The American Psychological Association has been complicit in torture. This complicity has persisted despite claims of reform and the organization appears intent on enabling abuse. This is absolutely unacceptable and ethically, I have long felt I cannot participate in the organization, even in its more enlightened aspects, or accept the organization as authoritative on anything, including on citation styles.
I realize that rejecting a citation style is a pathetic response to crimes against humanity. It is the one response I have.
All citation styles suck. They are inconsistent and poorly documented. Sometimes they are even impractical.
For me, Chicago style is a distinct lesser of evils. Footnotes do not detract so much from the text.
However, much of the work I have done towards my Ph.D. was at institutions that required APA style. As I incorporate such work into my present work, I am adopting the following practice:
- Where Chicago relies on footnotes or endnotes, APA uses parenthetical citations. Within quotations of my own work using APA style, I will add Chicago-style footnotes within the parenthetical citations to works cited.
Owing to the length of time that has transpired since I originally found these articles and the present, in some cases, citations will be updated to reflect information found as I revisit them. Inevitably, there will be corrections.
- James Risen, “American Psychological Association Bolstered C.I.A. Torture Program, Report Says,” New York Times, April 30, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/01/us/report-says-american-psychological-association-collaborated-on-torture-justification.html↩
- Human Rights Watch, “Nine Rights Groups Tell APA Don’t Undermine Independent Psychological Care at Guantanamo,” August 9, 2018, https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/06/nine-rights-groups-tell-apa-dont-undermine-independent-psychological-care-guantanamo↩