The Four Possible Timelines for Life Returning to Normal

See also:

Tony Romm, “Fake cures and other coronavirus conspiracy theories are flooding WhatsApp, leaving governments and users with a ‘sense of panic,’” Washington Post, March 2, 2020,

Jennifer Gonnerman, “How Prisons and Jails Can Respond to the Coronavirus,” New Yorker, March 14, 2020,

Bloomberg, “CDC says U.S. gatherings of over 50 people should not be held for eight weeks,” Los Angeles Times, March 15, 2020,

Brent Kendall, Chad Day, and Alex Leary, “U.S. Officials Urge More Action to Combat Coronavirus,” Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2020,

Heather Long, “Federal Reserve slashes interest rates to zero as part of wide-ranging emergency intervention,” Washington Post, March 15, 2020,

Wes Venteicher and Theresa Clift, “California plans to use private hotels, motels to shelter homeless people as coronavirus spreads,” Sacramento Bee, March 15, 2020,

Joe Pinsker, “The Four Possible Timelines for Life Returning to Normal,” Atlantic, March 30, 2020,

Ariana Eunjung Cha et al., “Faced with a crush of patients, besieged NYC hospitals struggle with life-or-death decisions,” Washington Post, March 31, 2020,

Amber Phillips, “What you really need to know from Tuesday’s White House coronavirus briefing,” Washington Post, March 31, 2020,

Carolyn Y. Johnson, “Testing coronavirus survivors’ blood could help reopen U.S.,” Washington Post, March 31, 2020,

Rich Tenorio, “In virus epicenter NYC, disaster guru puts blame squarely on Trump White House,” Times of Israel, April 2, 2020,

Paul Waldman, “The real reason Trump is obsessed with hydroxychloroquine,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020,

Marilynn Marchione, “Heart woes spur partial stop of malaria drug study for virus,” Associated Press, April 13, 2020,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Trump wants to lift lockdowns. Other countries’ attempts show why the U.S. isn’t ready,” Washington Post, April 21, 2020,

Aaron Rupar, “Trump and Fox News want to send their hydroxychloroquine hype down the memory hole,” Vox, April 22, 2020,

Michael D. Shear and Maggie Haberman, “Health Dept. Official Says Doubts on Hydroxychloroquine Led to His Ouster,” New York Times, April 22, 2020,

Associated Press, “FDA warns against using the drugs that Trump touts for coronavirus,” Los Angeles Times, April 24, 2020,

Joby Warrick et al., “Chinese lab conducted extensive research on deadly bat viruses, but there is no evidence of accidental release,” Washington Post, April 30 2020,

Helen Davidson, “WHO says it has no evidence to support ‘speculative’ Covid-19 lab theory,” Guardian, May 4, 2020,

Sarah Kaplan and Joel Achenbach, “Researchers hypothesize that a highly contagious strain of the coronavirus is spreading, but other experts remain skeptical,” Washington Post, May 5, 2020,

Ralph Vartabedian, “Scientists have identified a new strain of the coronavirus that appears to be more contagious,” Los Angeles Times, May 5, 2020,

Mark Scott and Steven Overly, “‘Conspiracy bingo’: Trans-Atlantic extremists seize on the pandemic,” Politico, May 12, 2020,

Ariana Eunjung Cha and Laurie McGinley, “Antimalarial drug touted by President Trump is linked to increased risk of death in coronavirus patients, study says,” Washington Post, May 22, 2020,

Jared S. Hopkins and Russell Gold, “Authors Retract Study That Found Risks of Using Antimalaria Drugs Against Covid-19,” Wall Street Journal, June 4, 2020,

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Hannah Wiley, “‘No masks. No vaccines.’ Battle is brewing over coronavirus immunizations in California,” Sacramento Bee, June 26, 2020,

Sarah Kaplan and Joel Achenbach, “This coronavirus mutation has taken over the world. Scientists are trying to understand why,” Washington Post, June 29, 2020,

Laura Meckler, “With pressure and threats, Trump pushes to fully reopen schools. Schools say: Not so fast,” Washington Post, July 8, 2020,

Laurie McGinley and Josh Dawsey, “Touting criticized study, White House presses FDA to authorize hydroxychloroquine — again,” Washington Post, July 10, 2020,

Molly Roberts, “Anthony Fauci built a truce. Trump is destroying it,” Washington Post, July 16, 2020,

Peter Dockrill, “Older Kids May Transmit COVID-19 as Much as Adults Do, New Evidence Shows,” Science Alert, July 20, 2020,

Tom McCarthy, “US public increasingly skeptical of Covid-19 death toll, poll finds,” Guardian, July 21, 2020,

Justin Lahart, “Kids at Home Could Put the Economy in Detention,” Wall Street Journal, July 24, 2020,

Jamie Martines, “State: Brighton Rehab nursing home failed to get proper approval to use hydroxychloroquine on residents,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 28, 2020,

Apoorva Mandavilli, “Children May Carry Coronavirus at High Levels, Study Finds,” New York Times, July 30, 2020,

Benjamin Lee and William V. Raszka, “COVID-19 Transmission and Children: The Child Is Not to Blame,” Pediatrics 146, no. 1 (August 2020), doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-004879

Sanjay Gupta and Andrea Kane, “Do some people have protection against the coronavirus?” CNN, August 2, 2020,

Jacqueline Howard and Sandee LaMotte, “Kids can carry coronavirus in respiratory tract for weeks, study suggests,” CNN, August 28, 2020,

Josie Ensor, “New coronavirus mutation could be evolving to get around mask-wearing and hand-washing,” Telegraph, September 24, 2020,

Derek Thompson, “The COVID-19 Fall Surge Is Here. We Can Stop It,” Atlantic, October 12, 2020,

Antonia Noori Farzan et al. “U.S. surpasses 64,000 new coronavirus infections two days in a row for first time since late July,” Washington Post, October 16, 2020,

Karen Kaplan, “U.S. deaths are about 300,000 higher than expected since the coronavirus arrived,” Los Angeles Times, October 20, 2020,

Elliot Hannon, “Trump Says ‘We’re Rounding the Turn’ the Same Day the U.S. Approaches Record Number of New Coronavirus Cases,” Slate, October 23, 2020,

William Wan and Jacqueline Dupree, “America hits highest daily number of coronavirus cases since pandemic began,” Washington Post, October 23, 2020,

Hannah Knowles and Jacqueline Dupree, “Full hospitals, talk of rationing care: New wave of coronavirus cases strains resources,” Washington Post, October 25, 2020,

Erika Edwards, “More than 61,000 children got Covid-19 last week, a record,” NBC News, November 2, 2020,

Betsy McKay and Erin Ailworth, “Covid Is Resurging, and This Time It’s Everywhere,” Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2020,

Lenny Bernstein, “With hospitals slammed by covid-19, doctors and nurses plead for action by governors,” Washington Post, December 3, 2020,

Alexander Zhang, “The Forgotten Third Amendment Could Give Pandemic-Struck America a Way Forward,” Atlantic, October 21, 2020,

Elizabeth Dwoskin, “Facebook steps up campaign to ban false information about coronavirus vaccines,” Washington Post, December 3, 2020,

Natalie Grover, “What do we know about the fast-spreading Covid variant in UK?” Guardian, December 20, 2020,

Jon Henley et al., “EU to hold crisis talks as countries block travel from UK over new Covid strain,” Guardian, December 20, 2020,

Ryan W. Miller, “How will you know when it’s your turn for a COVID vaccine? It’s complicated,” South Bend Tribune, December 28, 2020,

David Wallace-Wells, “America’s Vaccine Rollout Is Already a Disaster,” New York, December 30, 2020,

Christopher Dean Hopkins and Ashish Valentine, “Some Health Care Workers Are Hesitant About Getting COVID-19 Vaccines,” National Public Radio, January 1, 2021,

David Leonhardt, “A Vaccine Road Trip,” New York Times, January 22, 2021,

Melissa Healy, “California’s coronavirus strain looks increasingly dangerous: ‘The devil is already here,’” Los Angeles Times, February 23, 2021,

Sam Baker, “The danger of a fourth wave,” Axios, March 4, 2021,

Isaac Stanley-Becker, “GOP governors scorn pandemic restrictions as they compete for primacy in a pro-Trump party,” Washington Post, March 5, 2021,

Benjamin Wallace-Wells, “The Vaccine Resisters,” New Yorker, March 5, 2021,

Lena H. Sun and Lenny Bernstein, “Fully vaccinated people can visit with nearby grandchildren, dine indoors with one another, CDC says,” Washington Post, March 8, 2021,

John Torres, “‘Vaccine passports’: Will they be available in the U.S. in time for summer?” NBC News, March 14, 2021,

Christopher Rowland, Emily Rauhala, and Miriam Berger, “Drug companies defend vaccine monopolies in face of global outcry,” Washington Post, March 20, 2021,

April Dembosky, “It’s not Tuskegee. Current medical racism fuels Black Americans’ vaccine hesitancy,” Los Angeles Times, March 25, 2021,

Natalie Grover, “New Covid vaccines needed globally within a year, say scientists,” Guardian, March 29, 2021,

Julie Steenhuysen, “T cells induced by COVID-19 infection respond to new virus variants: U.S. study,” Reuters, March 30, 2021,

Laurel Wamsley, “Florida Gov. DeSantis Rejects Vaccine Passports As ‘Completely Unacceptable,’” National Public Radio, March 30, 2021,

Kathryn Watson, “White House leaves vaccine ‘passports’ to private sector,” CBS News, March 30, 2021,

Erin Banco, “CDC: Vaccinated Americans can now travel,” Politico, April 2, 2021,

Philip Bump, “Vaccine skepticism and disregard for containment efforts go hand in hand,” Washington Post, April 2, 2021,

Zeynep Tufekci, “The Fourth Surge Is Upon Us. This Time, It’s Different,” Atlantic, March 30, 2021,

Hindu, “U.S. defends restrictions on export of COVID-19 vaccine raw materials amid India’s request to lift ban,” April 23, 2021,

Joanna Slater, “India’s devastating outbreak is driving the global coronavirus surge,” Washington Post, April 19, 2021,

Katie Camero, “If you’ve had COVID, your first vaccine dose may cause worse side effects. Here’s why,” Miami Herald, April 20, 2021,

Shaikh Azizur Rahman and Emma Graham-Harrison, “India’s Covid death toll at record high, but true figure likely to be worse,” Guardian, April 24, 2021,

Lena H. Sun, “CDC says fully vaccinated Americans can go without masks outdoors, except in crowded settings,” Washington Post, April 27, 2021,

Chris Megerian, “Biden’s coronavirus success threatened by political divisions he pledged to heal,” Los Angeles Times, April 27, 2021,

Sally Robertson, “Previously infected vaccinees broadly neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern,” News-Medical, May 2, 2021,

Apoorva Mandavilli, “Reaching ‘Herd Immunity’ Is Unlikely in the U.S., Experts Now Believe,” New York Times, May 3, 2021,

Dan Diamond, Tyler Pager, and Jeff Stein, “Biden commits to waiving vaccine patents, driving wedge with pharmaceutical companies,” Washington Post, May 5, 2021,

Rong-Gong Lin, II, “Confidence grows that COVID-19 vaccines hold their own against variants,” Los Angeles Times, May 10, 2021,

Deborah Netburn, “Did the coronavirus escape from a lab? The idea deserves a second look, scientists say,” Los Angeles Times, May 13, 2021,

Zeke Miller and Michael Balsamo, “‘Great day for America’: Vaccinated can largely ditch masks,” Associated Press, May 13, 2021,

German Lopez, “Got the vaccine? Experts say you can relax about your Covid-19 risk now. Really,” Vox, May 11, 2021,

Leana S. Wen, “The CDC shouldn’t have removed restrictions without requiring proof of vaccination,” Washington Post, May 13, 2021,

Shannon McDonagh, “Here is what every country’s vaccine passport should have, according to the UN,” EuroNews, May 14, 2021,

Jamie Grierson, “Fake Covid vaccine and test certificate market is growing, researchers say,” Guardian, May 16, 2021,

Jackie Drees, “Vaccine passports: 23 states with bans, limitations & green lights,” Becker’s Healthcare, May 26, 2021,

Elizabeth Cohen, “Interest in vaccinations increased after CDC announced new mask guidance,” CNN, May 27, 2021,

Alexandra Villarreal, “US taking ‘very close look’ at vaccine passports for international travel,” Guardian, May 28, 2021,

Matthew Rozsa, “A virologist unpacks the lab leak hypothesis,” Salon, May 29, 2021,

Daniel Villarreal, “Matt Gaetz Says Anthony Fauci ‘Has Blood on His Hands, And Now the Country Knows It,’” Newsweek, June 4, 2021,

Maggie Fox, “NIH researchers find more evidence Covid was circulating in the US in December 2019,” CNN, June 15, 2021,

Talal Ansari and Jason Douglas, “Delta Covid-19 Variant Likely to Become Dominant in U.S., CDC Director Says,” Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2021,

Kevin Rector et al., “Many L.A. cops and firefighters aren’t vaccinated against COVID-19. Is this a public safety threat?” Los Angeles Times, June 19, 2021,

Adam Cancryn and David Lim, “Biden administration likely to miss July 4 vaccine target as new Covid strain surges,” Politico, June 22, 2021,

Dan Diamond, “153 people resigned or were fired from a Texas hospital system after refusing to get vaccinated,” Washington Post, June 22, 2021,

Tala Michel Issa, “Is it safe to mix-and-match COVID-19 vaccines? Here’s what we know so far,” Al Arabiya, June 23, 2021,

Dhruv Khullar, “One half of America is protected. The other is approaching a perilous moment in the pandemic,” New Yorker, June 23, 2021,

Don Sweeney and Katie Camero, “Face masks not necessary in US to curb Delta variant, CDC chief says,” Sacramento Bee, June 30, 2021,

Maggie Fox, “Unvaccinated people are ‘variant factories,’ infectious diseases expert says,” CNN, July 3, 2021,

Courtney Ann Jackson, “Mississippi doctors still urging folks to get vaccinated as Delta variant becomes dominant COVID strain,” WLBT, July 5, 2021,

Alisa Odenheimer and Damian Shepherd, “Pfizer Shot Halts Severe Illness in Israel as Delta Spreads,” Bloomberg, July 5, 2021,

Max Boot, “Republicans are preventing America from reaching Biden’s vaccination goal,” Washington Post, July 6, 2021,

Philip Bump, “A third of White conservatives refuse to get vaccinated — a refusal shown in polling and the real world,” Washington Post, July 6, 2021,

Peter Jamison, “Their neighbors called covid-19 a hoax. Can these ICU nurses forgive them?” Washington Post, July 6, 2021,

Ron Kampeas, “In latest Nazi analogy, Marjorie Taylor Greene invokes ‘medical brown shirts’ in decrying vaccination outreach,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, July 7, 2021,

Joel Achenbach, “New study on delta variant reveals importance of receiving both vaccine shots, highlights challenges posed by mutations,” Washington Post, July 8, 2021,

Maggie Fox, “Pfizer sees waning immunity from its Covid-19 vaccine, says developing new booster,” CNN, July 8, 2021,

Berkeley Lovelace, Jr., “Pfizer says it is developing a Covid booster shot to target the highly transmissible delta variant,” CNBC, July 8, 2021,

Grace Panetta, “GOP Rep. Lauren Boebert calls Biden’s door-to-door vaccinators ‘needle Nazis,’” Yahoo! News, July 8, 2021,

Paul Waldman, “Right-wing anti-vaccine hysteria is increasing. We’ll all pay the price,” Washington Post, July 8, 2021,

Yasmeen Abutaleb et al., “Pfizer expected to brief U.S. officials in coming days on the need for a booster shot,” Washington Post, July 10, 2021,

Helen Branswell, “WHO director-general slams notion of Covid-19 vaccine booster doses given global health needs,” Stat, July 12, 2021,

Nathan Jeffay, “In world first, COVID boosters rolled out for some at-risk Israelis,” Times of Israel, July 12, 2021,

Maria Cheng, “WHO: Rich countries should donate vaccines, not use boosters,” Associated Press, July 13, 2021,

Tim Fitzsimons and The Associated Press, “Top Tennessee health official says she was fired after efforts to get teens vaccinated,” NBC News, July 13, 2021,

Brett Kelman, “Tennessee abandons vaccine outreach to minors — not just for COVID-19,” Nashville Tennessean, July 13, 2021,

Ed Kilgore, “The Willfully Unvaccinated Are the Newest Republican Martyrs,” New York, July 13, 2021,

David Rasbach and Robert Mittendorf, “Even if U.S.-Canada border reopens July 21, one group won’t be allowed for ‘quite a while,’” Sacramento Bee, July 13, 2021,

Hannah Knowles, “DeSantis sells ‘Don’t Fauci My Florida’ merch as new coronavirus cases near highest in nation,” Washington Post, July 14, 2021,

Luke Money and Rong-Gong Lin, II, “Tougher tactics targeting the unvaccinated needed to stop new COVID-19 spike, experts say,” Los Angeles Times, July 14, 2021,

Dan Diamond, Hannah Knowles, and Tyler Pager, “Vaccine hesitancy morphs into hostility, as opposition to shots hardens,” Washington Post, July 15, 2021,

Ed Pilkington and Lauren Aratani, “US seeing ‘pandemic of the unvaccinated’ as cases rise in every state,” Guardian, July 16, 2021,

Joel Achenbach, “In this summer of covid freedom, disease experts warn: ‘The world needs a reality check,’” Washington Post, July 17, 2021,

Melanie Evans and Julie Wernau, “Unvaccinated Americans Are Behind Rising Covid-19 Hospitalizations,” Wall Street Journal, July 18, 2021,

Michael Laris and Lori Aratani, “Unruly airplane passengers are straining the system for keeping peace in the sky,” Washington Post, July 18, 2021,

Caroline Wheeler and Louise Eccles, “Johnson swelters over ‘freedom day’ mayhem,” Times, July 18, 2021,

Libby Cathey, “Biden tries to clarify comment that Facebook is ‘killing people,’ ABC News, July 19, 2021,

Amanda Coletta, “Canada to open border to fully vaccinated U.S. citizens on Aug. 9,” Washington Post, July 19, 2021,

Christopher Hope, “Freedom Day farce as Boris Johnson urged to end ‘pingdemic,’” Telegraph, July 19, 2021,

Kim Mackrael, “Canada to Reopen Border for Fully Vaccinated U.S. Tourists in August,” Wall Street Journal, July 19, 2021,

Greg Sargent, “A vile new Trump-GOP claim about vaccines suggests trouble ahead,” Washington Post, July 19, 2021,

Brianna Abbott, “Delta Variant Accounts for 83% of Known U.S. Covid-19 Cases,” Wall Street Journal, July 20, 2021,

Michael M. Grynbaum, Tiffany Hsu, and Zolan Kanno-Youngs, “On Fox News, Vaccination Pleas Intensify, but Skepticism Persists,” New York Times, July 20, 2021,

Bryan Pietsch, “Twitter suspends Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene for spreading covid-19 misinformation,” Washington Post, July 20, 2021,

Reis Thebault, “In latest clash over Wuhan lab, Fauci tells Sen. Rand Paul: ‘You do not know what you’re talking about,’” Washington Post, July 20, 2021,

Jeremy Kohler, “GOP Legislators in Missouri Oppose Vaccine Efforts as State Becomes COVID Hotspot,” Pro Publica, July 21, 2021,

David Leonhardt, “Why Aren’t the Vaccines Approved?” New York Times, July 21, 2021,

Kari Paul, “‘A systemic failure’: vaccine misinformation remains rampant on Facebook, experts say,” Guardian, July 21, 2021,

Dennis Pillion, “‘I’m sorry, but it’s too late’: Alabama doctor on treating unvaccinated, dying COVID patients,” Advance Local, July 21, 2021,

Katherine S. Xue, “Coexisting With The Coronavirus,” New Yorker, July 21, 2021,

Siobhan Hughes, “Bill Would Strip Social Media of Protections for Health Misinformation,” Wall Street Journal, July 22, 2021,

Rob Stein and Selena Simmons-Duffin, “The Delta Variant Will Drive A Steep Rise In U.S. COVID Deaths, A New Model Shows,” National Public Radio, July 22, 2021,

Jenny Deam, Ryan Gabrielson, and Bianca Fortis, “‘Don’t You Work With Old People?’: Many Elder-Care Workers Still Refuse to Get COVID-19 Vaccine,” Pro Publica, July 23, 2021,

Dan Diamond and Tyler Pager, “‘Patience has worn thin’: Frustration mounts over vaccine holdouts,” Washington Post, July 23, 2021,

David Frum, “Vaccinated America Has Had Enough,” Atlantic, July 23, 2021,

Madeline Wells, “SF Bay Area restaurants are still struggling. Returning customers don’t see that,” SFGate, July 23, 2021,

David Connett, “Anger over Sajid Javid’s advice to not ‘cower’ from Covid,” Guardian, July 24, 2021,

Oliver Laughland and Jessica Glenza, “Inside a Tennessee hospital grappling with Delta and vaccine hesitancy,” Guardian, July 24, 2021,

Annie Linskey, Tyler Pager, and Dan Diamond, “Surge of covid delta variant poses new political threat to Biden and his agenda,” Washington Post, July 24, 2021,

Chandelis Duster, “Fauci: ‘We’re going in the wrong direction’ on Covid-19 cases,” CNN, July 25, 2021,

Dan Diamond, “Doctors, nurses and medical groups call for mandatory coronavirus vaccinations for health workers,” Washington Post, July 26, 2021,

Emma Fitzsimmons, “New York City and California will require workers to be vaccinated or face testing,” New York Times, July 26, 2021,

Summer Lin, “Got your COVID vaccine? Stay out, says California restaurateur decrying ‘stupidity,’” Sacramento Bee, July 26, 2021,

Justine McDaniel and Chris A. Williams, “More COVID-19 shots are being given in Pa. and N.J. as delta variant spurs outbreaks in U.S.,” Philadelphia Inquirer, July 26, 2021,

Yasmeen Abutaleb, Joel Achenbach, Dan Diamond, and Adam Taylor, “CDC urges vaccinated people in covid hot spots to resume wearing masks indoors,” Washington Post, July 27, 2021,

Simone Jasper, “Is it a HIPAA violation to ask someone about their COVID vaccine status? What to know,” Sacramento Bee, July 27, 2021,

Tyler Pager and Eli Rosenberg, “Biden plans to require federal workers to be vaccinated or undergo repeated tests,” Washington Post, July 27, 2021,

Jaclyn Peiser, “Evangelical pastor demands churchgoers ditch their masks: ‘Don’t believe this delta variant nonsense,’” Washington Post, July 27, 2021,

Sabrina Siddiqui and Tarini Parti, “CDC Urges Vaccinated People to Resume Wearing Masks Indoors in Some Areas,” Wall Street Journal, July 27, 2021,

Paul Waldman, “I’m tired of being nice to vaccine refusers,” Washington Post, July 27, 2021,

Alexis Benveniste, “These companies are requiring Covid-19 vaccines for their employees,” CNN, July 28, 2021,

Justine Coleman, “Pfizer vaccine effectiveness drops to 84 percent after six months: data,” Hill, July 28, 2021,

Jacqueline Howard, “Pfizer data suggest third dose of Covid-19 vaccine ‘strongly’ boosts protection against Delta variant,” CNN, July 28, 2021,

Justin Miller and David Wallace-Wells, “What If Vaccines Don’t Really Stop the Virus From Spreading?” New York, July 28, 2021,

David Leonhardt to Morning list, “A confusing message,” New York Times, July 28, 2021,

Stephen Losey, “DoD Making Masks Mandatory Again, Even for the Vaccinated, in Some Places,”, July 28, 2021,

Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Myanmar could become Covid ‘super-spreader’ state, says UN expert,” Guardian, July 28, 2021,

Erika D. Smith, “I wish I could be angry with the unvaccinated. Being Black makes that complicated,” Los Angeles Times, July 28, 2021,

Yasmeen Abutaleb, Carolyn Y. Johnson, and Joel Achenbach, “‘The war has changed’: Internal CDC document urges new messaging, warns delta infections likely more severe,” Washington Post, July 29, 2021,

Timothy Bella, “Tucker Carlson falsely claims Anthony S. Fauci ‘created’ covid,” Washington Post, July 29, 2021,

Democracy Now! “‘We Can’t Trust the Unvaccinated’: Dr. Leana Wen on Vaccine Mandates & How to Stop the Delta Variant,” July 29, 2021,

Anne Flaherty and Arielle Mitropoulos, “CDC mask decision followed stunning findings from Cape Cod beach outbreak,” ABC News, July 29, 2021,

Melody Schreiber, “Please Don’t Rush to Get a Third Covid Shot,” New Republic, July 29, 2021,

Sabrina Siddiqui and Paul Kiernan, “Biden Says Federal Employees Must Get Covid-19 Shots or Wear Masks, Test Regularly,” Wall Street Journal, July 29, 2021,

Isaac Stanley-Becker, “Charlie Kirk’s pro-Trump youth group stokes vaccine resistance as covid surges again,” Washington Post, July 29, 2021,

Leana S. Wen, “The CDC needs to make clear: The problem is the unvaccinated,” Washington Post, July 29, 2021,

Brianna Abbott, “CDC Says New Mask Guidelines Informed by Cape Cod Outbreak,” Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2021,

Ariana Eunjung Cha, Rose Hansen, and Jacqueline Dupree, “‘A rush to get shots,’” Washington Post, July 30, 2021,

Carolyn Y. Johnson, Yasmeen Abutaleb, and Joel Achenbach, “CDC study shows three-fourths of people infected in Massachusetts coronavirus outbreak were vaccinated but few required hospitalization,” Washington Post, July 30, 2021,

Adrienne LaFrance, “‘Why Are We Not Vaccinating Children Under 12?’” Atlantic, July 30, 2021,

David Litt, “Republicans used to laud ‘personal responsibility’. Not with Covid,” Guardian, July 30, 2021,

Ruth Marcus, “Require the vaccine. It’s time to stop coddling the reckless,” Washington Post, July 30, 2021,

Brian Stelter and Oliver Darcy, “White House blasts Covid coverage,” CNN, July 30, 2021,

Natasha Korecki, Erin Banco, and Adam Cancryn, “Tensions rise within Biden team over mask reversal,” Politico, August 2, 2021,

Jimmy Vielkind and Zusha Elinson, “Louisiana and San Francisco Area to Reinstate Indoor Mask Mandates,” Wall Street Journal, August 2, 2021,

Joseph Ax and Nathan Layne, “Delta variant surges across U.S. South; political leaders clamp down again,” Reuters, August 3, 2021, copy in possession of author

Alexis Benveniste, “New York City will require vaccines for entry to restaurants and gyms,” CNN, August 3, 2021,

Juliette Kayyem, “Unvaccinated People Need to Bear the Burden,” Atlantic, August 3, 2021,

Olivier Knox to Daily 202 list, “Alex Azar says Democrats must show ‘political graciousness’ about vaccines,” Washington Post, August 4, 2021,

Aparna Nathan, “Delta-plus and lambda variants don’t yet warrant panic for vaccinated people, Philly experts say,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 4, 2021,

Bryan Pietsch, Adela Suliman, and Hannah Knowles, “WHO calls for moratorium on booster vaccine shots through September, citing global disparity,” Washington Post, August 4, 2021,

Jennifer Rubin, “Americans have had it with vaccine refusers and anti-mandate politicians,” Washington Post, August 4, 2021,

Jenny Jarvie, Richard Read, and Molly Hennessy-Fiske, “With Delta surging, America is dangerously divided over vaccines,” Los Angeles Times, August 5, 2021,

Justine McDaniel, Allison Steele, and Erin McCarthy, “‘Enough is enough’: Gov. Murphy’s outburst was the latest sign of rising anger over pandemic divide,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 5, 2021,

Associated Press, “U.S. now averaging 100,000 new coronavirus infections a day,” Los Angeles Times, August 6, 2021,

Annie Linskey, “Biden officials weigh using regulatory powers to spur vaccine mandates,” Washington Post, August 6, 2021,

Andrew Nikiforuk, “Alberta Joins Team ‘Just Give Up,’” Tyee, August 6, 2021,

Todd Zywicki, “Why I’m Suing Over My Employer’s Vaccine Mandate,” Wall Street Journal, August 6, 2021,

Rowena Mason and Jessica Elgot, “JCVI ‘largely opposed’ to Covid vaccination for children under 16,” Guardian, August 7, 2021,

Luke Money and Faith E. Pinho, “Wary of ‘breakthrough’ infections, some vaccinated people eye another shot. Is it needed?” Los Angeles Times, August 7, 2021,

Josh Glancy, “Calling Covid experts arrogant and wrong doesn’t make you a nutjob,” Times, August 8, 2021,

Edward Helmore, “Rightwing radio host and anti-vaxxer dies of Covid,” Guardian, August 8, 2021,

Barbara Starr, Kaitlan Collins, and Zachary Cohen, “Pentagon moves to mandate Covid-19 vaccine for active duty military members,” CNN, August 9, 2021,

Wes Venteicher, “California correctional officers union to fight new COVID-19 vaccine mandate, memo says,” Sacramento Bee, August 9, 2021,

Brianna Abbott, “Covid-19 Rise, Vaccine Hesitancy Frustrate Doctors in Hospitals Saturated by the Delta Variant,” Wall Street Journal, August 12, 2021,

Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court won’t block Indiana University vaccine mandate as Justice Barrett rejects student plea,” Washington Post, August 12, 2021,

Natasha Lindstrom, “Out-of-state covid hot spots ‘desperate’ to transfer patients to Western Pa. hospitals,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 12, 2021,

Lindsay F. Wiley and Steve Vladeck, “Why Carefully Designed Public Vaccination Mandates Can—and Should—Withstand Constitutional Challenge,” Lawfare, August 12, 2021,

Brad Reed, “Georgia county shuts down all of its schools for two weeks after mass COVID-19 outbreak,” Raw Story, August 13, 2021,

Times of Israel, “Israel becomes first country in world to give COVID boosters to over-50s,” August 13, 2021,

Helen Ubiñas, “Stop begging the COVID bullies. We can’t ‘nice’ people into doing the right thing,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 13, 2021,

Aya Elamroussi, “‘This is starting to look really ominous in the South,’ expert says, as US is among nations with highest rate of new Covid-19 cases,” CNN, August 14, 2021,

Meagan Flynn, “Get the vaccine or get fired? In Shenandoah Valley, some nurses choose termination,” Washington Post, August 14, 2021,

Michael Savage, “New Covid variants ‘will set us back a year’, experts warn UK government,” Guardian, August 14, 2021,

Wes Venteicher, “California unions for firefighters, blue collar workers challenge Newsom’s vaccine rules,” Sacramento Bee, August 14, 2021,

Sharon LaFraniere, “U.S. to Advise Boosters for Most Americans 8 Months After Vaccination,” New York Times, August 16, 2021,

Paige Williams, “Mississippi’s Hospital System Is Rapidly Approaching Statewide Failure,” New Yorker, August 17, 2021,

Timothy Bella, “An Alabama doctor watched patients reject the coronavirus vaccine. Now he’s refusing to treat them,” Washington Post, August 18, 2021,

Andrew Nikiforuk, “How Wildfire Smoke Supercharges the COVID Virus,” Tyee, August 18, 2021,

Sabrina Siddiqui and Anna Wilde Mathews, “Biden Tells Nursing Homes to Vaccinate Staffs to Keep Medicare, Medicaid Funds,” Wall Street Journal, August 18, 2021,

Del Quentin Wilber, “Biden administration plans to offer COVID booster shots after 8 months,” Los Angeles Times, August 18, 2021,

Aaron Blake, “The GOP is losing the argument on coronavirus mandates,” Washington Post, August 19, 2021,

Rhys Blakely, “Double Covid vaccine doesn’t stop symptoms for half of Delta cases,” Times, August 19, 2021,

Krutika Amin and Cynthia Cox, “Unvaccinated COVID-19 hospitalizations cost the U.S. health system billions of dollars,” Peterson Foundation on Healthcare and Kaiser Family Foundation, August 20, 2021,

Max Hauptman, “Vaccine resistance in the military remains strong, a dilemma for Pentagon as mandate looms,” Washington Post, August 21, 2021,

Hannah Knowles, “A Texas GOP official’s covid-19 death went viral. Then came calls for vaccination — and bitter divides,” Washington Post, August 21, 2021,

Katie MacBride, [Twitter thread], Thread Reader App, August 21, 2021,

Guardian, “Trump booed after telling supporters to get Covid vaccine,” August 22, 2021,

Aaron Blake, “The GOP fought mandates by emphasizing the vaccines’ emergency status. Now what?” Washington Post, August 23, 2021,

Ben Guarino, Laurie McGinley, and Tyler Pager, “Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine wins full FDA approval, potentially persuading the hesitant to get a shot,” Washington Post, August 23, 2021,

Ivana Saric, “The fight over mask mandates in schools turns violent,” Axios, August 23, 2021,

Adela Suliman and Bryan Pietsch, “Third Pfizer dose significantly lowers risk of infection in seniors, Israeli data shows,” Washington Post, August 23, 2021,

Paul Waldman, “Time to say it: We’re done with the vaccine refusers,” Washington Post, August 23, 2021,

Stacey Colino, “How to handle the infuriating ‘here we go again’ feeling as the delta variant rages,” Washington Post, August 24, 2021,

Ellen Nakashima, Yasmeen Abutaleb, and Joel Achenbach, “Biden receives inconclusive intelligence report on covid origins,” Washington Post, August 24, 2021,

Stephanie Armour and Jared S. Hopkins, “Biden Administration Likely to Approve Covid-19 Boosters at Six Months,” Wall Street Journal, August 25, 2021,

Dan Diamond, “‘I’m still not planning to get it’: FDA approval not swaying some vaccine holdouts,” Washington Post, August 25, 2021,

Sam Baker, “Coronavirus cases are soaring, especially in the South,” Axios, August 26, 2021,

Karen Gallardo, “On the front lines, here’s what the seven stages of severe COVID-19 look like,” Los Angeles Times, August 26, 2021,

Jeannie Suk Gersen, “Should the Government Impose a National COVID-Vaccination Mandate?” New Yorker, August 26, 2021,

Michael McGough, “Sacramento hospitals ‘at capacity’ and COVID deaths at 6-month high as delta spreads,” Sacramento Bee, August 26, 2021,

Sudhin Thanawala and Jay Reeves, “Virus surge breaks hospital records amid rising toll on kids,” Sacramento Bee, August 26, 2021,

Marisa Fernandez, “As hospitals fill, more ambulances forced to wait,” Axios, August 27, 2021,

Hailey Branson-Potts, “Mortuaries fill, hospitals clog in rural California towns with low vaccination rates,“ Los Angeles Times, August 28, 2021,

Laura Meckler, “Biden administration opens civil rights investigations over bans on school mask mandates,” Washington Post, August 30, 2021,

Rong-Gong Lin, II, “Anti-vaccine forces pushing ivermectin. It can be toxic, dangerous, officials say,” Los Angeles Times, August 31, 2021,

Joshua Eaton and Joe Murphy, “15 million Covid vaccine doses thrown away in the U.S. since March, new data shows,” NBC News, September 1, 2021,

Paul Farhi, “Four conservative radio talk-show hosts bashed coronavirus vaccines. Then they got sick,” Washington Post, September 1, 2021,

Nancy Gibbs, “Do the unvaccinated deserve scarce ICU beds?” Washington Post, September 1, 2021,

Uché Blackstock, “Two words no parent of a sick child should have to hear: ‘At capacity,’” Washington Post, September 2, 2021,

Hannah Knowles and Timothy Bella, “A hospital refused to give ivermectin to a covid patient. Then a judge ordered doctors to administer it,” Washington Post, September 2, 2021,

Emma Goldberg and Emily Anthes, “Hospitalizations for children sharply increase as Delta surges, C.D.C. studies find,” New York Times, September 3, 2021,

Luke Money, “ICU beds filling up in San Joaquin Valley, triggering hospital surge order,” Los Angeles Times, September 3, 2021,

Tyler Pager and Laurie McGinley, “Top federal health officials warn that booster shots initially may be limited to Pfizer recipients,” Washington Post, September 3, 2021,

Katie Balevic, “3 Washington schools went into lockdown after far-right anti-mask protestors tried to access property,” Insider, September 4, 2021,

Mary Papenfuss, “15 Miami-Dade Public School Staff Members Die Of COVID In Just 10 Days,” Yahoo! News, September 4, 2021,

Yoree Koh, “Child Covid-19 Cases Rise in States Where Schools Opened Earliest,” Washington Post, September 5, 2021,

Lara Korte, “The man who started the movement to recall Gov. Gavin Newsom has COVID-19,” Sacramento Bee, September 7, 2021,

Andrea Salcedo, “Ohio judge reverses colleague’s decision on covid patient’s ivermectin treatment: ‘Judges are not doctors,’” Washington Post, September 7, 2021,

Matthew Perrone and Dee-Ann Durbin, “COVID-19 surge in the US: The summer of hope ends in gloom,” Associated Press, September 8, 2021,

Lizzie Roberts and Paul Nuki, “Don’t start booster vaccine doses too soon, warns JCVI scientist,” Telegraph, September 8, 2021,

Sharon Lerner, Mara Hvistendahl, and Maia Hibbett, “NIH Documents Provide New Evidence U.S. Funded Gain-of-Function Research in Wuhan,” Intercept, September 9, 2021,

Annie Linskey et al., “Biden announces sweeping new vaccine mandates for businesses, federal workers,” Washington Post, September 9, 2021,

Eileen Drage O’Reilly, “Monster risk: Fauci says COVID cases 10x too high,” Axios, September 9, 2021,

Hayley Fowler, “Biden’s COVID vaccine mandate ‘raises more questions than it answers.’ What to know,” Sacramento Bee, September 10, 2021,

Joan E. Greve and Richard Luscombe, “‘Have at it’: Joe Biden dares vaccine mandate opponents to take him on,” Guardian, September 10, 2021,

Michael Hiltzik, “Here’s why Biden’s vaccine mandate is right — and should stand up to legal challenges,” Los Angeles Times, September 10, 2021,

Lena H. Sun and Joel Achenbach, “Unvaccinated people were 11 times more likely to die of covid-19, CDC report finds,” Washington Post, September 10, 2021,

Annabelle Timsit, “GOP governors threaten to sue over mandates; Biden says, ‘have at it,’” Washington Post, September 10, 2021,

Timothy Bella, “Alabama man dies after being turned away from 43 hospitals as covid packs ICUs, family says,” Washington Post, September 12, 2021,

Paula Aceves, “The Fake Vaxx Card Next to You,” New York, September 14, 2021,

Betsy Phillips, “I was supposed to have life-saving surgery. Tennessee’s covid-19 surge cost me a hospital bed,” Washington Post, September 14, 2021,

Sarah Pulliam Bailey, “This pastor will sign a religious exemption for vaccines if you donate to his church,” Washington Post, September 15, 2021,

Jenny Deam, “A Boy Went to a COVID-Swamped ER. He Waited for Hours. Then His Appendix Burst,” ProPublica, September 15, 2021,

Rebecca Boone, “COVID-19 surge forces health care rationing in parts of West,” ABC News, September 16, 2021,

Oni Blackstock and Uché Blackstock, “We’re not calling out Nicki Minaj. We’re calling her in,” Washington Post, September 17, 2021,

Maggie Fox, “Moderna’s vaccine is the most effective, but Pfizer and J&J also protect well, CDC-led study says,” CNN, September 17, 2021,

Michael Hiltzik, “‘Death panels’ arrive — in COVID-stricken Republican Idaho,” Los Angeles Times, September 17, 2021,

Carolyn Y. Johnson, Laurie McGinley, and Joel Achenbach, “FDA panel endorses coronavirus boosters for older adults and those at risk of serious illness,” Washington Post, September 17, 2021,

Times of Israel, “Study: COVID booster recipients 20 times more protected against serious illness,” September 17, 2021,

Robbie Whelan, “Doctors Left to Decide Who Gets Extra Covid-19 Vaccines Amid Booster Debate,” Wall Street Journal, September 20, 2021,

Leana S. Wen, “The CDC should let Americans decide for themselves if their risk warrants getting a booster shot,” Washington Post, September 21, 2021,

Jared S. Hopkins and Felicia Schwartz, “FDA Clears Covid-19 Booster Shots From Pfizer for High-Risk People,” Wall Street Journal, September 22, 2021,

Sarah Knapton, “Nowhere left for Covid to go to mutate into a deadly variant, says Oxford vaccine creator, ” Telegraph, September 22, 2021,

Lauran Neergaard and Mike Stobbe, “CDC panel recommends Pfizer booster shots for seniors, declines them for healthcare workers,” Los Angeles Times, September 23, 2021,

George Monbiot, “Spirited Away,” September 24, 2021,

Lena H. Sun and Laurie McGinley, “Pfizer booster now available to older Americans and those at higher-risk, including on the job, as CDC chief partly overrules panel,” Washington Post, September 24, 2021,

Aaron Blake, “The question Republicans still can’t really answer on vaccine mandates,” Washington Post, September 25, 2021,

Richard Winton, “All California prison guards, staff must get COVID-19 vaccine, federal judge rules,” Los Angeles Times, September 27, 2021,

Jim Salter, “COVID-related attacks prompt hospital to issue panic buttons,” Associated Press, September 28, 2021,

Aaron Blake, “The evidence is building: Vaccine mandates work — and well,” Washington Post, September 29, 2021,

Christina Baker Kline, “My father should be in surgery rehab. But with beds full of the unvaccinated, he died in covid quarantine,” Washington Post, September 29, 2021,

Mark Berman, “As coronavirus cases mount and vaccine mandates spread, holdouts plague police and fire departments,” Washington Post, October 2, 2021,

Michael Brice-Saddler and Jasmine Hilton, “Thousands of D.C. health care workers remain unvaccinated amid flurry of religious exemption requests,” Washington Post, October 2, 2021,

Mike Baker, “In Alaska’s Covid Crisis, Doctors Must Decide Who Lives and Who Dies,” New York Times, October 3, 2021,

Kim Bellware, “Workers with unvaccinated spouses will pay more for insurance, a Louisiana health system says,” Washington Post, October 5, 2021,

Reuters, “U.S. CDC’s Walensky says COVID-19 death 7-day average remains constant at 1,400 per day,” October 6, 2021,

Hannah Knowles and Caroline Anders, “Hospital system says it will deny transplants to the unvaccinated in ‘almost all situations,’” Washington Post, October 6, 2021,

Jamie Gumbrecht, “Pfizer seeks FDA authorization of Covid-19 vaccine for children ages 5 to 11,” CNN, October 7, 2021,

Katie Camero, “UCLA doctor ‘willing to lose everything’ escorted from work for refusing COVID vaccine,” Sacramento Bee, October 7, 2021,

Ben Sales, “A Proud Boys-sympathizing rabbi in Florida has provided 200 vaccine exemption requests,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 8, 2021,

Alex Horton, “Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops have not yet complied with vaccine mandate as deadlines near,” Washington Post, October 10, 2021,

Lizette Alvarez, “Florida teachers are quitting their jobs in droves — and who can blame them?” Washington Post, October 11, 2021,

Tom Frieden, “Pfizer and Moderna’s mRNA vaccines are our best chance to end this pandemic. Break up their duopoly,” Washington Post, October 12, 2021,

Dan Whitcomb, “Texas governor bars all COVID-19 vaccine mandates in state, rips Biden for ‘bullying,’” Reuters, October 12, 2021,

Tom Hals, “Texas vaccine mandate ban may be trumped by federal law but could cause uncertainty,” Reuters, October 13, 2021,

Ryan Young, Jason Morris, and Ray Sanchez, “Five times as many police officers have died from Covid-19 as from gunfire since start of pandemic,” CNN, October 16, 2021,

Eric Berger, “Police departments face a shortage as unions enable officers to refuse vaccines,” Guardian, October 18, 2021,

Linda Geddes, “Without Covid-19 jab, ‘reinfection may occur every 16 months,’” Guardian, October 19, 2021,

Peter Loftus and Felicia Schwartz, “Moderna and J&J Covid-19 Boosters, Mixing and Matching Authorized by the FDA,” Wall Street Journal, October 20, 2021,

38 thoughts on “The Four Possible Timelines for Life Returning to Normal

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