Illiberalism · Türkiye



Fig. 1. Map of the Ottoman Empire in 1914 attributed to Chamboz, March 26, 2021, via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Kareem Fahim and Zeynep Karatas, “Turkish court sentences Erdogan rival to prison for insulting officials,” Washington Post, December 14, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Earthquake’s tragic aftermath puts spotlight on Turkey’s leader,” Washington Post, February 8, 2023,

Christian Oliver, “Onions and prayer rugs: Turkey approaches its decisive battle for democracy,” Politico, May 3, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “An Erdogan defeat would mark a victory for liberal democracy worldwide,” Washington Post, May 10, 2023,

Deutsche Welle, “Turkey election: Erdogan, Kilicdaroglu head to a runoff,” May 15, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Erdogan scores win through culture wars and soft authoritarianism,” Washington Post, May 16, 2023,

Kareem Fahim and Louisa Loveluck, “Erdogan wins reelection in Turkey after bitter campaign,” Washington Post, May 28, 2023,

Asli Aydintasbas, “Erdogan won Turkey’s election. But this is not the end of the story,” Washington Post, May 29, 2023,

Kareem Fahim, “Erdogan continues divisive rhetoric following victory,” Washington Post, May 30, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Erdogan becomes an era-defining electoral autocrat,” Washington Post, May 30, 2023,

Elçin Poyrazlar, “Turkey’s Erdoğan suffers blow in crucial mayoral elections as secular opposition surges,” Politico, April 1, 2024,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Turkey’s shock elections offer another lesson for the world,” Washington Post, April 2, 2024,