Imperialism · Russia · Syria




Fig. 1. “Russian President Vladimir Putin attends a meeting with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad at the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia, March 15, 2023.” Pool photograph by Vladimir Gerdo, March 15, 2023, via Reuters, fair use.

Patrice Taddonio, “11 Years into the Syrian Conflict, Explore its Evolution, Toll & Putin’s Role,” Public Broadcasting System, March 11, 2022,

Barbara Starr, “Russia warned US it was going to conduct airstrikes on fighters in Syria,” Cable News Network, June 16, 2022,

Guy Faulconbridge and Caleb Davis, “Syria’s Assad would like more Russian bases and troops,” Reuters, March 16, 2023,

Audrey Decker, “US Rushes F-22s to Stop Russian Harassment Over Syria,” Defense One, June 14, 2023,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The battle in Syria that looms behind Wagner’s rebellion,” Washington Post, June 30, 2023,