Illiberalism · Gilead · Right-wing militias



Right-wing militias

Fig. 1. “ODF militiamen Frank Delollis, right, signals for a patrol party to turn around while searching the Old Roseville Prison property in Roseville, Ohio for enemy combatants during the Ohio Defense Force’s annual FTX on Aug. 21, 2010.” Photograph by Ty Cacek, August 21, 2010, via Time Magazine,[1] fair use.

Barton Gellman, “The Secret World of Extreme Militias,” Time, September 30, 2010,,9171,2022636,00.html

Michael Kimmel, “America’s angriest white men: Up close with racism, rage and Southern supremacy,” Salon, November 17, 2013,

Mary B. McCord, “Armed Militias Are Taking Trump’s Civil War Tweets Seriously,” Lawfare, October 2, 2019,

Eric Cortellessa, “US far-right extremists are now calling social distancing a Nazi policy,” Times of Israel, April 17, 2020,

Isaac Stanley-Becker and Tony Romm, “Pro-gun activists using Facebook groups to push anti-quarantine protests,” Washington Post, April 19, 2020,

Jamie Martines And Tom Davidson, “Protesters in Pittsburgh demand Gov. Wolf to reopen businesses amid coronavirus pandemic,” Tribune-Review, April 20, 2020,

Ryan Deto, “Photos: About 120 protest in Downtown Pittsburgh, calling for Pennsylvania to reopen during coronavirus pandemic,” Pittsburgh City Paper, April 20, 2020,

Bryan Armen Graham, “‘Swastikas and nooses’: governor slams ‘racism’ of Michigan lockdown protest,” Guardian, May 3, 2020,

Moriah Balingit, “Armed militia helped a Michigan barbershop open, a coronavirus defiance that puts Republican lawmakers in a bind,” Washington Post, May 12, 2020,

Rashawn Ray and Rebecca Shankman, “How COVID-19 is changing the gun debate,” Brookings, June 17, 2020,

Joshua Partlow, “Politics at the point of a gun,” Washington Post, July 28, 2020,

Luke Mogelson, “The Militias Against Masks,” New Yorker, August 17, 2020,

Fred Kaplan, “Is America in the Early Stages of Armed Insurgency?” Slate, September 8, 2020,

Zak Cheney-Rice, “We Can Probably Stop Asking Trump If He’s a White Supremacist,” New York, September 30, 2020,

Robert Mackey, “Neo-Fascist Proud Boys Exult Over Trump Telling Them to ‘Stand By,’ Not Stand Down,” Intercept, September 30, 2020,

Jason Wilson, “Proud Boys are a dangerous ‘white supremacist’ group say US agencies,” Guardian, October 1, 2020,

Matt Zapotosky, Devlin Barrett, and Abigail Hauslohner, “FBI charges six who it says plotted to kidnap Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer, as seven more who wanted to ignite civil war face state charges,” Washington Post, October 8, 2020,

Kelly Weill, “Sixteen ‘Boogaloo’ Followers Have Been Busted in 7 Days,” Daily Beast, October 9, 2020,

Kayla Ruble, Laura Vozzella, and Devlin Barrett, “Whitmer plotters also discussed kidnapping Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam, FBI agent testifies,” Washington Post, October 13, 2020,

Laura Bliss and Marie Patino, “Tracking the Shifting Shape of Far-Right Political Violence,” CityLab, October 16, 2020,

Danielle Moran, Laura Bliss, and Sarah Holder, “Cities Gird for Election Day Unrest,” CityLab, October 26, 2020,

Megan Guza And Paul Peirce, “Western Pa. police ready for any election-related shenanigans, as report warns of possible militia violence,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, October 30, 2020,

Mike Giglio, “A Pro-Trump Militant Group Has Recruited Thousands of Police, Soldiers, and Veterans,” Atlantic, November 2020,

Katie Shepherd, “Armed protesters alleging voter fraud surrounded the home of Michigan’s secretary of state,” Washington Post, December 7, 2020,

Ciara O’Rourke, “How Oath Keepers Are Quietly Infiltrating Local Government,” Politico, December 9, 2020,

Rod Dreher, “Eric Metaxas’s American Apocalypse,” American Conservative, December 10, 2020,

Sophie Lewis, “Arizona Republican Party asks followers if they’re willing to die to overturn election results,” CBS News, December 10, 2020,

Peter Hermann, Marissa J. Lang, and Clarence Williams, “Pro-Trump rally descends into chaos as Proud Boys roam D.C. looking to fight,” Washington Post, December 13, 2020,

Hannah Knowles, Annie Gowen, and Tom Hamburger, “‘A dark, empty place:’ Public officials face personal threats as tensions flare,” Washington Post, December 13, 2020,

Associated Press, “Gun-toting far-right protesters try to force their way into Oregon’s Capitol,” Los Angeles Times, December 22, 2020,

Ted Barrett, Manu Raju, and Peter Nickeas, “US Capitol secured, woman dead after rioters stormed the halls of Congress to block Biden’s win,” CNN, January 6, 2021,

Talia Lavin, “The Violent Crescendo of the MAGA Conspiracies,” New Republic, January 6, 2021,

Rebecca Tan et al., “Trump supporters storm U.S. Capitol, with one woman killed and tear gas fired,” Washington Post, January 7, 2021,

Bryan Bender, “The military has a hate group problem. But it doesn’t know how bad it’s gotten,” Politico, January 11, 2021,

Colleen Long, Michael Balsamo, and Michael Kunzelman, “FBI warns of plans for nationwide armed protests next week,” Associated Press, January 11, 2021,

Josie Ensor, “Fears for Biden inauguration as FBI warns of ‘armed uprising’ and pro-Trump protests in 50 state capitals,” Telegraph, January 12, 2021,

Spencer S. Hsu, Tom Jackman, and Devlin Barrett, “Self-styled militia members planned on storming the U.S. Capitol days in advance of Jan. 6 attack, court documents say,” Washington Post, January 19, 2021,

Aruna Viswanatha, “Conspiracy Charges Filed Over Capitol Riot,” Wall Street Journal, January 19, 2021,

Mike Giglio, “What’s Next for the Militias?” Intercept, January 20, 2021,

Spencer S. Hsu, Rachel Weiner, and Tom Jackman, “Self-styled militia members in three states began planning in November for recruits, weapons ahead of Capitol breach, U.S. alleges,” Washington Post, January 27, 2021,

Seth G. Jones et al., “The Military, Police, and the Rise of Terrorism in the United States,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 12, 2021,

Max Hauptman, “What to know about Rise of the Moors, an armed group that says it’s not subject to U.S. law,” Washington Post, July 4, 2021,

Rachel Weiner and Spencer S. Hsu, “Virginia ‘Bible study’ group was cover for violent militia plans, prosecutors say,” Washington Post, July 6, 2021,

Whitney Wild et al., “Police identify suspect who surrendered after claiming to have a bomb near US Capitol,” CNN, August 19, 2021,

Amy B. Wang, “Lawmakers denounce GOP Rep. Brooks for appearing sympathetic to Capitol bomb threat suspect,” Washington Post, August 19, 2021,

Rachel Weiner, “Man who claimed to have bomb near Capitol charged with threatening to use ‘weapon of mass destruction,’” Washington Post, August 20, 2021,

Matt Cohen, “Armed Picnics and Snipers at Family Dollar: Life in a Town With a Government-Approved Militia,” Mother Jones, August 26, 2021,

Katie Balevic, “3 Washington schools went into lockdown after far-right anti-mask protestors tried to access property,” Insider, September 4, 2021,

Hannah Allam and Spencer S. Hsu, “Oath Keepers founder draws scrutiny from federal officials and followers,” Washington Post, September 17, 2021,

Kaleigh Rogers, “Jan. 6 Has Given The Right Hundreds Of New Martyrs,” FiveThirtyEight, September 22, 2021,

Kimberly Kindy, “Boosted by the pandemic, ‘constitutional sheriffs’ are a political force,” Washington Post, November 2, 2021,

Ryan Deto, “Report says a Pittsburgh Police officer requested to join extremist group Oath Keepers,” Pittsburgh City Paper, November 3, 2021,

Joan E. Greve, “‘A core threat to our democracy’: threat of political violence growing across US,” Guardian, November 27, 2021,

Barton Gellman, “Trump’s Next Coup Has Already Begun,” Atlantic, December 6, 2021,

Christy E. Lopez, “Beware the extremist, dangerous and unconstitutional ‘constitutional sheriffs,’” Washington Post, December 17, 2021,

Jason Dearen, “He attended cross burnings, wore a wire, risked his life to expose who was in KKK,” Times of Israel, December 23, 2021,

Jeannie Suk Gersen, “The Case Against the Oath Keepers,” New Yorker, January 21, 2022,

Carter Walker, “White supremacist group Patriot Front recruiting in Pa., targeting Lancaster County with propaganda,” Lancaster Online, February 6, 2022,

K. K. Ottesen, “‘They are preparing for war’: An expert on civil wars discusses where political extremists are taking this country,” Washington Post, March 8, 2022,

Greg Sargent, “An expert in political violence urgently warns: The worst is coming,” Washington Post, July 11, 2022,

Lindsay Whitehurst, “Testimony: Oath Keepers Ready to Use ‘Any Means Necessary,’”, October 19, 2022,

Michael Korsh and Mike Wereschagin, “How the Oath Keepers turned Pennsylvania into a far-right militia recruiting hotbed,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 6, 2023,

  1. [1]Barton Gellman, “The Secret World of Extreme Militias,” Time, September 30, 2010,,9171,2022636,00.html

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