Imperialism · Israel · Lebanon




Fig. 1. “Sabra & Shatila Massacre 1982 Memorial in Sabra, South Beirut,” photograph by Bertramz, September 2009, via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 3.0.

Jamie Dettmer, “Lebanese hold their breath as fears grow Hezbollah will pull them into war,” Politico, October 16, 2023,

Jamie Dettmer, “Israel could open second front in Lebanon, defense minister hints,” Politico, December 6, 2023,

Times of Israel, “National security adviser indicates war against Hezbollah likely once Hamas is defeated,” December 9, 2023,

William Christou, Alex Horton, and Meg Kelly, “Israel used U.S.-supplied white phosphorus in Lebanon attack,” Washington Post, December 11, 2023,

Vivian Salama, Dion Nissenbaum, and Benoit Faucon, “Biden Convinced Netanyahu to Halt a Pre-Emptive Strike Against Hezbollah,” Wall Street Journal, December 23, 2023,

Neri Zilber and Raya Jalabi, “Israel warns of regional conflict risk as Iran tensions increase,” Financial Times, December 26, 2023,

Shira Rubin and Ruby Mellen, “Israel’s war in Gaza threatens to spill into Lebanon and beyond,” Washington Post, December 27, 2023,

Polina Ivanova, “Israel’s Benny Gantz threatens to intensify military action against Hizbollah,” Financial Times, December 28, 2023,

Dion Nissenbaum et al., “Top Hamas Leader Killed in Suspected Israeli Strike in Beirut,” Wall Street Journal, January 2, 2024,

Manuel Altozano, “Hezbollah leader warns Israel against extending war to Lebanon: ‘We will fight without restraint, without rules, without limits,’” El Pais, January 4, 2024,

Amal Saad, “Israel is pushing Hezbollah to its limits. How it responds will define the future of this war,” Guardian, January 5, 2024,

John Hudson, Yasmeen Abutaleb, and Shane Harris, “Israel’s talk of expanding war to Lebanon alarms U.S.,” Washington Post, January 7, 2024,

Wafaa Shurafa, Jack Jeffery, Bassem Mroue, “Israeli strike kills an elite Hezbollah commander in the latest escalation linked to the war in Gaza,” Associated Press, January 8, 2024,

David Remnick, “The Price of Netanyahu’s Ambition,” New Yorker, January 14, 2024,

Peter Beaumont, “Hezbollah vows to retaliate for civilian deaths in Israeli airstrikes on Lebanon,” Guardian, February 15, 2024,

Emanuel Fabian, “IDF strikes deeper in Lebanon than for years after Hezbollah shoots down military drone,” Times of Israel, February 26, 2024,

Gianluca Pacchiani, “No longer afraid of sparking war, Israel takes gloves off against IRGC in Syria,” Times of Israel, February 27, 2024,