Illiberalism · Gilead · White Christian nationalism



White Christian nationalism

Fig. 1. If one weighs by geography rather than population, Pennsylvania is very much a white Christian nationalist kind of place. Photograph by author, January 5, 2023.

Fig. 2. A Ku Klux Klan meeting in Gainesville, Florida, Dec. 31, 1922, via Wikimedia Commons, public domain.

Fig. 3. There’s much too much of this kind of thing to be seen around Pittsburgh. Photograph taken by author through his windshield, May 17, 2022, just outside Braddock, Pennsylvania.

Fig. 4. Photograph via Oren Segal on Twitter, October 23, 2022,[1] fair use.

See also:

[T]he Republican Party’s extremism can be traced to its increased dependence on an electorate that is largely rural, Southern and white. These voters, who figure prominently in the Tea Party, often decline to interpret political conflict as a struggle among interest groups or a good-faith clash of opinion. Instead, they tend to identify the country as a whole with an idealized version of themselves, and to equate any dissent from their values with disloyalty by alien, “un-American” forces. This paranoid vision of politics, I argued, makes them seek out opportunities for dramatic conflict and to shun negotiation and compromise.[2]

Bruce Hoffman and Jacob Ware, “1865 – 2021: Far-Right Terrorism in the United States,” Council on Foreign Relations, n.d.,

Jewish Women’s Archive, “Tensions in Black-Jewish Relations,” n.d.,

Abraham Lincoln to Horace Greeley, “A Letter from President Lincoln.; Reply to Horace Greeley. Slavery and the Union The Restoration of the Union the Paramount Object,” New York Times, August 24, 1862,

Glenn W. LaFantasie, “How the South rationalizes secession,” Salon, December 19, 2010,

Alexander Abad-Santos, “Racists Ruined the Confederate Flag for Lynyrd Skynyrd,” Atlantic, September 21, 2012,

Prachi Gupta, “Lynyrd Skynyrd decides it’s finally time to stop using the Confederate flag,” Salon, September 22, 2012,

Jonathan Terbush, “Lynyrd Skynyrd calls Confederate Flag racist, prompts fan revolt,” Raw Story, September 22, 2012,

Chris Willman, “Lynyrd Skynyrd Backtracks On Comments, Proudly Lets Confederate Flag Fly,” Yahoo!, September 24, 2012,

Andrew O’Hehir, “Welcome to the new Civil War,” Salon, January 5, 2013,

Tracy Thompson, “The South still lies about the Civil War,” Salon, March 16, 2013,

Tony Horwitz, “150 Years of Misunderstanding the Civil War,” Atlantic, June 19, 2013,

Stephan Richter, “Shutdown shows the Civil War never ended,” Salon, October 8, 2013,

Kim Messick, “Modern GOP is still the party of Dixie,” Salon, October 12, 2013,

David W. Blight, “The Civil War Isn’t Over,” Atlantic, April 8, 2015,

Ta-Nehisi Coates, “What This Cruel War Was Over,” Atlantic, June 22, 2015,

Campbell Robertson, Monica Davey, and Julie Bosman, “Calls to Drop Confederate Emblems Spread Nationwide,” New York Times, June 23, 2015,

Robin Wright, “Is America Headed for a New Kind of Civil War?” New Yorker, August 14, 2017,

Julia Martinez, “For Civil-War Scholars, a Settled Question That Will Never Die: What Caused the War?” Chronicle of Higher Education, October 31, 2017,

William A. Galston, “The populist challenge to liberal democracy,” Brookings Institute, April 17, 2018,

Associated Press, “7 arrested in protest over torn-down Confederate statue,” Grio August 28, 2018,

Carol L. Folt and Robert A. Blouin, “Update on the Confederate Monument,” University of North Carolina, December 3, 2018,

Adam Serwer, “The Cruelty Is the Point,” Atlantic, October 3, 2018,

Campbell Robertson, Christopher Mele, and Sabrina Tavernise, “11 Killed in Synagogue Massacre; Suspect Charged With 29 Counts,” New York Times, October 27, 2018,

Moriah Ella Mason, “Pittsburgh Doesn’t Need More Guns — We Need Less White Supremacy,” Forward, October 29, 2018,

Kia Morgan-Smith, “‘Tear down Silent Sam’: Confederate statue plans at UNC Chapel Hill cause uproar among students,” Grio, December 4, 2018,

Associated Press, “Confederate statue being removed in North Carolina city,” Grio, March 12, 2019,

Campbell Robertson, Christopher Mele, and Sabrina Tavernise, “11 Killed in Synagogue Massacre; Suspect Charged With 29 Counts,” New York Times, October 27, 2018,

Michael Luo, “Trump’s Racist Tweets, and the Question of Who Belongs in America,” New Yorker, July 15, 2019,

Jelani Cobb, “Donald Trump’s Idea of Selective Citizenship,” New Yorker, July 29, 2019,

Kathleen Parker, “Trump has essentially declared a ‘race war,’” Washington Post, July 30, 2019,

Claudia Rankine with James D. Walsh, “This Is America,” New York, December 19, 2019,

Jason Wilson, “Prepping for a race war: documents reveal inner workings of neo-Nazi group,” Guardian, January 25, 2020,

Marc Fisher, “Confederate statues: In 2020, a renewed battle in America’s enduring Civil War,” Washington Post, June 11, 2020,

Jason Okundaye, “Abolish Whiteness,” London Review of Books, June 16, 2020,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Trump orders statues be protected from ‘mob rule,’” June 27, 2020,

David W. Blight, “Europe in 1989, America in 2020, and the Death of the Lost Cause,” New Yorker, July 1, 2020,

W. Ralph Eubanks, “The Confederate Flag Finally Falls in Mississippi,” New Yorker, July 1, 2020,

Ryan Devereaux, “The Thin Blue Line Between Violent, Pro-Trump Militias and Police,” Intercept, August 28, 2020,

Andrea Mazzarino, “War Zone America?” TomDispatch, September 22, 2020,

Laura E. Adkins and Emily Burack, “Neo-Nazis, QAnon and Camp Auschwitz: A guide to the hate symbols and signs on display at the Capitol riots,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, January 7, 2021,

Anne Quito and Amanda Shendruk, “Decoding the flags and banners seen at the Capitol Hill insurrection,” Quartz, January 7, 2021,

Robert A. Pape and Keven Ruby, “The Capitol Rioters Aren’t Like Other Extremists,” Atlantic, February 2, 2021,

Christopher Ketcham, “What the Far-Right Fascination With Pinochet’s Death Squads Should Tell Us,” Intercept, February 4, 2021,

Richard Read, “Ammon Bundy, veteran of armed standoffs, builds militia network on COVID backlash,” Los Angeles Times, February 9, 2021,

Katelyn Polantz, “Justice Department says an Oath Keepers leader waited for Trump’s direction before Capitol attack,” Cable News Network, February 11, 2021,

David Shortell, “Five people associated with Proud Boys arrested for Capitol riot on conspiracy charges,” Cable News Network, February 11, 2021,

Ronald Brownstein, “Is the GOP’s extremist wing now too big to fail?” Cable News Network, February 14, 2021,

Kyle Cheney and Josh Gerstein, “9 Oath Keepers charged with sweeping conspiracy for role in Capitol insurrection,” Politico, February 19, 2021,

Teo Armus and Joe Heim, “Charlottesville to take down Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson statues Saturday,” Washington Post, July 9, 2021,

Chas Danner, “Charlottesville Finally Removes Confederate Statues,” New York, July 10, 2021,

Erin Edgerton, “George Rogers Clark statue at UVa removed,” Charlottesville Daily Progress, July 11, 2021,

David Masciotra, “Could genocide really happen here? Leading scholar says America is on ‘high alert,’” Salon, July 11, 2021,

Sarah Brown, “U. of South Carolina Wants to Rename Buildings. State Politics Will Stop It,” Chronicle of Higher Education, July 16, 2021,

Taylor Telford, “Dozens of nooses have shown up on U.S. construction sites. The culprits rarely face consequences,” Washington Post, July 22, 2021,

Ishaan Tharoor, “U.S. conservatives yearn for Orban’s Hungary,” Washington Post, August 4, 2021,

David Nakamura, “Hate crimes rise to highest level in 12 years amid increasing attacks on Black and Asian people, FBI says,” Washington Post, August 30, 2021,

James Aho, “Christian Dominionism and Violence,” Oxford Research Encyclopedias, August 31, 2021, doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.732

Wright Thompson, “His Name Was Emmett Till,” Atlantic, September 2021,

Ben Sales, “FBI reports drop in number of antisemitic crimes in 2020 amid rise in total hate crimes,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, September 1, 2021,

Gregory S. Schneider and Laura Vozzella, “Robert E. Lee statue is removed in Richmond, ex-capital of Confederacy, after months of protests and legal resistance,” Washington Post, September 8, 2021,

Gillian Brockell, “Counties with more Confederate monuments also had more lynchings, study finds,” Washington Post, October 13, 2021, Counties with more Confederate monuments also had more lynchings, study finds

Joe Napsha, “Norwin superintendent reaches out to parents following Confederate clothing incident,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, October 13, 2021,

Barton Gellman, “Trump’s Next Coup Has Already Begun,” Atlantic, December 6, 2021,

Deepa Shivaram, “Charlottesville’s statue of Robert E. Lee will soon be melted down into public art,” National Public Radio, December 7, 2021,

Colin Deppen, “Pennsylvania revises Confederate markers, recasts forces as “enemy” soldiers,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 14, 2021,

Dana Milbank, “‘We are closer to civil war than any of us would like to believe,’ new study says,” Washington Post, December 17, 2021,

Ben Smith, “Brandon Just Wants to Drive His Racecar,” New York Times, December 19, 2021,

Jesse O’Neill, “Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene suggests a ‘national divorce’ between red and blue states,” New York Post, December 29, 2021,

Gregory S. Schneider, “Robert E. Lee monument, other Confederate statues could go to Richmond’s Black History Museum under deal,” Washington Post, December 30, 2021,

Rachel Bade and Zack Stanton, “4 startling polls you should read about Jan. 6,” Politico, January 2, 2022,

Thomas Homer-Dixon, “The American polity is cracked, and might collapse. Canada must prepare,” Globe and Mail, January 2, 2022,

Jacob Bacharach, “The Next Coup Attempt Will Be More Dangerous,” review of The Steal: The Attempt to Overturn the 2020 Election and the People Who Stopped It by Mark Bowden and Matthew Teague, New Republic, January 4, 2022,

Philip Bump, “What we’re talking about when we talk about civil war,” Washington Post, January 4, 2022,

Stephen Marche, “The next US civil war is already here – we just refuse to see it,” Guardian, January 4, 2022,

Bruce Hoffman, “A Year After January 6, Is Accelerationism the New Terrorist Threat?” Council on Foreign Relations, January 5, 2022,

Michael Lind, “America’s Asymmetric Civil War,” Tablet, January 5, 2022,

Daniel McCarthy, “January 6 was an alarm bell,” Spectator, January 6, 2022,

Ben Sixsmith, “The Capitol riot transformed right-wing activism in America,” Spectator, January 6, 2022,

Tina Nguyen, “My Country, Right or Far Right?: January 6th and the World It Created,&rdq; Puck News, January 6, 2022,

Jeannie Suk Gersen, “The Case Against the Oath Keepers,” New Yorker, January 21, 2022,

Barbara F. Walter, “Why should we worry that the U.S. could become an ‘anocracy’ again? Because of the threat of civil war,” Washington Post, January 24, 2022,

Dani Anguiano, “California county on track to be run by militia-aligned group,” Guardian, February 3, 2022,

Anthony Faiola, “Canada’s Trumpian trucker protests show the global radicalization of anti-vaxxers,” Washington Post, February 8, 2022,

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Covid: Trucker protests may hit Super Bowl, US security agency says,” February 10, 2022,

Leyland Cecco, “Protesters defy order to clear bridge connecting Canada and US,” Guardian, February 11, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Right-wing nationalists are marching into the future by rewriting the past,” Washington Post, February 11, 2022,

Amanda Coletta et al., “Police prepare to clear ‘Freedom Convoy’ protesters on Ontario border bridge. Tear gas used on Champs-Élysées crowd,” Washington Post, February 12, 2022,

Miguel Marquez, Jason Hanna, and Kim Berryman, “Canadian police begin attempt to clear protesters blocking Ambassador Bridge to US,” Cable News Network, February 12, 2022,

Kayla Tarnowski and Julio Cesar Chavez, “Key bridge to U.S. remains closed as Canada police clear protesters,” Reuters, February 13, 2022,

Brian Wilk, “US Freedom Convoy met with support as they make stop in Erie,”, February 13, 2022,

Miriam Berger et al., “U.S.-Canada border crossing reopens after six-day blockade by ‘Freedom Convoy’ protesters,” Washington Post, February 14, 2022,

Amanda Coletta et al., “Trudeau invokes Emergencies Act against Canada’s ‘Freedom Convoy’ trucker protest,” Washington Post, February 14, 2022,

Paul Vieira and Kim Mackrael, “U.S.-Canada Bridge Reopens After Police Clear Protest,” Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2022,

Jennifer Rankin, “ECJ dismisses Hungary and Poland’s complaints over rule-of-law measure,” Guardian, February 16, 2022,

Miriam Berger et al., “Ottawa police presence grows as chief vows to ‘take back’ city from ‘Freedom Convoy’ protesters,” Washington Post, February 17, 2022,

Adam Gabbatt, “Tucker Carlson leads rightwing charge to blame everyone but Putin,” Guardian, February 26, 2022,

Sneha Dey and Karen Brooks Harper, “Transgender Texas kids are terrified after governor orders that parents be investigated for child abuse,” Texas Tribune, February 28, 2022,

K. K. Ottesen, “‘They are preparing for war’: An expert on civil wars discusses where political extremists are taking this country,” Washington Post, March 8, 2022,

Candy Woodall, “Pa. hate thrives while bills languish,” Erie Times-News, March 8, 2022,

Darryl Fears, “Redlining means 45 million Americans are breathing dirtier air, 50 years after it ended,” Washington Post, March 9, 2022,

Tim Craig, “Florida Legislature passes bill that limits how schools and workplaces teach about race and identity,” Washington Post, March 10, 2022,

Zsuzsanna Szelényi, “How Viktor Orbán Built His Illiberal State,” New Republic, April 5, 2022,

Melani McAlister, “War in Ukraine is testing some American evangelicals’ support for Putin as a leader of conservative values,” Conversation, April 6, 2022,

Arthur Goldhammer, “Yes, Be Worried: Marine Le Pen Could Finally Come to Power in France,” New Republic, April 7, 2022,

Zoe Williams, “‘The lunacy is getting more intense’: how Birds Aren’t Real took on the conspiracy theorists,” Guardian, April 14, 2022,

Jeanne Whalen, “Russian Orthodox leader backs war in Ukraine, divides faith,” Washington Post, April 18, 2022,

Roger Cohen, “Emmanuel Macron Defeats Marine Le Pen for Second Term as French President,” New York Times, April 24, 2022,

Zack Beauchamp, “Ron DeSantis is following a trail blazed by a Hungarian authoritarian,” Vox, April 28, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The Orbanization of America: The U.S. right walks in Hungary’s path,” Washington Post, May 17, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The Orbanization of America: Florida shadows Hungary’s war on LGBTQ rights,” Washington Post, May 18, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The Orbanization of America: How to capture a democracy,” Washington Post, May 18, 2022,

Megan Guza, “Mt. Lebanon mothers sue school district, teacher over gender identity lessons,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review,

Bill Chappell, “Texas GOP’s new platform says Biden didn’t really win. It also calls for secession,” National Public Radio, June 20, 2022,

Dana Milbank, “Texas Republicans want to secede? Good riddance,” Washington Post, June 20, 2022,

Katherine Stewart, “How the Christian right took over the judiciary and changed America,” Guardian, June 25, 2022,

Zoe Strimpel, “America is headed for another civil war where one side has to vanquish the other,” Telegraph, June 25, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The Supreme Court turns the U.S. into a cautionary tale,” Washington Post, June 27, 2022,

Greg Sargent, “An expert in political violence urgently warns: The worst is coming,” Washington Post, July 11, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Orban at CPAC brings the ‘far-right international’ into focus,” Washington Post, August 4, 2022,

Michael Scherer, Ashley Parker, and Tyler Pager, “Historians privately warn Biden that America’s democracy is teetering,” Washington Post, August 10, 2022,

Chris McGreal, “US political violence is surging, but talk of a civil war is exaggerated – isn’t it?” Guardian, August 20, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The global politics of Russia’s notorious nationalist ideologue,” Washington Post, August 23, 2022,

Lauren Gambino, “Biden warns US democracy imperiled by Trump and Maga extremists,” Guardian, September 1, 2022,

Amber Phillips, “Takeaways from Biden’s warnings about Republican threats to democracy,” Washington Post, September 1, 2022,

Greg Sargent, “MAGA Republicans are seething with rage because Biden hit his target,” Washington Post, September 2, 2022,

Ron Kampeas, “Critics compare salutes at Trump and Mastriano rallies to Nazi ‘Sieg Heil,’” Times of Israel, September 20, 2022,

Thomas B. Edsall, “Seven Years of Trump Has the Right Wing Taking the Long View,” New York Times, September 28, 2022,

Philissa Cramer and Ron Kampeas, “Kanye West’s vow to ‘go death con 3’ on Jews and his antisemitism controversy, explained,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 12, 2022,

Oren Segal, “Hate in America: Yesterday, the head of an antisemitic and white supremacist group (and his supporters) dropped banners over the 405 in Los Angeles. One banner read, ‘Kanye is right about the Jews,’ Twitter, October 23, 2022,

Times of Israel, “Antisemites hang banner over LA freeway declaring Kanye ‘right about the Jews,’” October 23, 2022,

Grace Toohey and Salvador Hernandez, “Kanye West’s brazen antisemitism gives hate a celebrity mouthpiece. ‘There’s real harm,’” Los Angeles Times, October 25, 2022,

Michelle Boorstein and Isaac Arnsdorf, “Overt U.S. antisemitism returns with Trump, Ye: ‘Something is different,’” Washington Post, October 27, 2022,

Byron C. Clark, “I feel like to many people don't recognise fascism because they think fascism will arrive selling oppression and tyranny, but if you're part of the privileged group fascism is selling you safety, normalcy, and tradition,” Twitter, November 3, 2022,

Charlie Sykes, “Because it’s all about protecting children and traditional values,” Twitter, November 3, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “A Republican winter may be coming for Ukraine,” Washington Post, November 7, 2022,

Adam Taylor, “Is the world ready for President DeSantis and a Floridian foreign policy?” Washington Post, November 10, 2022,

Sandra Strauss, “Were the 2022 midterm results a rejection of white Christian Nationalism?” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, November 11, 2022,

Andrew Esensten, “How many Hebrew Israelites are there, and how worried should Jews be?” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, November 25, 2022,

Ruby Cramer, “Elon Musk says he would support Ron DeSantis in 2024,” Washington Post, November 26, 2022,

B. Duncan Moench, “How the Next Civil War Begins,” Tablet, November 29, 2022,

Nicole Narea, “Donald Trump’s long history of enabling white supremacy, explained,” Vox, November 29, 2022,

Azi Paybarah, “Rapper Ye draws fresh denunciation for Hitler praise in Alex Jones interview,” Washington Post, December 2, 2022,

David French, “The Oddly Intense Anger Against Zelensky, Explained,” Atlantic, December 23, 2022,

Bess Levin, “A Comprehensive Guide to Why a Ron DeSantis Presidency Would Be as Terrifying as a Trump One,” Vanity Fair, January 2, 2023,

Chris Quinn, “We are dropping the Dilbert comic strip because of creator Scott Adams’ racist rant: Letter from the Editor,” Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 24, 2023,

Tom Boggioni, “Dilbert creator lashes out after papers pull his strip: ‘Dicey situation,’” Raw Story, February 25, 2023,

Thomas Floyd and Michael Cavna, “‘Dilbert’ dropped by The Post, other papers, after cartoonist’s racist rant,” Washington Post, February 25, 2023,

Josh Marshall, “The Deep Archeology of Fox News,” Talking Points Memo, March 3, 2023,

Bess Levin, “In Ron DeSantis’s Florida, a Textbook Publisher Deleted Any Mention of Race in the Story of Rosa Parks,” Vanity Fair, March 16, 2023,

Jesse Bunch, “An alarming report shows rising antisemitism in Pa., days after a white supremacist campaign targeted Port Richmond,” Philadelphia Inquirer, March 23, 2023,

Kelefa Sanneh, “How Christian Is Christian Nationalism?” New Yorker, March 27, 2023,

David Gilbert and Mack Lamoureux, “The Far Right Is Calling For Bloody ‘Civil War’ After Trump’s Indictment,” Vice, March 31, 2023,

Clare Malone, “The Gospel of Candace Owens,” New Yorker, April 22, 2023,

Kim Lyons, “As Tree of Life shooting trial begins, there’s new hope for changes to Pa.’s gun, hate crimes laws,” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, April 23, 2023,

Oliver Darcy and Marshall Cohen, “Tucker Carlson out at Fox News,” Cable News Network, April 24, 2023,

Benjamin Wallace-Wells, “Tucker Carlson and the Right,” New Yorker, April 30, 2023,

Eric Levenson, Lucy Kafanov, and Nouran Salahieh, “Army sergeant who killed a Black Lives Matter protester in Texas sentenced to 25 years in prison,” Cable News Network, May 10, 2023,

Charles D. Allen, “Through a visitor’s eyes: What you say when you fly confederate colors in Pa.,” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, May 17, 2023,

Martin Pengelly, “Donald Trump reiterates pledge to scrap birthright US citizenship,” Guardian, May 31, 2023,

Casey Quackenbush, “The Constitutional Kamikaze,” New York, June 13, 2023,

Laura Brodie, “The disgraced Confederate history of the ‘Don’t Tread on Me’ flag,” Washington Post, June 14, 2023,

John E. Finn, “How ‘constitutional county’ declarations undermine the Constitution – a legal scholar explains,” Conversation, June 15, 2023,

Jonathan Chait, “Ron DeSantis Wants More Honoring Confederates, Less Funding for Black History,” New York, June 16, 2023,

Megan Guza, “‘May their memories always be a blessing’: Jewish community comes together after gunman is convicted in synagogue massacre,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 16, 2023,

Ed Kilgore, “DeSantis Joins Trump’s Call to End Birthright Citizenship,” New York, June 27, 2023,

Paula Reed Ward and Justin Vellucci, “‘I think he was blatantly psychotic,’ psychologist says of Pittsburgh synagogue attacker,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 29, 2023,

Nicholas Riccardi, “Conservatives go to red states and liberals go to blue as the country grows more polarized,” Associated Press, July 5, 2023,

Ben Makuch, “Russian Militia Linked to American Neo-Nazis, Anti-Trans Figures,” Intercept, July 8, 2023,

Megan Guza and Hallie Lauer, &lduqo;‘The defendant deserves to answer for his crime’: Jury finds Pittsburgh synagogue gunman eligible for the death penalty,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 14, 2023,

Mackenzie Mays, “California lawmakers OK bill to fine school boards that ban books over race, LGBTQ+ issues,” Los Angeles Times, September 7, 2023,

Gillian Brockell, “7 state flags still have designs with ties to the Confederacy,” Washington Post, September 10, 2023,

Mark Leibovich, “Trump Voters Are America Too,” Atlantic, December 8, 2023,

Heather Cox Richardson, “March 30, 2024,” Letters from an American, March 31, 2024,

Ben Terris, “The deeply silly, extremely serious rise of ‘Alpha Male’ Nick Adams,” Washington Post, April 9, 2024,

Heather Cox Richardson, “April 12, 2024,” Letters from an American, April 13, 2024,

Dan Rosenzweig-Ziff, “Virginia school board restores Confederate leaders’ names to two schools,” Washington Post, May 10, 2024,

Justin Jouvenal and Ann E. Marimow, “Upside-down flag flew at Justice Alito’s house after neighbor dispute,” Washington Post, May 17, 2024,

Conover Kennard, “Justice Alito Tries, Fails Miserably To Explain Flag Scandal,” Crooks and Liars, May 18, 2024,

Chris Geidner, “Sam Alito is a problem,” Law Dork, May 23, 2024,

Heather Cox Richardson, “May 22, 2024,” Letters from an American, May 23, 2024,

Hannah Allam, “At center of Alito controversy, a flag celebrated by extremists,” Washington Post, June 2, 2024,

Rachel Leingang, “‘No way out without bloodshed’: the right believe the US is under threat and are mobilizing,” Guardian, June 2, 2024,

Emma Bowman, “The upside-down American flag goes mainstream as a form of right-wing protest,” National Public Radio, June 3, 2024,

  1. [1]Oren Segal, “Hate in America: Yesterday, the head of an antisemitic and white supremacist group (and his supporters) dropped banners over the 405 in Los Angeles. One banner read, ‘Kanye is right about the Jews,’ Twitter, October 23, 2022,
  2. [2]Kim Messick, “Modern GOP is still the party of Dixie,” Salon, October 12, 2013,

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