America’s 20 Percent Unemployment Rate

See also:

Carlton Meyer, “America’s 20 Percent Unemployment Rate,” Truthout, April 10, 2009, copy in possession of author

Spencer Soper, “Inside Amazon’s Warehouse,” Lehigh Valley Morning Call, September 18, 2011,

Gabriel Mac, “I Was a Warehouse Wage Slave,” Mother Jones, March/April 2012,

Erin Hatton, “The Rise of the Permanent Temp Economy,” New York Times, January 26, 2013,

Paul Kiernan, “Despite Tight Job Market, Labor Force’s Income Is Squeezed,” Wall Street Journal, February 23, 2019,

Alana Semuels, “As employers push efficiency, the daily grind wears down workers,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013,

Alana Semuels, “How the relationship between employers and workers changed,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013,

Alana Semuels, “Tougher workplace makes home life worse too,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013,

Daniel D’Addario, “Amazon is worse than Walmart,” Salon, July 30, 2013,

Alex Seitz-Wald, “Amazon is everything wrong with our new economy,” Salon, July 30, 2013,

Allison Kilkenny, “Ohio Walmart Holds Food Drive For Its Own Employees,” Nation, November 18, 2013,

Josh Eidelson, “Wal-Mart faces warehouse horror allegations and federal Labor Board complaint,” Salon, November 19, 2013,

Josh Eidelson, “Tens of thousands protest, over 100 arrested in Black Friday challenge to Wal-Mart,” Salon, November 30, 2013,

Josh Eidelson, “Finally paying for Wal-Mart’s sins: Wage theft settlement yields millions,” Salon, December 16, 2013,

Paul Krugman, “The Plight of the Employed,” New York Times, December 24, 2013,

Paul Krugman, “The Fear Economy,” New York Times, December 26, 2013,

Josh Eidelson, “Freezing for Wal-Mart: Sub-zero warehouse temperatures spur Indiana work stoppage,” Salon, January 14, 2014,

Josh Eidelson, “Amazon Keeps Unions Out By Keeping Workers in Fear, Says Organizer,” Alternet, January 22, 2014,

Simon Head, “Worse than Wal-Mart: Amazon’s sick brutality and secret history of ruthlessly intimidating workers,” Salon, February 23, 2014,

Edward McClelland, “You call this a middle class? “I’m trying not to lose my house,’” Salon, March 1, 2014,

Timothy Egan, “The Corporate Daddy,” New York Times, June 19, 2014,

Ari Rabin-Havt, “Wal-Mart flunks its fact-check: The truth behind its sarcastic response to the Times,” Salon, June 25, 2014,

Steven Greenhouse, “The Changing Face of Temporary Employment,” New York Times, August 31, 2014,

Nathaniel Mott, “From Amazon warehouse workers to Google bus drivers, it’s tough working a non-tech job at a tech company,” Pando, October 9, 2014,

Nichole Gracely, “‘Being homeless is better than working for Amazon,’” Guardian, November 28, 2014,

Sven Beckert, “Slavery and Capitalism,” Chronicle of Higher Education, December 12, 2014,

Danielle Kurtzleben, “Read McDonald’s workers’ shocking harassment and discrimination complaints — and why they’re so important,” Vox, January 22, 2015,

Paul Jaskunas, “The Tyranny of the Forced Smile,” New York Times, February 14, 2015,

Lindsay Wise, “Report: Temp jobs at all-time high in U.S.,” McClatchy, September 2, 2014,

Kate Gibson, “Minimum wage doesn’t cover the rent anywhere in the U.S.,” CBS News, June 14, 2018,

Colin Lecher, “How Amazon automatically tracks and fires warehouse workers for ‘productivity,’” Verge, April 25, 2019,

Richard V. Reeves, “Capitalism is failing. People want a job with a decent wage – why is that so hard?” Brookings, April 29, 2019,

Neel Kashkari, “Unemployment Isn’t What It Used to Be,” Wall Street Journal, May 9, 2019,

John Cassidy, “Why Socialism Is Back,” New Yorker, June 18, 2019,

Gabriele Gratton, “Our economic model looks broken, but trying to fix it could be a disaster,” Conversation, June 7, 2019,

Casey Newton, “Bodies in Seats,” Verge, June 19, 2019,

Johana Bhuiyan, “Amazon ends practice of dipping into drivers’ tips to meet their wage guarantees,” Los Angeles Times, August 22, 2019,

Taylor Telford, “Income inequality in America is the highest it’s been since census started tracking it, data shows,” Washington Post, September 26, 2019,

Patricia Cohen, “Lots of Job Hunting, but No Job, Despite Low Unemployment,” New York Times, November 1, 2019,

Nicole Goodkind, “Prisoners Are Fighting California’s Wildfires on the Front Lines, But Getting Little in Return,” Fortune, November 1, 2019,

Danny Fortson, “Is Jeff Bezos’s Amazon now the ‘evil face of capitalism’?” Times, December 8, 2019,

Patrick McGreevy and Suhauna Hussain, “California demands that Amazon comply with COVID-19 investigation,” Los Angeles Times, December 14, 2020,

Dean Baker, “This is What Minimum Wage Would Be If It Kept Pace with Productivity,” Center for Economic Policy and Research, January 21, 2020,

Michael Sainato, “‘I’m not a robot’: Amazon workers condemn unsafe, grueling conditions at warehouse,” Guardian, February 5, 2020,

Eric Levitz, “Coronavirus Exposes the Virulence of American Conservatism,” New York, March 23, 2020,

Mike Snider, “Work strikes at Amazon, Instacart and Whole Foods show essential workers’ safety concerns,” USA Today, March 30, 2020,

Jason Pohl, Ryan Sabalow, and Dale Kasler, “Medical employees say they’re getting COVID-19 on the job. Here’s why hospitals push back,” Sacramento Bee, April 2, 2020,

Jennifer Valentino-DeVries, Denise Lu, and Gabriel J.X. Dance, “Location Data Says It All: Staying at Home During Coronavirus Is a Luxury,” New York Times, April 3, 2020,

Karleigh Frisbie Brogan, “Calling Me a Hero Only Makes You Feel Better,” Atlantic, April 18, 2020,

Kanishk Tharoor, “The Exclusivity Economy,” review of The Velvet Rope Economy: How Inequality Became Big Business by Nelson D. Schwartz, New Republic, April 21, 2020,

Martina Hund-Mejean and Marcela Escobari, “Our employment system has failed low-wage workers. How can we rebuild?” Brookings, April 28, 2020,

Emily Stewart, “Essential workers still lack basic safety protections on the job,” Vox, May 7, 2020,

George Packer, “We Are Living in a Failed State,” Atlantic, June 2020,

Michael Sainato, “‘I cry before work’: US essential workers burned out amid pandemic,” Guardian, September 23, 2020,

Burgess Everett, “8 Democrats defect on $15 minimum wage hike,” Politico, March 5, 2021,

Alex Leary and Eliza Collins, “Unions Notch Win With House Passage of Bill Opposed by Uber, Lyft,” Wall Street Journal, March 10, 2021,

Jessa Crispin, “Amazon is a disaster for workers. Nomadland glosses over that,” Guardian, March 23, 2021,

Matt Stieb, “Amazon Called Out for Denying Workers Go to Bathroom in Bottles,” New York, March 25, 2021,

Ken Klippenstein, “Documents Show Amazon Is Aware Drivers Pee in Bottles and Even Defecate En Route, Despite Company Denial,” Intercept, March 25, 2021,

Reuters, “Amazon apology to Democrat includes admission drivers urinate in bottles,” Guardian, April 3, 2021,

Sarah Jones, “Amazon Defeats Union Drive in Alabama,” New York, April 9, 2021,

Eric Levitz, “5 Explanations for April’s Bad Jobs Report,” New York, May 7, 2021,

Heather Long, “It’s not a ‘labor shortage.’ It’s a great reassessment of work in America,” Washington Post, May 7, 2021,

Jon Schwarz, “The Business Class Has Been Fearmongering About Worker Shortages for Centuries,” Intercept, May 7, 2021,

Greg Rosalsky, “Is There Really A Truck Driver Shortage?” National Public Radio, May 25, 2021,

Eric Levitz, “Letting the Economy Create Jobs for Everyone Is (Sadly) Radical,” New York, June 4, 2021,

Eli Rosenberg, “These businesses found a way around the worker shortage: Raising wages to $15 an hour or more,” Washington Post, June 10, 2021,

Jodi Kantor, Karen Weise, and Grace Ashford, “The Amazon That Customers Don’t See,” New York Times, June 15, 2021,

Jodi Kantor, Karen Weise and Grace Ashford, “Power and Peril: 5 Takeaways on Amazon’s Employment Machine,” New York Times, June 16, 2021,

Abha Bhattarai, “Retail workers are quitting at record rates for higher-paying work: ‘My life isn’t worth a dead-end job,’” Washington Post, June 21, 2021,

Tim De Chant, “Amazon is using algorithms with little human intervention to fire Flex workers,” Ars Technica, June 28, 2021,

Justin Lahart, “Jobs Are Hard to Fill, and Ideology Makes It Hard to Understand Why,” Wall Street Journal, June 30, 2021,

Fiona Greig et al., “When unemployment insurance benefits are rolled back: Impacts on job finding and the recipients of the Pandemic Unemployment Assistance Program,” J.P. Morgan Chase and Company Institute, July 2021,

Jessa Crispin, “Welcome to dystopia: getting fired from your job as an Amazon worker by an app,” Guardian, July 5, 2021,

Jenn Ladd, “‘This is a real job’: Philly’s restaurant workers dissect the labor shortage, and contemplate a different future,” Philadelphia Inquirer, July 10, 2021,

Anna Bahney, “Minimum wage workers can’t afford rent anywhere in America,” CNN, July 15, 2021,

Michael Sainato, “Companies claim there’s a labor shortage. Their solution? Prisoners,” Guardian, July 20, 2021,

Alina Selyukh, “Low Pay, No Benefits, Rude Customers: Restaurant Workers Quit At Record Rate,” National Public Radio, July 20, 2021,

Gene Marks, “Rude customers are a drag – but can we small business owners do more?” Guardian, July 25, 2021,

Ryan Deto, “A Pittsburgh Burger King closes temporarily as workers apparently walk out,” Pittsburgh City Paper, July 26, 2021,

Rachel Pannett, “Minimum-wage lessons for the U.S. from the other side of the world,” Washington Post, July 26, 2021,

Cara Sapida, “Police respond after Pittsburgh’s South Side Burger King allegedly left empty by workers,” WPXI, July 26, 2021,

Amara Omeokwe, “Biden Administration Moves to Tilt Pay and Power Toward Workers,” Wall Street Journal, July 27, 2021,

Heather Long and Andrew Van Dam, “States that cut unemployment early aren’t seeing a hiring boom, but who gets hired is changing,” Washington Post, July 27, 2021,

Sebastian Herrera, “Federal Labor Official Recommends Alabama Amazon Workers Hold New Vote, Union Says,” Wall Street Journal, August 2, 2021,

Bryan Mena, “Unfilled Job Openings Outnumber Unemployed Americans Seeking Work,” Wall Street Journal, August 9, 2021,

Matt Petras, “In the continuing pandemic, businesses need workers, but are jobs meeting the needs of residents?” Public Source, August 12, 2021,

Dean Baker, “The $26 an Hour Minimum Wage,” Center for Economic Policy and Research, August 19, 2021,

Anna North, “The death of the job,” Vox, August 24, 2021,

Francisco Velasquez, “How much money a single person needs to earn to get by in every U.S. state,” CNBC, August 25, 2021,

Nick Timiraos, “Fed Faces New Challenge Spelling Out Employment Goals,” Wall Street Journal, August 29, 2021,

Sarah Chaney Cambon and Danny Dougherty, “States That Cut Unemployment Benefits Saw Limited Impact on Job Growth,” Wall Street Journal, September 1, 2021,

Heather Long, Alyssa Fowers, and Andrew Van Dam, “Why America has 8.4 million unemployed when there are 10 million job openings,” Washington Post, September 4, 2021,

Joe Napsha, “Western Pa. business owners lament: Where have all the workers gone?” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 5, 2021,

Heather Long, “‘The pay is absolute crap’: Child-care workers are quitting rapidly, a red flag for the economy,” Washington Post, September 19, 2021,

Eli Rosenberg, Abha Bhattarai, and Andrew Van Dam, “A record number of workers are quitting their jobs, empowered by new leverage,” Washington Post, October 12, 2021,

Derek Thompson, “The Great Resignation Is Accelerating,” Atlantic, October 15, 2021,

Dominick Reuter, “A worker in Florida applied to 60 entry-level jobs in September and got one interview,” Business Insider, October 19, 2021,

Jamison Hixenbaugh, “Gov. Wolf to Impose Higher Wages, Sick Pay Requirements for Workers,” Erie News Now, October 22, 2021,

Holly Harrar, “Gov. Wolf signs new order to protect workers, raise minimum wage,” WFMZ, October 24, 2021,

Heather Long and Eli Rosenberg, “Why millions of job seekers aren’t getting hired in this hot job market,” Washington Post, November 8, 2021,

Andrew Mollica and Sarah Chaney Cambon, “Where U.S. Workers Are Quitting Jobs at Record Rates,” Wall Street Journal, November 25, 2021,

Jay Greene, “Labor board calls for revote at Amazon warehouse in Alabama in major victory for union,” Washington Post, November 29, 2021,

Judd Legum, “Want to be a criminal in America? Stealing billions is your best bet to go scot-free,” Guardian, December 7, 2021,

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