Illiberalism · Gilead · Donald Trump · Coup attempt · 2023



Donald Trump
Coup attempt


Fig. 1. Donald Trump booking photograph by Fulton County (Georgia) Sheriff’s Office, August 24, 2023, via New York, August 25, 2023,[1] public domain.

Luke Broadwater et al., “Trying to Trademark ‘Rigged Election,’ and Other Revelations From the Jan. 6 Transcripts,” New York Times, January 2, 2023,

Michael Korsh and Mike Wereschagin, “How the Oath Keepers turned Pennsylvania into a far-right militia recruiting hotbed,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 6, 2023,

Jacqueline Alemany and Devlin Barrett, “House Republicans form committee to investigate the government,” Washington Post, January 10, 2023,

Bess Levin, “Merrick Garland’s Special Counsel Is Zeroing In On Trump’s Inner Circle,” Vanity Fair, January 10, 2023,

David Von Drehle, “If the Mar-a-Lago case collapses? Disaster dodged, America,” Washington Post, January 13, 2023,

Jeff Mason, “Biden documents bungle seen as political black eye before 2024 launch,” Reuters, January 14, 2023,

Caleb Ecarma, “Donald Trump to Evangelicals: You Can’t Break Up With Me Because I’m Breaking Up With You First,” Vanity Fair, January 17, 2023,

Philip Bump, “Under oath, Trump is confronted with his ‘hoax’ hyperbole,” Washington Post, January 19, 2023,

David Badash, “‘Full retreat mode’: Trump drops suit against NY AG Letitia James day after judge fines him nearly $1 million,” Alternet, January 20, 2023,

Rachel Weiner, “Four other Oath Keepers found guilty of Jan. 6 seditious conspiracy,” Washington Post, January 23, 2023,

Maggie Haberman, “Classified Documents Found at Pence’s Home in Indiana,” New York Times, January 24, 2023,

Clare Duffy, “Meta says it will restore Donald Trump’s Facebook and Instagram accounts,” CNN, January 25, 2023,

Tom Boggioniand, “‘Thank you for your service’: GOP insiders say Donald Trump is ‘all washed up’ with ‘too much drama’ for 2024,” Alternet, January 29, 2023,

Jessica S. Henry, “As charges loom over Trump, prosecutors come under fire – a criminal justice expert explains what’s at stake,” Conversation, February 1, 2023,

Isaac Arnsdorf, “Koch network to oppose Trump in primary after sitting out recent cycles,” Washington Post, February 5, 2023,

Michael C. Bender, “Club for Growth Distances Itself Further From Trump,” New York Times, February 6, 2023,

Philip Bump, “The core weakness of the Republican Party, on raucous display,” Washington Post, February 8, 2023,

Bess Levin, “Report: Trump’s Habit of Clogging Toilets With Government Documents Even Grosser Than Previously Thought,” Vanity Fair, February 13, 2023,

Philip Bump, “A cascade of mistakes and falsehoods leaves Fox on the brink,” Washington Post, February 17, 2023,

Yvonne Wingett Sanchez and Isaac Stanley-Becker, “Arizona’s top prosecutor concealed records debunking election fraud claims,” Washington Post, February 22, 2023,

Isaac Arnsdorf et al., “Trump’s grip on the Republican base is slipping — even among his fans,” Washington Post, February 23, 2023,

Molly Jong-Fast, “The Fever of Trumpism Shows No Sign of Breaking in 2024,” Vanity Fair, February 23, 2023,

Alison Durkee, “Sidney Powell Won’t Be Disbarred, Court Rules—But These Trump Lawyers Are Still Being Punished,” Forbes, February 24, 2023,

Eric Lutz, “The Republican Donor Class Seems Ready to Dump Trump. The Base? Not So Much,” Vanity Fair, February 27, 2023,

Dylan Byers, “Will Rupert Make a ‘Blood Sacrifice’?” Puck, March 1, 2023,

Carol D. Leonnig et al., “Showdown before the raid: FBI agents and prosecutors argued over Trump,” Washington Post, March 1, 2023,

Rachel Weiner, “Trump can be sued by police over Jan. 6 riot, Justice Department says,” Washington Post, March 2, 2023,

Eric Lutz, “Tucker Carlson Used the January 6 Footage to Try and Gaslight America,” Vanity Fair, March 7, 2023,

Tina Nguyen, “CPACalypse Now,” Puck, March 8, 2023,

Matthew Brown, “Former Trump lawyer Jenna Ellis censured by Colorado judge for false statements,” Washington Post, March 9, 2023,

Hannah Knowles and Isaac Stanley-Becker, “DeSantis indicates privately he intends to run in 2024 as allies prepare,” Washington Post, March 9, 2023,

David Remnick, “The Curtain Rises on Trump’s Legal Dramas,” New Yorker, March 18, 2023,

Charlie Savage, “Dissecting Charges That Could Arise From the Trump Investigations,” New York Times, March 19, 2023,

Bess Levin, “Donald Trump’s Lawyers Seem Pretty Panicked He’s Going to be Indicted in Georgia Too,” Vanity Fair, March 20, 2023,

Jeremy Barr, “Judge sounds skeptical of some Fox arguments in Dominion lawsuit,” Washington Post, March 21, 2023,

Josh Gerstein and Kyle Cheney, “Trump denounces ‘crime-fraud’ ruling forcing attorney to testify in documents probe,” Politico, March 21, 2023,

Josh Dawsey et al., “Trump lawyer must turn over evidence on classified documents, court rules,” Washington Post, March 22, 2023,

Charlotte Klein, “Judge Doesn't Seem Convinced by Fox News' Arguments in the Dominion Lawsuit,” Vanity Fair, March 22, 2023,

Tina Nguyen, “Is the Republican Primary Already Over?” Puck, March 22, 2023,

Sam Levine, “Why Dominion is already the winner of the $1.6bn lawsuit against Fox News,” Guardian, March 23, 2023,

John Santucci, Katherine Faulders, and Jonathan Karl, “Meadows, other top Trump aides ordered to testify in Jan. 6 probe as judge rejects claims of executive privilege,” ABC News, March 24, 2023,

Harry Litman, “Trump’s indictment is a historic first. Here’s why more are likely to follow,” Los Angeles Times, March 30, 2023,

David Remnick, “An American Tragedy, Act III,” New Yorker, March 30, 2023,

Bess Levin, “Report: The DOJ Has Uncovered ‘Significant’ Evidence Trump May Have Obstructed Justice, Which Is as Big a Deal as It Sounds,” Vanity Fair, April 3, 2023,

Tina Nguyen, “Trump’s Jan. 6 Revival & the DeSantis RINO Trap,” Puck, April 4, 2023,

Tara Palmeri, “DeSantis Donor Quakes & New Hampshire Foibles,” Puck, April 6, 2023,

Dylan Byers, “Rupert’s Headline Risk,” Puck, April 12, 2023,

Stephen Battaglio, “In a blow to Fox News, judge rules network withheld evidence in Dominion case,” Los Angeles Times, April 12, 2023,

Brian Stelter, “Fox News Heads to Trial in Peril: ‘No Advantage for Dominion to Settle Now,’” Vanity Fair, April 13, 2023,

Michael C. Bender, “The Conundrum of the DeSantis Base: Pro-Trump and Anti-Trump Voters,” New York Times, April 14, 2023,

Erin Mulvaney, Isabella Simonetti, and Joe Flint, “Fox News Defamation Trial Delayed Amid Network’s Push to Settle Dispute,” Wall Street Journal, April 17, 2023,

Jeremy W. Peters and Katie Robertson, “Fox Disputes Possible Damages as Judge Delays Defamation Trial,” New York Times, April 17, 2023,

David Bauder, Randall Chase, and Geoff Mulvihill, “Lawsuit against Fox for false election claims heads to trial,” Associated Press, April 18, 2023,

Aaron Blake, “4 takeaways from the Dominion v. Fox settlement,” Washington Post, April 18, 2023,

Meg James, “Fox News-Dominion settlement doesn’t end crisis for Rupert Murdoch’s empire,” Los Angeles Times, April 18, 2023,

Erin Mulvaney, Joe Flint, and Isabella Simonetti, “Fox to Pay $787.5 Million to Settle Dominion’s Defamation Lawsuit,” Wall Street Journal, April 18, 2023,

Jose Pagliery, “Trump’s Fake Georgia Electors Are Now Ratting on Each Other,” Daily Beast, April 18, 2023,

Jonathan Lai, “Pa. Supreme Court angrily sanctions county for violating order on Dominion voting machines,” Philadelphia Inquirer, April 19, 2023,

Patrick Marley and Jeremy Barr, “After Fox settlement, experts warn election falsehoods will persist,” Washington Post, April 19, 2023,

Jane Martinson, “Fox News and Rupert Murdoch have been humiliated, but they won’t change their ways,” Guardian, April 19, 2023,

Brian Stelter, “Fox News, Unapologetic and Unwavering, Steams Ahead After Staggering Dominion Settlement,” Vanity Fair, April 19, 2023,

Amy B. Wang, Elahe Izadi, and Patrick Marley, “Fox News still faces $2.7 billion defamation lawsuit from Smartmatic,” Washington Post, April 19, 2023,

Chris Dehghanpoor, Emma Brown, and Jon Swaine, “Mike Lindell’s firm told to pay $5 million in ‘Prove Mike Wrong’ election-fraud challenge,” Washington Post, April 20, 2023,

Miguel Jiménez, “Fox News settlement with Dominion pulls the rug on Trump’s election lies,” El País, April 20, 2023,

Bess Levin, “In Comically Evil Twist, Fox Will Receive a Huge Tax Break From Its Dominion Settlement,” Vanity Fair, April 20, 2023,

Philip Bump, “Trump’s message to young men: American democracy is all but gone,” Washington Post, April 21, 2023,

Oliver Darcy and Marshall Cohen, “Tucker Carlson out at Fox News,” CNN, April 24, 2023,

Philip Bump, “How unpopular can be Biden be while still winning reelection?” Washington Post, April 25, 2023,

Rachel Weiner, “Trump can’t stop Pence from testifying to Jan. 6 grand jury, court rules,” Washington Post, April 26, 2023,

David Badash, “Legal experts ‘expect decisions soon’ from special counsel on indicting Donald Trump,” Alternet, April 27, 2023,

Katelyn Polantz and Devan Cole, “Former Vice President Pence testifies to federal grand jury investigating Donald Trump and January 6,” CNN, April 27, 2023,

Jeremy Roebuck, “Proud Boys trial: Zach Rehl, the right-wing group’s Philly leader, and three others convicted in Jan. 6 sedition case,” Philadelphia Inquirer, May 4, 2023,

Amy Gardner and Holly Bailey, “At least eight Trump electors have accepted immunity in Georgia investigation,” Washington Post, May 5, 2023,

Chris McGreal, “Trump rages after sexual abuse verdict but legal woes have only just begun,” Guardian, May 14, 2023,

Alan Feuer and Maggie Haberman, “Former Trump Lawyer Describes Conflict Inside Legal Team,” New York Times, May 20, 2023,

Aruna Viswanatha, Sadie Gurman, and C. Ryan Barber, “Special Counsel Is Wrapping Up Trump Mar-a-Lago Probe,” Wall Street Journal, May 23, 2023,

Isaac Arnsdorf, Josh Dawsey, and Adriana Usero, “The deepening radicalization of Donald J. Trump,” Washington Post, May 24, 2023,

Devlin Barrett et al., “Trump workers moved Mar-a-Lago boxes a day before FBI came for documents,” Washington Post, May 25, 2023,

Rachel Weiner, Tom Jackman, and Spencer S. Hsu, “Oath Keepers leader Rhodes gets 18 years for Jan. 6 seditious conspiracy,” Washington Post, May 25, 2023,

Bess Levin, “Report: Trump’s Lawyer Revealed Some Unfortunate Things for Trump in Classified-Docs Case,” Vanity Fair, May 30, 2023,

Asawin Suebsaeng and Adam Rawnsley, “Team Trump Scrambles to Unmask the Feds Investigating Him,” Rolling Stone, May 30, 2023,

Martin Pengelly, “Donald Trump reiterates pledge to scrap birthright US citizenship,” Guardian, May 31, 2023,

Katelyn Polantz, Paula Reid, and Kaitlan Collins, “Trump captured on tape talking about classified document he kept after leaving the White House,” CNN, May 31, 2023,

Harry Litman, “The DOJ’s classified documents case was already dire for Trump. Now it looks even worse,” Los Angeles Times, June 1, 2023,

Kaitlan Collins, Paula Reid, and Katelyn Polantz, “Trump attorneys haven’t found classified document former president referred to on tape following subpoena,” CNN, June 2, 2023,

Chris Stein, “‘They fought for freedom’: the nightly vigil to sanctify the January 6 rioters,” Guardian, June 3, 2023,

Jacqueline Alemany et al., “Trump lawyers meeting with Justice Dept. on classified documents case,” Washington Post, June 5, 2023,

Josh Dawsey and Amy Gardner, “Trump-funded studies disputing election fraud are focus in two probes,” Washington Post, June 5, 2023,

Rozina Sabur, “Flood at Donald Trump’s Mar-a-Lago resort raises suspicions in classified documents case,” Telegraph, June 5, 2023,

Chris Walker, “Trump’s Lawyers Have 2-Hour Meeting With DOJ Over Mar-a-Lago Documents Case,” Truthout, June 5, 2023,

Casey Newton, “The platforms give up on 2020 lies,” Platformer, June 6, 2023,

Spencer S. Hsu et al., “Trump special counsel shifts focus of possible indictment to S. Florida,” Washington Post, June 7, 2023,

Alex Isenstadt and Kyle Cheney, “Trump notified that he is the target of an ongoing criminal investigation,” Politico, June 7, 2023,

Devlin Barrett, Perry Stein, and Josh Dawsey, “Trump charged in classified documents case, second indictment in months,” Washington Post, June 8, 2023,

Marc Caputo, “‘Prosecuting Politicians is Hard Here’: Why South Florida is a Tough Place for DOJ to Try Trump,” Messenger, June 8, 2023,

Ankush Khardori, “The Chaos Inside Trump’s Legal Team,” New York, June 8, 2023,

Hugo Lowell, “Donald Trump charged with illegal retention of classified documents,” Guardian, June 8, 2023,

Stefania Palma, “Donald Trump says he has been indicted on federal charges in documents probe,” Financial Times, June 8, 2023,

Gabriel J. Chin, “Trump indictment unsealed – a criminal law scholar explains what the charges mean, and what prosecutors will now need to prove,” Conversation, June 9, 2023,

Joseph Ferguson and Thomas A. Durkin, “Trump charged under Espionage Act – which covers a lot more crimes than just spying,” Conversation, June 9, 2023,

Alan Feuer, “Trump-Appointed Judge Is Said to Be Handling Documents Case,” New York Times, June 9, 2023,

David Gilbert, “‘We Need to Start Killing’: Trump’s Far-Right Supporters Are Threatening Civil War,” Vice, June 9, 2023,

Ankush Khardori, “The ‘Lock Him Up’ Election,” New York, June 9, 2023,

Tom Nichols, “Trump’s Indictment Reveals a National-Security Nightmare,” Atlantic, June 9, 2023,

Jennifer Rubin, “Merrick Garland and Jack Smith come through: Trump will face justice,” Washington Post, June 9, 2023,

Jonathan Turley, “Trying Trump: Scandal May Be His Element — But This Time May Be Different,” Messenger, June 9, 2023,

Aruna Viswanatha, Sadie Gurman, and C. Ryan Barber, “Trump Charged Over Willful Retention of Classified Information, Obstruction,” Wall Street Journal, June 9, 2023,

Marc Fisher, “Trump’s path to indictment: ‘Isn’t it better if there are no documents?’” Washington Post, June 10, 2023,

Michael S. Schmidt et al., “Trump Supporters’ Violent Rhetoric in His Defense Disturbs Experts,” New York Times, June 10, 2023,

Kyle Cheney, “He devised a fringe legal theory to try to keep Trump in power. Now he’s on the verge of being disbarred,” Forbes, June 11, 2023,

Richard Nixon [Justin Sherrin], “On the Trump/Nauta Indictment,” Patreon, June 11, 2023,

Marina Pitofsky, “Barr ‘shocked’ by Trump indictment details: “If even half of it is true, then he’s toast,’” USA Today, June 11, 2023,

Paul Rosenzweig, “The Three Biggest Obstacles to Convicting Trump,” Atlantic, June 11, 2023,

David Aaron, “How Much Prison Time Does Former President Trump Face? Applying the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines,” Just Security, June 12, 2023,

Isaac Chotiner, “Will the Judge in Trump’s Case Recuse Herself—or Be Forced To?” New Yorker, June 12, 2023,

Spencer S. Hsu et al., “Trump scrambles to find lawyer before first federal court appearance,” Washington Post, June 12, 2023,

Molly Jong-Fast, “Even a Damning Federal Case Can’t Break the GOP’s Devotion to Donald Trump,” Vanity Fair, June 12, 2023,

Eric Lutz, “Judge Aileen Cannon Could Blow Up Trump Documents Case,” Vanity Fair, June 12, 2023,

Nick Madigan, Verónica Zaragovia, and Richard Fausset, “Floridians Would Make Up Trump’s Jury Pool. Here’s What Some Are Saying,” New York Times, June 12, 2023,

Jeannie Suk Gersen, “The Case Against Trump Is Strong, but There Are Problems Ahead,” New Yorker, June 13, 2023,

Shayna Jacobs et al., “Trump arraigned, pleads not guilty to 37 classified documents charges,” Washington Post, June 13, 2023,

Bess Levin, “Trump Basically One Day Away From Hiring a Lawyer Who Advertises on the Side of a Bus to Defend Him,” Vanity Fair, June 13, 2023,

Hugo Lowell, “Trump finds no new lawyers for court appearance in Mar-a-Lago case,” Guardian, June 13, 2023,

James Risen, “Trump Is a Predator Who Feeds on Lackeys,” Intercept, June 13, 2023,

Jesús Rodríguez, “In the MAGA mirror, Trump’s legal peril looks like a personal threat,” Washington Post, June 13, 2023,

Gabriel Sherman, “Donald Trump Advisers Worry Over Legal Team Civil War: ‘It’s All Coming to a Head,’” Vanity Fair, June 13, 2023,

Maanvi Singh, “Trump claims ‘political persecution’ in speech after arraignment,” Guardian, June 13, 2023,

Isaac Arnsdorf and Josh Dawsey, “Trump greets arraignment with showmanship in bid to upstage charges,” Washington Post, June 14, 2023,

Jeffrey Blehar, “Pardoning Is Not Enough: We Must All Perform Seppuku for Donald Trump,” National Review, June 14, 2023,

Alan Feuer, Maggie Haberman, and Glenn Thrush, “They Are Trump’s Aides and Lawyers. Now They Could Be Trial Witnesses,” New York Times, June 14, 2023,

Quinta Jurecic, “Trump Can’t Bluster His Way Through Court,” Atlantic, June 14, 2023,

Bess Levin, “Melania Trump Is Apparently in a Zen Place About Her Husband Potentially Going to Prison,” Vanity Fair, June 14, 2023,

Michael S. Schmidt and Charlie Savage, “Judge in Trump Documents Case Has Scant Criminal Trial Experience,” New York Times, June 14, 2023,

Prem Thakker, “Trump ‘Is Scared Shitless,’” New Republic, June 14, 2023,

Glenn Thrush, Nicholas Nehamas, and Eileen Sullivan, “Trump Is Arraigned on Documents and Obstruction Charges,” New York Times, June 14, 2023,

Aaron Blake, “6 big questions ahead on Trump’s indictment,” Washington Post, June 15, 2023,

Alan Feuer, “In Miami, the Only Violence From Trump Supporters Was Rhetorical,” New York Times, June 15, 2023,

Mathew Ingram, “The tech platforms have surrendered in the fight over election-related misinformation,” Columbia Journalism Review, June 15, 2023,

Stefania Palma, “Jack Smith: the federal prosecutor taking on Donald Trump,” Financial Times, June 15, 2023,

Alan Feuer, “Evidence in Trump Documents Case Hints at ‘Ongoing Investigations,’ Filing Says,” New York Times, June 16, 2023,

Carol D. Leonnig and Aaron C. Davis, “FBI resisted opening probe into Trump’s role in Jan. 6 for more than a year,” Washington Post, June 19, 2023,

Tori Otten, “Federal Judge Orders Trump to Shut Up About Classified Docs,” New Republic, June 19, 2023,

Tori Otten, “Why Did the DOJ Resist Investigating Donald Trump’s Role in January 6?” New Republic, June 19, 2023,

Tom Nichols, “Trump Seems to Be Afraid, Very Afraid,” Atlantic, June 21, 2023,

Tori Otten, “Pro-Trump Lawyer Cowardly Quits Rather Than Face Disbarment Trial,” New Republic, July 5, 2023,

Prem Thakker, “Rudy Giuiliani Should Lose Law License for ‘Malicious’ Efforts in 2020, Panel Says,” New Republic, July 7, 2023,

Devlin Barrett, “Trump seeks major trial delay, citing 2024 campaign and legal factors,” Washington Post, July 11, 2023,

Devlin Barrett, “Trump’s outbursts met with silence so far by prosecutor, judge,” Washington Post, July 16, 2023,

Mike Wendling, “The ‘QAnon Shaman’ and other Capitol rioters who regret pleading guilty,” British Broadcasting Corporation, July 16, 2023,

Holly Bailey, “Georgia Supreme Court rejects Trump petition to block election probe,” Washington Post, July 17, 2023,

Bess Levin, “Chris Christie Suggests Jared Kushner May Not Have Been Entirely Truthful When Testifying About Trump’s Failed Election Coup,” Vanity Fair, July 17, 2023,

Perry Stein and Mark Berman, “Judge seems skeptical of Trump desire to delay documents trial until after 2024 election,” Washington Post, July 18, 2023,

Perry Stein, Josh Dawsey, and Jacqueline Alemany, “Trump says he received a target letter in federal Jan. 6 investigation,” Washington Post, July 18, 2023,

Prem Thakker, “‘Little Bitch’: Republicans Melt Down as Trump Faces Third Indictment,” New Republic, July 18, 2023,

Hugo Lowell, “Trump under investigation for civil rights conspiracy in January 6 inquiry,” Guardian, July 19, 2023,

Holly Bailey, “Trump attorneys again push to block Georgia 2020 election investigation,” Washington Post, July 21, 2023,

Sadie Gurman, “Judge Sets May 2024 Trial Date for Trump’s Documents Case,” Wall Street Journal, July 21, 2023,

Bess Levin, “That Sound You Hear Is Donald Trump Screaming, Crying, and Throwing Up in a Mar-a-Lago Bathroom,” Vanity Fair, July 21, 2023,

Hugo Lowell, “Fulton county prosecutors prepare racketeering charges in Trump inquiry,” Guardian, July 21, 2023,

Matt Stieb, “Trump May Be on Trial During the 2024 General Election,” New York, July 21, 2023,

Kate Brumback, “Giuliani concedes he made public comments falsely claiming Georgia election workers committed fraud,” Associated Press, July 26, 2023,

Devlin Barrett and Perry Stein, “Trump charged with seeking to delete security footage in documents case,” Washington Post, July 27, 2023,

Caroline Anders, “Judge throws out Trump’s ‘big lie’ defamation lawsuit against CNN,” Washington Post, July 29, 2023,

Tori Otten, “‘We’re Ready to Go’: Georgia DA Warns New Trump Charges Are Coming,” New Republic, July 31, 2023,

Jan Wolfe and Cameron McWhirter, “Judge Criticizes Trump for ‘Overwrought’ Complaints About Georgia Election Probe,” Wall Street Journal, July 31, 2023,

Devlin Barrett et al., “Trump charged in probe of Jan. 6, efforts to overturn 2020 election,” Washington Post, August 1, 2023,

Spencer S. Hsu and Tom Jackman, “Judge Tanya Chutkan is a tough Trump critic, toughest Jan. 6 sentencer,” Washington Post, August 1, 2023,

Adam Rawnsley and Asawin Suebsaeng, “Trump’s Plan to Save Himself: Scapegoat His Coup Lawyers,” Rolling Stone, August 1, 2023,

Tina Nguyen, “The Closing of the Florida Mind,” Puck, August 2, 2023,

Ryan Cooper, “Merrick Garland Failed America,” American Prospect, August 3, 2023,

Tierney Sneed et al., “Donald Trump pleads not guilty to January 6-related charges,” CNN, August 3, 2023,

Michael Tomasky, “Donald Trump’s Lawyer Is Dumber Than Donald Trump,” New Republic, August 4, 2023,

Edwin Rios, “Donald Trump: threatening social media post flagged by prosecutors in court filing,” Guardian, August 5, 2023,

Matt Stieb, “Trump Is Already at War With the Judge in the January 6 Case,” New York, August 7, 2023,

Jewel Wicker, “‘He’s going to be very surprised’: Georgia DA Fani Willis prepares to face off with Trump,” Guardian, August 14, 2023,

Kate Brumback and Eric Tucker, “Trump and 18 allies charged in Georgia election meddling as former president faces 4th criminal case,” Associated Press, August 15, 2023,

Amelia Thomson-DeVeaux, “What Happens If Trump Is Convicted Before Election Day?” FiveThirtyEight, August 15, 2023,

Maya Yang, “Names and addresses of Trump jurors in Georgia posted on rightwing websites,” Guardian, August 17, 2023,

Jennifer Rubin, “Why Trump’s Georgia case likely can’t be removed to federal court,” Washington Post, August 20, 2023,

Holly Bailey, “Judge approves $200,000 bond for Trump in Georgia election case,” Washington Post, August 21, 2023,

Tori Otten, “Mike Pence and Mark Meadows Just Ruined Trump’s Defense in Classified Docs Case,” New Republic, August 21, 2023,

Alanna Durkin Richer and Jill Colvin, “Trump says he will surrender Thursday on Georgia charges tied to efforts to overturn 2020 election,” Associated Press, August 21, 2023,

Tori Otten, “Let the Flipping Begin: Key Witness in Classified Docs Case Turns Against Trump,” New Republic, August 23, 2023,

Jill Nolin, Ross Williams, and Stanley Dunlap, “Trump supporters, detractors face off outside jail as he’s booked on Georgia racketeering charges,” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, August 24, 2023,

Margaret Hartmann and Nia Prater, “All the Mug Shots of Donald Trump and His Alleged Co-Conspirators,” New York, August 25, 2023,

Eric Lutz, “Georgia Republicans Say They’ll Move to Remove Fulton County DA Fani Willis From Office With New State Law,” Vanity Fair, August 25, 2023,

Anthony Man, “Trump ineligible for presidency because of his role in insurrection, lawsuit says,” South Florida Sun-Sentinel, August 25, 2023,

Ryan J. Reilly, “Federal judge sets March trial date in Trump’s election interference case,” NBC News, August 28, 2023,

Tori Otten, “Former Judge Trashes ‘Stunningly Stupid’ Move From Trump’s Legal Team,” New Republic, August 29, 2023,

Katelyn Polantz, “Giuliani loses defamation lawsuit from two Georgia election workers,” CNN, August 30, 2023,

Jaclyn Diaz, “Proud Boys leaders sentenced to a combined 32 years for Jan. 6 riot,” National Public Radio, August 31, 2023,

Erica Orden, “The sleeper legal fight that could define 2024: Is Trump even eligible to run?” Politico, September 1, 2023,

Tom Jackman and Spencer S. Hsu, “Ex-Proud Boys leader Enrique Tarrio sentenced to 22 years for Jan. 6,” Washington Post, September 5, 2023,

Shayna Jacobs, “New York attorney general again seeks sanctions for Trump in civil case,” Washington Post, September 5, 2023,

Maegan Vazquez, “Could the 14th Amendment keep Trump off the ballot in 2024?” Washington Post, September 5, 2023,

Nick Coltrain, “Colorado voters sue to disqualify Donald Trump from 2024 presidential ballot,” Denver Post, September 6, 2023,

Zach Montellaro, “Constitutional debate over Trump’s eligibility to run more extensive than realized,” Politico, September 6, 2023,

Tori Otten, “Mar-a-Lago Employee Will Now Testify Against Trump in Classified Docs Case,” New Republic, September 6, 2023,

Amy Gardner, “Judge denies Mark Meadows’s effort to move Georgia case to federal court,” Washington Post, September 8, 2023,

Amy Gardner, Patrick Marley, and Yvonne Wingett Sanchez, “GOP lawyer with ties to three Trump rivals enters 14th Amendment fray,” Washington Post, September 12, 2023,

Miranda Nazzaro, “Second 14th Amendment challenge to Trump candidacy filed in Minnesota,” Hill, September 12, 2023,

Stephen Marche, “Here’s the scary way Trump could win without the electoral or popular vote,” Guardian, September 18, 2023,

Ben Jacobs, “Are ‘Never Trump’ Republicans Actually Just Democrats Now?” New Republic, September 21, 2023,

Eric Levitz, “Trump Wants His Enemies to Fear for Their Lives,” New York, September 26, 2023,

Alanna Durkin Richer and Eric Tucker, “Judge Chutkan denies Trump’s request to recuse herself in federal election subversion case,” Associated Press, September 27, 2023,

Kyle Cheney, “Trump’s attack on Milley fuels special counsel’s push for a gag order,” Politico, September 29, 2023,

Zachary Cohen, Jason Morris, and Nick Valencia, “Bail bondsman is first Trump co-defendant to plead guilty in Georgia election subversion case,” CNN, September 29, 2023,

Jennifer Rubin, “Republicans (rightly) panic. Good luck finding a viable alternative,” Washington Post, October 1, 2023,

Nick Coltrain, “Denver judge rules 14th Amendment lawsuit seeking to bar Trump from ballot can proceed,” Denver Post, October 13, 2023,

Mariah Timms and Cameron McWhirter, “Sidney Powell Accepts Plea Deal in Trump’s Georgia Case,” October 19, 2023,

Noam Cohen, “The Queens Man Ruled Ineligible to Be President,” Atlantic, October 19, 2023,

Holly Bailey and Amy Gardner, “Trump co-defendant Kenneth Chesebro pleads guilty in Georgia election case,” Washington Post, October 20, 2023,

Holly Bailey and Amy Gardner, “Trump co-defendant Jenna Ellis pleads guilty in Georgia election case,” Washington Post, October 24, 2023,

Rachel Weiner and Spencer S. Hsu, “Judge reimposes restrictions on Trump’s speech in Jan. 6 case,” Washington Post, October 30, 2023,

Patrick Marley, “Trump can appear on 2024 primary ballot in Minnesota, state Supreme Court rules,” Washington Post, November 8, 2023,

Marshall Cohen, “Trump ‘engaged in an insurrection,’ judge says, but should remain on Colorado ballot,” CNN, November 17, 2023,

Nicholas Riccardi, “Colorado Supreme Court will hear appeal of ruling that Trump can stay on ballot despite insurrection,” Denver Post, November 21, 2023,

Rachel Weiner and Spencer S. Hsu, “Trump can be held civilly liable in Jan. 6 riot, judges rule,” Washington Post, December 1, 2023,

Peter Hamby, “Just Spoke to Christie…” Puck, December 4, 2023,

Patrick Marley, “Wisconsin Trump electors settle lawsuit, agree Biden won in 2020,” Washington Post, December 6, 2023,

Rachel Weiner, “Trump gag order reinstated but narrowed in Jan. 6 case,” Washington Post, December 8, 2023,

Chris Geidner, “Supreme Court takes first step toward quick review of Trump constitutional questions,” Law Dork, December 11, 2023,

Sam Levine, “Rudy Giuliani faces trial over defamation of 2020 election workers,” Guardian, December 11, 2023,

Hannah Rabinowitz and Devan Cole, “Special counsel goes directly to Supreme Court to resolve whether Trump has immunity from prosecution,” CNN, December 11, 2023,

Spencer S. Hsu and Amy Gardner, “Georgia election worker describes harrowing threats in Giuliani defamation trial,” Washington Post, December 12, 2023,

Hugo Lowell, “Trump’s defense in election interference case may get boost from US supreme court,” Guardian, December 13, 2023,

Nick Coltrain, “Former Trump attorney Jenna Ellis faces Colorado disbarment complaint following guilty plea,” Denver Post, December 15, 2023,

Cristian Farias, “Jack Smith May Have a Secret Weapon Against Donald Trump at the Supreme Court,” Vanity Fair, December 15, 2023,

Andrew Rice, “Why Rudy Giuliani Lost So Big,” New York, December 15, 2023,

Jan Wolfe and C. Ryan Barber, “Rudy Giuliani Hit With $148 Million Verdict for Defaming Election Workers,” Wall Street Journal, December 15, 2023,

Adam Liptak, “Colorado Ruling Knocks Trump Off Ballot: What It Means, What Happens Next,” New York Times, December 19, 2023,

Patrick Marley, “Donald Trump is barred from Colorado’s 2024 primary ballot, the state Supreme Court rules,” Washington Post, December 19, 2023,

Nick Coltrain, “Colorado’s Trump ruling sets off political firestorm, raising legal stakes and putting state at center of debate,” Denver Post, December 20, 2023,

George T. Conway, III, “The Colorado Ruling Changed My Mind,” Atlantic, December 20, 2023,

Ryan Cooper, “The American Judiciary Is Failing Its Trump Test,” American Prospect, December 20, 2023,

Chris Geidner, “Colorado high court rules Trump is disqualified from being president, cannot be on ballot,” Law Dork, December 20, 2023,

Ruth Marcus, “The Supreme Court should toss the Colorado case,” Washington Post, December 20, 2023,

Eric Tucker and Alanna Durkin Richer, “Trump’s lawyers tell Supreme Court to stay out of immunity dispute in 2020 election case for now,” Associated Press, December 20, 2023,

Rachel Weiner, “Judge says Rudy Giuliani must pay $148 million judgment immediately,” Washington Post, December 20, 2023,

Craig Mauger, “Trump recorded pressuring Wayne County canvassers not to certify 2020 vote,” Detroit News, December 21, 2023,

Robert Barnes and Perry Stein, “Supreme Court won’t expedite ruling on Trump’s immunity claim,” Washington Post, December 22, 2023,

Chris Geidner, “With Trump cases, the courts now must play their role in accountability,” Law Dork, December 24, 2023,

Marshall Cohen, “Michigan Supreme Court rejects ‘insurrectionist ban’ case and keeps Trump on 2024 primary ballot,” CNN, December 27, 2023,

Patrick Marley, “Donald Trump removed from Maine primary ballot by secretary of state,” Washington Post, December 28, 2023,

Paula Reed Ward, “In Pennsylvania, any challenge to Trump being on the ballot must go through the courts,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 29, 2023,

  1. [1]Margaret Hartmann and Nia Prater, “All the Mug Shots of Donald Trump and His Alleged Co-Conspirators,” New York, August 25, 2023,