P. Strobel, “Lab Leak Most Likely Origin of Covid-19 Pandemic, Energy Department Now Says,” Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2023,; Michael Hiltzik, “Despite latest reports, there’s still not a speck of evidence that COVID escaped from a Chinese lab,” Los Angeles Times, February 27, 2023,; Karen Kaplan, “The problem with the lab leak theory,” Los Angeles Times, March 14, 2023,; Dhruv Khullar, “Lab Leaks and COVID-19 Politics,” New Yorker, March 3, 2023,; Deborah Netburn, “Did the coronavirus escape from a lab? The idea deserves a second look, scientists say,” Los Angeles Times, May 13, 2021,; Matthew Rozsa, “A virologist unpacks the lab leak hypothesis,” Salon, May 29, 2021,; Reis Thebault, “In latest clash over Wuhan lab, Fauci tells Sen. Rand Paul: ‘You do not know what you’re talking about,’” Washington Post, July 20, 2021,; Daniel Villarreal, “Matt Gaetz Says Anthony Fauci ‘Has Blood on His Hands, And Now the Country Knows It,’” Newsweek, June 4, 2021,; Joby Warrick et al., “Chinese lab conducted extensive research on deadly bat viruses, but there is no evidence of accidental release,” Washington Post, April 30, 2020,; Katherine J. Wu, “The Strongest Evidence Yet That an Animal Started the Pandemic,” Atlantic, March 16, 2023,
  6. [6]Katherine Eban, “Inside Ron DeSantis’s Plan to Ride Anti-vaxxism to the White House,” Vanity Fair, March 21, 2023,
  7. [7]Katherine Eban, “Inside Ron DeSantis’s Plan to Ride Anti-vaxxism to the White House,” Vanity Fair, March 21, 2023,

137 thoughts on “COVID-19 pandemic

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