Illiberalism · Gilead · Right-wing militias · Police White supremacist gangs

Illiberalism

Gilead

Right-wing militias
Police White supremacist gangs


Fig. 1. Photograph by Lorie Shaull, April 1, 2021, via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 2.0.


Fig. 2. Image credited to Darnella Frazier, made from a video posted to Facebook, of Minneapolis white supremacist gangster Derek Chauvin’s knee on George Floyd’s neck, May 25, 2020, via ABC News,[1] fair use.


Fig. 3. “In this file photo, [Pittsburgh] City [Special Weapons And Tactics] members William Friburger and Donald Savko practice at the shooting range in Highland Park. Many Highland Park residents have been upset for decades over the noise from the shooting range.” Photograph credited to Pittsburgh Post-Gazette,[2] undated, fair use.

In an already dubious national context,[3] where original causes of deviant (colloquially labeled ‘criminal’) behavior are ignored,[4] where cops often exploit judicial deference to their testimony and perjure themselves, usually with impunity,[5] where cops have aligned themselves with white supremacist groups and refuse outside accountability,[6] where police departments have their own colors, their own rigid hierarchies, their own legitimization of violence, and their own ideas about what rules they should adhere to, [they] thus deserve to be presumptively labeled as white supremacist gangs.[7]

Rich Phillips, “Florida deputies shoot man they mistook for car thief in his own driveway,” Cable News Network, August 1, 2013, https://www.cnn.com/2013/07/31/us/florida-police-shooting/index.html

Trymaine Lee, “Eyewitness to Michael Brown shooting recounts his friend’s death,” MSNBC, August 12, 2014, https://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/eyewitness-michael-brown-fatal-shooting-missouri-msna388411

Kyle Paoletta, “Listen up, police officers: Real life isn’t like ‘Breaking Bad,’” Salon, April 13, 2014, https://www.salon.com/2014/04/13/listen_up_police_officers_real_life_isnt_like_breaking_bad/

Tampa Bay Times, “Informer, not neighbor complaints, led up to fatal Tampa pot raid,” July 15, 2014, https://www.tampabay.com/news/publicsafety/crime/informer-not-neighbor-complaints-led-up-to-fatal-tampa-pot-raid/2187316/

Carol D. Leonnig, Kimberly Kindy, and Joel Achenbach, “Darren Wilson’s first job was on a troubled police force disbanded by authorities,” Washington Post, August 23, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/darren-wilsons-first-job-was-on-a-troubled-police-force-disbanded-by-authorities/2014/08/23/1ac796f0-2a45-11e4-8593-da634b334390_story.html

Ta-Nehisi Coates, “Blue Lives Matter,” Atlantic, December 22, 2014, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/12/blue-lives-matter-nypd-shooting/383977/

Eliott C. McLaughlin, “Video: Dallas police open fire on schizophrenic man with screwdriver,” Cable News Network, March 19, 2015, https://www.cnn.com/2015/03/18/us/dallas-police-fatal-shooting-mentally-ill-man-video/index.html

Kimberly Kindy and Kimbriell Kelly, “Thousands dead, few prosecuted,” Washington Post, April 11, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/2015/04/11/thousands-dead-few-prosecuted/

Sandhya Somashekhar et al., “Black and Unarmed,” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/national/2015/08/08/black-and-unarmed/

German Lopez, “Cleveland police shooting of Tamir Rice: city to pay $6 million after 12-year-old’s death,” Vox, April 25, 2016, https://www.vox.com/2014/11/24/7275297/tamir-rice-police-shooting

Eliott C. McLaughlin, “Woman streams aftermath of fatal officer-involved shooting,” Cable News Network, July 8, 2016, https://www.cnn.com/2016/07/07/us/falcon-heights-shooting-minnesota/index.html

Wesley Lowery, “Aren’t more white people than black people killed by police? Yes, but no,” Washington Post, July 11, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2016/07/11/arent-more-white-people-than-black-people-killed-by-police-yes-but-no/

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Charlottesville: One killed in violence over US far-right rally,” August 13, 2017, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-40912509

German Lopez, “East Pittsburgh police officer charged for shooting of 17-year-old Antwon Rose,” Vox, June 27, 2018, https://www.vox.com/identities/2018/6/20/17484480/antwon-rose-east-pittsburgh-police-shooting-video

Dana Forsythe, “Punisher creator Gerry Conway: Cops using the skull logo are like people using the Confederate flag,” SyFy Wire, January 8, 2019, copy in possession of author

David Masciotra, “The Punisher skull: Unofficial logo of the white American death cult,” Salon, April 28, 2019, https://www.salon.com/2019/04/28/the-punisher-skull-unofficial-logo-of-the-white-american-death-cult/

Erin Baldassari, “Oscar Grant: BART’s internal investigation reveals cops’ roles in fatal shooting,” San Jose Mercury News, May 1, 2019, https://www.mercurynews.com/2019/05/01/oscar-grant-barts-internal-investigation-reveals-cops-roles-in-fatal-shooting/

Amy Marcinkiewicz, “Channel 11 uncovers new details about alleged corruption in Aliquippa Police Department,” WPXI, May 10, 2019, https://www.wpxi.com/news/top-stories/channel-11-uncovers-new-details-about-alleged-corruption-in-aliquippa-police-department/948295649/

Jamie Martines, “County council votes down Allegheny police review board, supporters vow to keep pushing,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, May 28, 2019, https://triblive.com/local/pittsburgh-allegheny/county-council-votes-down-allegheny-police-review-board-supporters-vow-to-keep-pushing/

A. C. Thompson, “Inside the Secret Border Patrol Facebook Group Where Agents Joke About Migrant Deaths and Post Sexist Memes,” ProPublica, July 1, 2019, https://www.propublica.org/article/secret-border-patrol-facebook-group-agents-joke-about-migrant-deaths-post-sexist-memes

Jelani Cobb, “Donald Trump’s Idea of Selective Citizenship,” New Yorker, July 29, 2019, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/07/29/donald-trumps-idea-of-selective-citizenship

Devlin Barrett, “FBI faces skepticism over its efforts against domestic terrorism,” Washington Post, August 5, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/fbi-faces-skepticism-over-its-anti-domestic-terror-efforts/2019/08/04/c9c928bc-b6e0-11e9-b3b4-2bb69e8c4e39_story.html

Brentin Mock, “What New Research Says About Race and Police Shootings,” CityLab, August 6, 2019, https://www.citylab.com/equity/2019/08/police-officer-shootings-gun-violence-racial-bias-crime-data/595528/

Erin Moriarty, “Rachael DelTondo Murder: Did a Secret Lead to the Killing of the Aliquippa, Pa., teacher?” CBS News, September 7, 2019, https://www.cbsnews.com/news/rachael-deltondo-murder-did-a-secret-lead-to-the-killing-of-aliquippa-pennsylvania-teacher/

Ivey DeJesus, “Does a driver’s race factor into traffic stops by Pa. police? It’s nearly impossible to tell,” Harrisburg Patriot-News, December 9, 2019, https://www.pennlive.com/news/2019/12/tracking-race-in-police-traffic-stops-across-central-pa.html

Emma Pierson et al., “A large-scale analysis of racial disparities in police stops across the United States,” Nature Human Behavior 4 (2020): 736–745, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-020-0858-1

Amy Goodman and Denis Moynihan, “Meet the African-American Doctor Who Tests the Homeless for COVID-19. He was Handcuffed by Miami Police,” Democracy Now, April 16, 2020, https://www.democracynow.org/2020/4/16/meet_the_african_american_doctor_who

Libor Jany, “Minneapolis police union offers free ‘warrior’ training, in defiance of mayor’s ban,” Minneapolis Star-Tribune, April 24, 2019, https://www.startribune.com/minneapolis-police-union-offers-free-warrior-training-in-defiance-of-mayor-s-ban/509025622/

Elie Mystal, “There’s Only One Possible Conclusion: White America Likes Its Killer Cops,” Nation, May 27, 2020, https://www.thenation.com/article/society/white-america-cops/

Associated Press, “Officer who knelt on George Floyd’s neck arrested on murder charge,” Los Angeles Times, May 29, 2020, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2020-05-29/minnesota-george-floyd-officer-arrested

Holly Bailey et al., “Chaotic Minneapolis protests spread amid emotional calls for justice, peace, Washington Post, May 29, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/05/29/chaotic-minneapolis-protests-spread-amid-emotional-calls-justice-peace/

Catherine Thorbecke, “Derek Chauvin had his knee on George Floyd’s neck for nearly 9 minutes, complaint says,” ABC News, May 29, 2020, https://abcnews.go.com/US/derek-chauvin-knee-george-floyds-neck-minutes-complaint/story?id=70961042

Ian Lovett, Erin Ailworth, and Joe Barrett, “Minnesota Bolsters Law Enforcement as Protests Roil U.S. After George Floyd’s Death,” Wall Street Journal, May 30, 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/george-floyd-protests-minneapolis-11590844180

Jon Queally, “Cornel West Says ‘Neo-Fascist Gangster’ Trump and Neoliberal Democrats Expose America as ‘Failed Social Experiment,’” Common Dreams, May 30, 2020, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2020/05/30/cornel-west-says-neo-fascist-gangster-trump-and-neoliberal-democrats-expose-america

James Downie, “Time to toss the ‘bad apples’ excuse,” Washington Post, May 31, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/05/31/time-toss-bad-apples-excuse/

Philip Rucker, “As cities burned, Trump stayed silent — other than tweeting fuel on the fire,” Washington Post, May 31, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/as-cities-burned-trump-stayed-silent–other-than-tweeting-fuel-on-the-fire/2020/05/31/4fc8761a-a354-11ea-b619-3f9133bbb482_story.html

Michelle Boorstein and Sarah Pulliam Bailey, “Episcopal bishop on President Trump: ‘Everything he has said and done is to inflame violence,’” Washington Post, June 1, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/religion/bishop-budde-trump-church/2020/06/01/20ca70f8-a466-11ea-b619-3f9133bbb482_story.html

David Charter, “George Floyd: US rocked by worst race riots since 1960s,” Times, June 1, 2020, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/news/american-cities-rocked-by-worst-race-riots-since-the-1960s-fn0x0jlmj

Kellie Carter Jackson, “The Double Standard of the American Riot,” Atlantic, June 1, 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/culture/archive/2020/06/riots-are-american-way-george-floyd-protests/612466/

Sandy Smith, “You Can Be Supportive of the Rioters and Angry With the Looters at the Same Time,” Philadelphia, June 1, 2020, https://www.phillymag.com/news/2020/06/01/philadelphia-looters-protesters/

Rebecca Tan et al., “Night of destruction across D.C. after protesters clash with police outside White House,” Washington Post, June 1, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/dc-braces-for-third-day-of-protests-and-clashes-over-death-of-george-floyd/2020/05/31/589471a4-a33b-11ea-b473-04905b1af82b_story.html

Matt Zapotosky, “Trump threatens military action to quell protests, and the law would let him do it,” Washington Post, June 1, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/can-trump-use-military-to-stop-protests-insurrection-act/2020/06/01/c3724380-a46b-11ea-b473-04905b1af82b_story.html

Colby Itkowitz, “George W. Bush calls out racial injustices and celebrates protesters who ‘march for a better future,’” Washington Post, June 2, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/george-w-bush-calls-out-racial-injustices-and-celebrates-protesters-who-march-for-a-better-future/2020/06/02/2d2f7252-a511-11ea-bb20-ebf0921f3bbd_story.html

Egan Millard, “Outraged Episcopal leaders condemn tear-gassing clergy, protesters for Trump photo op at Washington church,” Episcopal News Service, June 2, 2020, https://www.episcopalnewsservice.org/2020/06/02/episcopal-leaders-express-outrage-condemn-tear-gassing-protesters-for-trump-photo-op-at-washington-church/

Toluse Olorunnipa, “As nation convulses with fiery protests, leaders struggle to address deep racial despair,” Washington Post, June 2, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/as-nation-convulses-with-fiery-protests-leaders-struggle-to-address-deep-racial-despair/2020/06/02/92ecd452-a428-11ea-b473-04905b1af82b_story.html

Evan Osnos, “‘An Abuse of Sacred Symbols’: Trump, a Bible, and a Sanctuary,” New Yorker, June 2, 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/an-abuse-of-sacred-symbols-trump-a-bible-and-a-sanctuary

Josh Campbell, Sara Sidner, and Eric Levenson, “All four former officers involved in George Floyd’s killing now face charges,” Cable News Network, June 3, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/03/us/george-floyd-officers-charges/index.html

Dan Lamothe, Missy Ryan, and Paul Sonne, “Pentagon chief balks at Trump’s call for active-duty military force on U.S. citizens, and Mattis rips president,” Washington Post, June 3, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/despite-suggestions-from-trump-pentagon-chief-says-he-does-not-support-invoking-insurrection-act/2020/06/03/8e8dad2e-a59e-11ea-8681-7d471bf20207_story.html

Andre M. Perry and Jonathan Rothwell, “When Black lives are valued, property becomes worth saving,” Brookings Institute, June 3, 2020, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2020/06/03/when-black-lives-are-valued-property-becomes-worth-saving/

Mark Berman et al., “Protests spread over police shootings. Police promised reforms. Every year, they still shoot and kill nearly 1,000 people,” Washington Post, June 8, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/protests-spread-over-police-shootings-police-promised-reforms-every-year-they-still-shoot-nearly-1000-people/2020/06/08/5c204f0c-a67c-11ea-b473-04905b1af82b_story.html

Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, “How Do We Change America?” New Yorker, June 8, 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/news/our-columnists/how-do-we-change-america

Hahrie Han, “What Happened When the Minneapolis Police Lost Legitimacy?” New York Times, June 10, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/10/opinion/floyd-minneapolis-police-protests.html

Amanda Arnold, “What Exactly Does It Mean to Defund the Police?” Cut, June 12, 2020, https://www.thecut.com/2020/06/what-does-defund-the-police-mean-the-phrase-explained.html

Maritza Perez, “The Congressional Police Reform Bill Fails to Meet the Moment,” Common Dreams, June 12, 2020, https://www.commondreams.org/views/2020/06/12/congressional-police-reform-bill-fails-meet-moment

Cleve R. Wootson, Jr., “New generation of activists, deeply skeptical of Democratic Party, resists calls to channel energy into the 2020 campaign,” Washington Post, June 13, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/new-generation-of-activists-deeply-skeptical-of-democratic-party-resists-calls-to-channel-energy-into-the-2020-campaign/2020/06/13/cbacede6-ac47-11ea-9063-e69bd6520940_story.html

Theresa Waldrop et al., “Autopsy report says Rayshard Brooks was shot twice in the back, lists manner of death as homicide,” Cable News Network, June 14, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/14/us/atlanta-protests-rayshard-brooks-sunday/index.html

Zak Cheney-Rice, “Why Police Abolition Is a Useful Framework — Even for Skeptics,” New York, June 15, 2020, https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2020/06/police-abolitionist-lessons-for-america.html

Felicia Sonmez et al., “Killing of black man in Atlanta puts spotlight anew on police, as prosecutors contemplate charges against officer,” Washington Post, June 15, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/killing-of-black-man-in-atlanta-puts-spotlight-anew-on-police-as-prosecutors-contemplate-charges-against-officer/2020/06/14/ad9cea20-ae60-11ea-856d-5054296735e5_story.html

Will Pavia, “Atlanta police stage sick leave protest over murder charge,” Times, June 19, 2020, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/world/angry-police-in-sick-leave-protest-over-murder-charge-trf6btshv

Matt McKinney, “Cases in which a service pistol is mistaken for a Taser are rare,” Minneapolis Star-Tribune, April 12, 2021, https://www.startribune.com/cases-in-which-a-service-pistol-is-mistaken-for-a-taser-are-rare/600045269/

Corky Siemaszko, “Daunte Wright was stopped for expired plates, but driving while Black may have been his ‘crime,’” NBC News, April 12, 2021, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/daunte-wright-was-stopped-expired-plates-driving-while-black-may-n1263878

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Daunte Wright shooting: Officer ‘mistook gun for Taser,’” April 13, 2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-56724798

Corky Siemaszko, “How a veteran officer could have mistaken a Glock for a Taser in the fatal shooting of Daunte Wright,” NBC News, April 13, 2021, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/how-veteran-officer-could-have-mistaken-glock-taser-fatal-shooting-n1263976

Spencer S. Hsu, “Federal judge tosses most claims against Trump, Barr and U.S. officials in clearing of Lafayette Square,” Washington Post, June 21, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/legal-issues/lafayette-square-lawsuit-claims-dismissed/2021/06/21/8c0e8416-d2ce-11eb-ae54-515e2f63d37d_story.html

Rory Laverty, Mark Berman, and Tim Elfrink, “Police chiefs are cracking down on misconduct — including brutality and overt racism — and losing their own jobs, too,” Washington Post, June 25, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/police-chiefs-crackdown-racism-misconduct/2020/06/25/41b6af1e-b70a-11ea-aca5-ebb63d27e1ff_story.html

Robin Wright, “To the World, We’re Now America the Racist and Pitiful,” New Yorker, July 3, 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/news/our-columnists/to-the-world-were-now-america-the-racist-and-pitiful

Jeet Heer, “Trump Unleashes His Secret Police in Portland,” Nation, July 17, 2020, https://www.thenation.com/article/politics/trump-secret-police-portland/

Sarah McCammon, “DHS Official On Reports Of Federal Officers Detaining Protesters In Portland, Ore.,” National Public Radio, July 17, 2020, https://www.npr.org/2020/07/17/892393079/dhs-official-on-reports-of-federal-officers-detaining-protesters-in-portland-ore

Katie Shepherd, “‘It was like being preyed upon’: Portland protesters say federal officers in unmarked vans are detaining them,” Washington Post, July 17, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/07/17/portland-protests-federal-arrests/

Julian Borger, “Trump consults Bush torture lawyer on how to skirt law and rule by decree,” Guardian, July 20, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jul/20/trump-john-yoo-lawyer-torture-waterboarding

Nick Miroff and Mark Berman, “Trump threatens to deploy federal agents to Chicago and other U.S. cities led by Democrats,” Washington Post, July 20, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/defending-portland-crackdown-trump-pledges-to-deploys-feds-to-chicago-and-other-us-cities-led-by-democrats/2020/07/20/fda42b8a-caaa-11ea-89ce-ac7d5e4a5a38_story.html

Hamed Aleaziz, “‘Disturbing And Demoralizing’: DHS Employees Are Worried The Portland Protest Response Is Destroying Their Agency’s Reputation,” Buzzfeed, July 21, 2020, https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/hamedaleaziz/dhs-employee-anger-over-portland-protest-response

Bill Chappell, “Federal Agents Will Be ‘Clearly Identified’ In Kansas City, Mo., U.S. Attorney Says,” National Public Radio, July 21, 2020, https://www.npr.org/sections/live-updates-protests-for-racial-justice/2020/07/21/893936041/federal-agents-will-be-clearly-identified-in-kansas-city-u-s-attorney-says

Marissa J. Lang, “‘MomBloc’ and protest first-timers march into Portland streets, moved by the aggressive tactics of federal agents,” Washington Post, July 21, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/07/21/mombloc-protest-first-timers-march-into-portland-streets-moved-by-aggressive-tactics-federal-troops/

Madeline Holcombe, “More than a dozen mayors join Portland in asking Trump administration to withdraw federal forces,” Cable News Network, July 22, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/22/us/portland-protests-mayors-withdraw-federal-forces/index.html

Chris Walker, “Philadelphia DA Says Trump’s Police Will Be Arrested If They Assault Protesters,” Truthout, July 22, 2020, https://truthout.org/articles/philadelphia-da-says-trumps-police-will-be-arrested-if-they-assault-protesters/

Mike Baker, Thomas Fuller, and Shane Goldmacher, “Cities in Bind as Turmoil Spreads Far Beyond Portland,” New York Times, July 27, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/26/us/protests-portland-seattle-trump.html

Devlin Barrett et al., “More federal agents dispatched to Portland as protests rise in other cities,” Washington Post, July 27, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/more-federal-agents-dispatched-to-portland-as-protests-rise-in-other-cities/2020/07/27/20a717be-d03c-11ea-8d32-1ebf4e9d8e0d_story.html

Tom Jackman and Carol D. Leonnig, “National Guard officer says police suddenly moved on Lafayette Square protesters, used ‘excessive force’ before Trump visit,” Washington Post, July 27, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/07/27/national-guard-commander-says-police-suddenly-moved-lafayette-square-protesters-used-excessive-force-clear-path-trump/

Devlin Barrett et al., “Democrats seek to shame Barr over politics at the Justice Department,” Washington Post, July 28, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/07/28/bill-bar-testimony-live-updates/

Associated Press, “Oregon governor says U.S. agents will begin leaving Portland,” Los Angeles Times, July 29, 2020, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2020-07-29/oregon-governor-says-us-agents-will-begin-leaving-portland

Adam Taylor, “Trump ordered federal forces to quell Portland protests. But the chaos ended as soon as they left,” Washington Post, July 31, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/07/31/portland-protests-federal-calm/

Mark Joseph Stern, “The Police Lie. All the Time. Can Anything Stop Them?” Slate, August 4, 2020, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2020/08/police-testilying.html

Stephen Maturen, “Wisconsin calls out National Guard after unrest over police shooting of Black man,” Reuters, August 24, 2020, https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-global-race-usa-wisconsin/wisconsin-calls-out-national-guard-after-unrest-over-police-shooting-of-black-man-idUKKBN25K0CP

Jeremy Stahl, “Kenosha Police Chief Blames Protesters for Their Own Deaths, Defends Vigilante Groups,” Slate, August 26, 2020, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2020/08/kenosha-police-chief-daniel-miskinis-blames-protesters-for-own-deaths.html

Ryan Devereaux, “The Thin Blue Line Between Violent, Pro-Trump Militias and Police,” Intercept, August 28, 2020, https://theintercept.com/2020/08/28/kyle-rittenhouse-violent-pro-trump-militias-police/

Alex Pareene, “The Police Are Pretty Sure They’re Going to Get Away With It,” New Republic, August 28, 2020, https://newrepublic.com/article/159142/portsmouth-virginia-police-louise-lucas-lisa-lucas-burke

Hollie Silverman and Alta Spells, “1 person is dead after a shooting during protests in downtown Portland,” Cable News Network, August 30, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/30/us/portland-protest-fatal-shooting/index.html

Faiz Siddiqui and Isaac Stanley-Becker, “One person shot dead in Portland following clashes between pro-Trump supporters, counterprotesters,” Washington Post, August 30, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/08/29/blm-activists-counterprotesters-clash-portland-leading-arrests/

Ed Pilkington and Joanna Walters, “Portland clashes: Trump accused of encouraging violence after shooting,” Guardian, August 31, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/aug/30/fatal-shooting-in-portland-as-trump-supporters-clash-with-black-lives-matter-protesters

Conrad Wilson and Kimberley Freda, “Suspect In Fatal Shooting Of Portland Right-Wing Protester Killed By Law Enforcement,” National Public Radio, September 4, 2020, https://www.npr.org/2020/09/04/909515885/protester-suspected-in-portland-shooting-death-killed-by-law-enforcement

WVIT, “DOJ Designates NYC, Portland, Seattle as ‘Anarchist’ Jurisdictions,” September 21, 2020, https://www.nbcconnecticut.com/news/national-international/doj-designates-new-york-city-as-an-anarchist-jurisdiction/2335378/

Kevin Williams, Tim Craig, and Marisa Iati, “Kentucky grand jury declines to file homicide charges in death of Breonna Taylor,” Washington Post, September 24, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/kentucky-grand-jury-declines-to-file-homicide-charges-in-death-of-breonna-taylor/2020/09/23/2472392a-fdb7-11ea-b555-4d71a9254f4b_story.html

Amir Vera and Hollie Silverman, “1 dead after shooting at protest in Denver, police say,” Cable News Network, October 11, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/10/us/denver-protest-homicide/index.html

Maggie Koerth, “The Police’s Tepid Response To The Capitol Breach Wasn’t An Aberration,” FiveThirtyEight, January 7, 2021, https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-polices-tepid-response-to-the-capitol-breach-wasnt-an-aberration/

Kurtis Lee, Jaweed Kaleem, and Laura King, “‘White supremacy was on full display.’ Double standard seen in police response to riot at Capitol,” Los Angeles Times, January 7, 2021, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-01-07/la-na-washington-capitol-police-attack-race

Kyle Cheney, Sarah Ferris, and Laura Barrón-López, “‘Inside job’: House Dems ask if Capitol rioters had hidden help,” Politico, January 8, 2021, https://www.politico.com/news/2021/01/08/congress-democrats-capitol-riot-inside-job-456725

Kimberly Kindy, Mark Berman, and Kim Bellware, “After Capitol riot, police chiefs work to root out officers with ties to extremist groups,” Washington Post, January 24, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/police-capitol-riot-extremists/2021/01/24/16fdb2bc-5a7b-11eb-b8bd-ee36b1cd18bf_story.html

Tim Craig, “Proud Boys and Black Lives Matter activists clashed in a Florida suburb. Only one side was charged,” Washington Post, February 2, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/florida-protest-bill-unequal-treatment/2021/02/01/415d1b02-6240-11eb-9061-07abcc1f9229_story.html

Al Jazeera, “US: Ex-policeman implicates NYPD, FBI in Malcolm X murder,” February 21, 2021, https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/2/21/ex-new-york-policeman-implicates-nypd-and-fbi-in-malcolm-x-murder

German Lopez, “Police officers are prosecuted for murder in less than 2 percent of fatal shootings,” Vox, April 2, 2021, https://www.vox.com/21497089/derek-chauvin-george-floyd-trial-police-prosecutions-black-lives-matter

Seth G. Jones et al., “The Military, Police, and the Rise of Terrorism in the United States,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 12, 2021, https://www.csis.org/analysis/military-police-and-rise-terrorism-united-states

Jon Schuppe, “Police across U.S. respond to Derek Chauvin trial: ‘Our American way of policing is on trial,’” NBC News, April 15, 2021, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/police-across-u-s-respond-derek-chauvin-trial-our-american-n1264224

Arelis R. Hernández and Cleve R. Wootson, Jr., “Black Americans are buoyed by Chauvin conviction, but they worry it will blunt pace of reform,” Washington Post, April 20, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2021/04/20/chauvin-verdict-black-americans/


Jason Johnson, “I’m not happy. I’m not relieved. The verdict is a cultural make-up call. This ruling means it takes a Black man being murdered on TV in front of millions, a years worth of protest and a phalanx of white cops saying ‘this is wrong’ for a black person to get a scintilla of justice,” Twitter, April 20, 2021, https://twitter.com/DrJasonJohnson/status/1384637989444325378

Kurtis Lee, “Derek Chauvin is guilty of murdering George Floyd,” Los Angeles Times, April 20, 2021, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-04-20/jury-verdict-derek-chauvin-george-floyd-death


Raphael Warnock, “Today’s verdict affirming Derek Chauvin’s responsibility for killing George Floyd is the right outcome in this trial, but it is not justice. . . .” Twitter, April 20, 2021, https://twitter.com/SenatorWarnock/status/1384651251061858323

Jeet Heer, “How Not to Mourn George Floyd,” The Time of Monsters, April 21, 2021, https://jeetheer.substack.com/p/how-not-to-mourn-george-floyd

Alanna Durkin Richer and Lindsay Whitehurst, “1 verdict, then 6 police killings across America in 24 hours,” Associated Press, April 24, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/columbus-shootings-death-of-george-floyd-racial-injustice-arrests-89cc1cbfd8d7e452c4b4670e319cdfa9

Democracy Now! “Report Documents 32,542 Police Killings in U.S. Since 2000 with Vast Undercount of People of Color,” June 1, 2021, https://www.democracynow.org/2021/6/1/report_police_killings_people_of_color

Amina Khan, “Police officers treat Black and white men differently. You can hear it in their tone of voice,” Los Angeles Times, July 16, 2021, https://www.latimes.com/science/story/2021-07-16/cops-treat-black-and-white-men-differently-you-can-hear-it-in-their-tone-of-voice

David Nakamura, “Hate crimes rise to highest level in 12 years amid increasing attacks on Black and Asian people, FBI says,” Washington Post, August 30, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/hate-crimes-fbi-2020-asian-black/2021/08/30/28bede00-09a7-11ec-9781-07796ffb56fe_story.html

Rashawn Ray, “How 9/11 helped to militarize American law enforcement,” Brookings, September 9, 2021, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2021/09/09/how-9-11-helped-to-militarize-american-law-enforcement/

Eliza Collins and Sadie Gurman, “Bipartisan Police-Overhaul Talks End With No Deal,” Wall Street Journal, September 22, 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/bipartisan-police-overhaul-talks-end-with-no-deal-11632330043

Felicia Sonmez and Mike DeBonis, “No deal on bill to overhaul policing in aftermath of protests over killing of Black Americans,” Washington Post, September 22, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/powerpost/policing-george-floyd-congress-legislation/2021/09/22/36324a34-1bc9-11ec-a99a-5fea2b2da34b_story.html


Oma [pseud.], “They are practically defunding themselves…” Twitter, October 23, 2021, https://twitter.com/PUCKFOUSE/status/1451956749095686145

Rick Earle and Amy Hudak, “Pittsburgh’s mayor wants police policy review after man dies following incident with taser,” WPXI, October 22, 2021, https://www.wpxi.com/news/top-stories/news-conference-planned-mayor-wants-policy-review-after-man-dies-following-police-incident/65UF44HFSRAXPNBLDMKJHIVKP4/

Odette Yousef et al., “Active-duty police in major U.S. cities appear on purported Oath Keepers rosters,” National Public Radio, November 5, 2021, https://www.npr.org/2021/11/05/1052098059/active-duty-police-in-major-u-s-cities-appear-on-purported-oath-keepers-rosters

Julia Felton, “Proposal would prevent Pittsburgh police from pulling over drivers for minor, secondary violations,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, November 8, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/proposal-would-prevent-pittsburgh-police-from-pulling-over-drivers-for-minor-secondary-violations/

Jonaki Mehta, “Why Philadelphia has banned low-level traffic stops,” National Public Radio, November 8, 2021, https://www.npr.org/2021/11/08/1052957246/why-philadelphia-has-banned-low-level-traffic-stops

Trisha Thadani and Nami Sumida, “Recall effort against San Francisco D.A. Chesa Boudin attracts more than twice as much money as his supporters,” San Francisco Chronicle, November 8, 2021, https://www.sfchronicle.com/politics/article/Recall-effort-against-San-Francisco-D-A-Chesa-16604187.php

Tim Arango, “San Francisco’s Top Prosecutor Will Face a Recall Election,” New York Times, November 10, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/10/us/san-francisco-recall-chesa-boudin.html

Patrick Varine, “Protesters block Grant Street, demand prosecution in Jim Rogers’ death,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, November 12, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/protestors-block-grant-street-demand-prosecution-in-jim-rogers-death/

Jason Dearen, “White supremacist prison guards work with impunity in Fla.,” Associated Press, November 19, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/business-prisons-florida-race-and-ethnicity-racial-injustice-60b96681445509d89e6c0497405497d6

Sarah Jones, “There Will Be More Rittenhouses The forces that created a vigilante also exonerated him,” New York, November 19, 2021, https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2021/11/kyle-rittenhouse-cleared-and-there-will-be-more-like-him.html

Kurtis Lee, “Kyle Rittenhouse found not guilty of all charges,” Los Angeles Times, November 19, 2021, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-11-19/la-na-kyle-rittenhouse-vedict-kenosha

Eric Levitz, “Kyle Rittenhouse’s Defense Was Strong: It’s also a threat to the rule of law,” New York, November 19, 2021, https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2021/11/rittenhouse-jury-verdict-self-defense-legal-analysis.html

Gloria Oladipo, “Unrest in Portland as Kyle Rittenhouse verdict divides US,” Guardian, November 20, 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/nov/19/kyle-rittenhouse-verdict-reaction-conservatives

Kaleigh Rogers, “Kyle Rittenhouse Bridged The Divide Between The Far Right And Mainstream Conservatives,” FiveThirtyEight, November 23, 2021, https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/kyle-rittenhouse-bridged-the-divide-between-the-far-right-and-mainstream-conservatives/

Julia Felton, “Proposal to stop Pittsburgh police from making minor traffic stops moves forward,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 16, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/proposal-to-stop-pittsburgh-police-from-making-minor-traffic-stops-moves-forward/

Julia Felton and Paula Reed Ward, “Family of man who died after being tased by Pittsburgh police calls for charges against officers,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 17, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/family-of-man-who-died-after-being-tased-by-pittsburgh-police-call-for-charges-against-officers/

Christy E. Lopez, “Beware the extremist, dangerous and unconstitutional ‘constitutional sheriffs,’” Washington Post, December 17, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2021/12/17/constitutional-sheriffs-extremist-dangerous-unconstitutional/

Julia Felton, “Pittsburgh council to vote on whether police can make minor traffic stops,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 20, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/pittsburgh-council-to-vote-on-whether-police-can-make-minor-traffic-stops/

Ryan Deto, “Pittsburgh Police officers disciplined in death of Jim Rogers; report says his calls for medical help were ignored,” Pittsburgh City Paper, December 21, 2021, https://www.pghcitypaper.com/pittsburgh/pittsburgh-police-officers-disciplined-in-death-of-jim-rogers-report-says-his-calls-for-medical-help-were-ignored/Content?oid=20785257

Paula Reed Ward, “Man who died after being tased by Pittsburgh police pleaded for medical help but got none, report says,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 21, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/man-who-died-after-being-tased-by-pittsburgh-police-pleaded-for-medical-help-but-got-none-report-says/

Paula Reed Ward, “Experts say more must be done by Pittsburgh in response to Jim Rogers’ death,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 22, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/experts-say-more-must-be-done-by-pittsburgh-in-response-to-jim-rogers-death/

Jason Dearen, “He attended cross burnings, wore a wire, risked his life to expose who was in KKK,” Times of Israel, December 23, 2021, https://www.timesofisrael.com/he-wore-a-wire-risked-his-life-to-expose-who-was-in-the-kkk/

Amy Forliti, “Kim Potter guilty of manslaughter in Daunte Wright’s death,” Los Angeles Times, December 23, 2021, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-12-23/jury-outcome-in-daunte-wright-trial

Tim Arango and Giulia Heyward, “Despite Uproar Over Floyd’s Death, the Number of Fatal Encounters With Police Hasn’t Changed,” New York Times, December 24, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/24/us/police-killings-accountability.html

Julia Felton, “Pittsburgh bans traffic stops for minor violations,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 28, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/pittsburgh-bans-traffic-stops-for-minor-violations/

Paula Reed Ward, “Disciplinary action initiated against 9 Pittsburgh police officers in tasing, death of man in Bloomfield,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 28, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/disciplinary-action-initiated-against-9-pittsburgh-police-officers-in-tasing-death-of-man-in-bloomfield/

Megan Guza, “Pittsburgh public safety leader will not be part of new mayor’s administration,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 30, 2021, https://triblive.com/local/pittsburgh-public-safety-leader-will-not-be-part-of-new-mayors-administration/

Paula Reed Ward, “Allegheny County Medical Examiner rules Jim Rogers’ death was accidental,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 3, 2022, https://triblive.com/local/allegheny-county-medical-examiner-rules-jim-rogers-death-was-accidental/

Mike Carter, “Kent badly underestimated outrage over assistant police chief’s Nazi insignia, mayor says,” Seattle Times, January 10, 2022, https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/kent-mayor-city-badly-underestimated-outrage-over-assistant-police-chief-who-embraced-nazi-rank-insignia/

Ryan Houston, “Churches send letter to AG Shapiro asking for investigation into man’s death in Bloomfield incident,” WPXI, January 13, 2022, https://www.wpxi.com/news/top-stories/churches-send-letter-ag-shapiro-asking-investigation-into-mans-death-bloomfield-incident/GD4PAMGUMJCD5HAT2BZTNRVDC4/

Julia Felton, “Pittsburgh City Council considers stop-and-frisk policy for police,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 18, 2022, https://triblive.com/local/pittsburgh-city-council-considers-stop-and-frisk-policy-for-police/

John Archibald, “Brookside police patrolled social media, threatening town’s critics,” AL.com, January 27, 2022, https://www.al.com/news/2022/01/brookside-police-patrolled-social-media-threatening-towns-critics.html

Cory Doctorow, “Cops’ imaginary fears send addicts to real jail,” Pluralistic, January 27, 2022, https://pluralistic.net/2022/01/27/extraordinary-popular-delusions/

Paula Reed Ward, “Allegheny County grand jury to investigate death of man tased by Pittsburgh police,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, February 11, 2022, https://triblive.com/local/allegheny-county-grand-jury-to-investigate-death-of-man-tased-by-pittsburgh-police/

Julia Felton, “Pittsburgh activists, officials hope legislation will end ‘systemic racism’ in traffic stops,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, February 16, 2022, https://triblive.com/local/pittsburgh-activists-officials-hope-legislation-will-end-systemic-racism-in-traffic-stops/

Alene Tchekmedyian, “Sheriff Villanueva demands L.A. County leaders stop using term ‘deputy gangs,’” Los Angeles Times, February 17, 2022, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2022-02-17/sheriff-villanueva-deputy-gangs-cease-and-desist-county-supervisors

Sam Stanton, “Sacramento police officer charged with filing false reports fighting her firing in court,” Sacramento Bee, March 9, 2022, https://www.sacbee.com/news/local/article259231135.html

Alene Tchekmedyian, “Inspector general identifies 41 sheriff’s deputies who allegedly belong to gang-like groups,” Los Angeles Times, March 22, 2022, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2022-03-22/sheriff-deputies-executioners-banditos

Megan Guza, Paula Reed Ward, and Julia Felton, “Officials: 5 Pittsburgh police officers terminated after months-long investigation into death of Jim Rogers,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, March 23, 2022, https://triblive.com/local/pittsburgh-officials-to-announce-results-of-internal-investigation-into-death-of-jim-rogers/

Alene Tchekmedyian, “L.A. County panel launches investigation into Sheriff’s Department ‘deputy gangs,’” Los Angeles Times, March 24, 2022, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2022-03-24/civilian-oversight-commisson-deputy-gangs-investigation

Benje Williams, “‘Follow the damn law.’ A Black cyclist’s scary encounter with a white Placer County cop,” Sacramento Bee, March 27, 2022, https://www.sacbee.com/opinion/op-ed/article259162763.html

Mick Stinelli, “Jim Rogers death spotlights Pittsburgh’s hurdles in quest to reform policing,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 28, 2022, https://www.post-gazette.com/news/crime-courts/2022/03/27/pittsburgh-jim-rogers-police-officers-fired-activists-reform-accountability-ed-gainey/stories/202203270153

Kevin Rector, “Help or handcuff? LAPD officers often delay providing medical aid after shooting people,” Los Angeles Times, April 5, 2022, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2022-04-05/lapd-officers-medical-aid-shootings

Rick Earle, “Officers fired over tasing death of Jim Rogers officially appeal decision,” WPXI, April 7, 2022, https://www.wpxi.com/news/local/officers-fired-over-tasing-death-jim-rogers-officially-appeal-decision/ZZJIGZOTNBCLZNLDLUMSUKIJWE/

Dani Anguiano, “Water, weed and racism: why Asians feel targeted in this rural California county,” Guardian, April 8, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2022/apr/08/california-asian-discrimination-water-rights-siskiyou

Dale Russakoff and Deborah Sontag, “Pa. agrees to pay $865k to Latino victims of state police traffic stops and arrests after Inquirer/ProPublica investigation,” Philadelphia Inquirer, April 8, 2022, https://www.inquirer.com/news/pennsylvania-traffic-arrests-latino-immigration-20220408.html

Erin Marquis, “Cop Admits To Playing Copyrighted Music Through Squad Car PA To Keep Videos Off YouTube,” Jalopnik, April 11, 2022, https://jalopnik.com/cop-admits-to-playing-copyrighted-music-through-squad-c-1848776860

Hallie Lauer, “Pittsburgh City Council puts hold on Burgess’ bill on warrantless police pedestrian stops,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 13, 2022, https://www.post-gazette.com/news/politics-local/2022/04/13/pittsburgh-city-council-puts-hold-burgess-bill-warrantless-police-pedestrian-stops/stories/202204130106

David D. Kirkpatrick, Steve Eder, and Kim Barker, “Cities Try to Turn the Tide on Police Traffic Stops,” New York Times, April 15, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/15/us/police-traffic-stops.html

Rich Lord and Megan Harris, “Does doubling of Pittsburgh police discipline reflect a problem or a solution? ,” Pittsburgh Public Source, April 28, 2022, https://www.publicsource.org/pittsburgh-police-accountability-discipline-data-jim-rogers-ed-gainey/

Kevin Rector, “Bias, far-right sympathies among California law enforcement going unchecked, audit finds,” Los Angeles Times, April 28, 2022, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2022-04-28/audit-of-california-law-enforcement-finds-extreme-bias-among-officers-goes-unchecked

Andy Sheehan, “Police traffic stops decreasing in Pittsburgh’s communities of color,” KDKA-TV, May 11, 2022, https://www.cbsnews.com/pittsburgh/news/police-traffic-stops-decreasing-in-pittsburghs-communities-of-color/

Chris Hoffman, “Pittsburgh city controller calls for changes to police department,” KDKA-TV May 24, 2022, https://www.cbsnews.com/pittsburgh/news/pittsburgh-city-controller-calls-for-changes-police-department/

Tyler Pager and David Nakamura, “White House to issue policing order on anniversary of Floyd’s death,” Washington Post, May 24, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2022/05/24/police-executive-order-white-house-floyd/

Julia Felton, “Pittsburgh City Council considers new stop-and-frisk policy for police,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 1, 2022, https://triblive.com/local/pittsburgh-city-council-considers-new-stop-and-frisk-policy-for-police/

Alexander Sammon, “Why Are Police So Bad at Their Jobs?” American Prospect, June 2, 2022, https://prospect.org/justice/why-are-police-so-bad-at-their-jobs/

Alene Tchekmedyian, “Investigators probing ‘deputy gang’ violence were told not to ask about Banditos, chief says,” Los Angeles Times, June 21, 2022, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2022-06-21/investigators-probing-deputy-gang-violence-were-told-not-to-ask-about-banditos-chief-says

Tierney Sneed and Ariane de Vogue, “Supreme Court limits ability to enforce Miranda rights,” Cable News Network, June 23, 2022, https://www.cnn.com/2022/06/23/politics/supreme-court-miranda-rights/index.html

Justin Jouvenal, “Police accused her of making up her rape, then destroyed the evidence,” Washington Post, August 2, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/dc-md-va/2022/08/02/rape-kit-evidence-destruction-police/

Chris McGreal, “US political violence is surging, but talk of a civil war is exaggerated – isn’t it?” Guardian, August 20, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2022/aug/20/us-political-violence-civil-war

Alanna Durkin Richer and Michael Kunzelman, “Elected officials, police chiefs on leaked Oath Keepers list,” Associated Press, September 7, 2022, https://apnews.com/article/oath-keepers-leaked-membership-rolls-2ca4195ed3a10e45dd189bf98f3e5a26

Rich Lord, “Big raises for disciplinary change? Gainey’s offer rejected by Pittsburgh police union,” Pittsburgh Public Source, September 21, 2022, https://www.publicsource.org/pittsburgh-police-contract-arbitration-ed-gainey-raises-discipline/

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, “Pittsburgh scrapping college credit requirement for police recruits,” October 9, 2022, https://www.post-gazette.com/local/city/2022/10/08/pittsburgh-bureau-police-college-credits-academy-mayor-ed-gainey/stories/202210090071

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, “1 year after Jim Rogers’ death, results of criminal investigation into officers’ conduct remain unclear,” October 13, 2022, https://www.post-gazette.com/news/crime-courts/2022/10/13/jim-rogers-taser-death-grand-jury-investigation/stories/202210130131

Tom Jackman, “U.S. Capitol Police officer convicted of obstructing Jan. 6 probe,” Washington Post, October 28, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/dc-md-va/2022/10/28/capitol-police-officer-guilty-jan6/

Rachel Weiner and Peter Hermann, “D.C. mayor: Feds failed on Jan. 6 by thinking far-right was ‘friendly,’” Washington Post, December 29, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/dc-md-va/2022/12/29/bowser-contee-jan6-transcripts/

Michael Korsh and Mike Wereschagin, “How the Oath Keepers turned Pennsylvania into a far-right militia recruiting hotbed,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 6, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/news/crime-courts/2023/01/06/oath-keepers-pennsylvania-capitol-riot/stories/202301060080

Kiley Koscinski, “Pittsburgh Police resume secondary traffic stops despite city ordinance against them,” WESA, January 12, 2023, https://www.wesa.fm/politics-government/2023-01-12/pittsburgh-police-resume-secondary-traffic-stops-despite-city-ordinance-against-them

WTAE, “Controversial memo prompts Gainey’s response on secondary traffic stops,” January 14, 2023, https://www.wtae.com/article/gaineys-stangrecki-secondary-traffic-stops-memo/42507062

Jeff Himler, “Greensburg police chief out, charged with drug distribution,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 25, 2023, https://triblive.com/local/westmoreland/greensburg-police-chief-charged-in-federal-court-with-conspiring-to-distribute-drugs/

Libor Jany, Noah Goldberg, and James Queally, “Video shows Memphis officers kicking, punching Tyre Nichols as he calls for his mother,” Los Angeles Times, January 27, 2023, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2023-01-27/tyre-nichols-family-calls-for-peaceful-protests-when-video-released

Eric Lutz, “Can Illinois's Assault Weapons Ban Survive Scores of Rogue Sheriffs?” Vanity Fair, January 27, 2023, https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2023/01/can-illinois-assault-weapons-ban-survive-scores-of-rogue-sheriffs

Jason Hanna and Elizabeth Hartfield, “Video shows Tyre Nichols calling for his mother, beaten by officers now charged in his death,” Cable News Network, January 28, 2023, https://www.cnn.com/2023/01/27/us/tyre-nichols-memphis-friday/index.html

Megan Guza, “Activists seek Pittsburgh police changes after Tyre Nichols’ death in Memphis,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 30, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/news/crime-courts/2023/01/30/pittsburgh-police-tyre-nichols-stop-and-frisk-pretext-traffic-stops-tim-stevens-black-political-empowerment-project-bpep/stories/202301300065

Justin Vellucci, “Pittsburgh police staffing shortage at ‘tipping point,’ officials say,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, January 31, 2023, https://triblive.com/local/pittsburgh-city-council-tackles-police-staffing-pay-in-special-meeting/

Megan Guza, “Officials look for answers to Pittsburgh’s police staffing shortage,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 1, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/news/crime-courts/2023/01/31/pittsburgh-police-bureau-staffing-levels-recruitment-officers-retirement-union-allegheny-county-safety/stories/202301310109

Mark Belko and Megan Guza, “Gainey pledges to triple the number of police officers Downtown to address safety issues,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/business/development/2023/02/02/pittsburgh-mayor-ed-gainey-downtown-public-safety-police-allegheny-county-executive-rich-fitzgerald-public-works-violence/stories/202302020094

David A. Graham, “The Stubborn Pathology of Police Culture,” Atlantic, February 3, 2023, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2023/02/tyre-nichols-memphis-police-department-scorpion-unit/672932/

Mark Belko, “Allegheny County police are now patrolling Downtown Pittsburgh as concerns over safety escalate,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 6, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/news/crime-courts/2023/02/06/allegheny-county-police-downtown-pittsburgh-patrols-safety-violence/stories/202302060067

Keri Blakinger, “L.A. County sheriff creates new office to ‘eradicate all deputy gangs,’” Los Angeles Times, February 15, 2023, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2023-02-15/sheriff-creates-new-office-to-eradicate-all-deputy-gangs

Anna Orso, “Memphis to consider version of Philadelphia law that bans minor traffic stops in response to Tyre Nichols killing,” Philadelphia Inquirer, February 20, 2023, https://www.inquirer.com/news/memphis-philadelphia-driving-equality-tyre-nichols-20230220.html

Akela Lacy, “Bristling Under Progressive Mayor, St. Louis Police Seek State Takeover,” Intercept, February 24, 2023, https://theintercept.com/2023/02/24/st-louis-missouri-police-department/

Keri Blakinger, “Special counsel urges sheriff to ban the ‘cancer’ of deputy gangs,” Los Angeles Times, March 2, 2023, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2023-03-02/la-me-deputy-gangs-report

Anna Orso, Chris Palmer, and Kasturi Pananjady, “Philadelphia’s driving equality law reduced traffic stops but not racial disparities in its first year,” Philadelphia Inquirer, March 3, 2023, https://www.inquirer.com/news/philadelphia-driving-equality-legislation-one-year-results-20230303.html

Mark Belko, “A short stay? Allegheny County Police patrols Downtown could be wrapping up,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 4, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/business/development/2023/03/04/county-police-downtown-pittsburgh-fitzgerald-gainey-swartzwelder/stories/202303030131

Mark Belko, “Fitzgerald: County Police no longer ‘regularly scheduled for rounds’ Downtown as city moves to add more of its own officers,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 7, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/business/development/2023/03/07/rich-fitzgerald-allegheny-county-police-downtown-pittsburgh-mayor-ed-gainey-pittsburgh-police/stories/202303070092

David Nakamura and Mark Berman, “Louisville police engaged in pattern of misconduct, Justice Dept. finds,” Washington Post, March 8, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2023/03/08/louisville-police-misconduct-breonna-taylor/

Mark Belko, “Allegheny County Police are again patrolling Downtown Pittsburgh a week after leaving,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 15, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/business/development/2023/03/15/allegheny-county-police-downtown-pittsburgh-mayor-gainey/stories/202303150085

Brian Howey, “After police killings, families are kept in the dark and grilled for information,” Los Angeles Times, March 28, 2023, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2023-03-28/police-shootings-california-families-grilled-information

Kelly Weill and Will Sommer, “Head of Ivermectin Group Accused of Stealing $350,000 in Donor Money,” Daily Beast, April 6, 2023, https://www.thedailybeast.com/sheriff-richard-mack-head-of-anti-vaxx-group-americas-frontline-doctors-accused-of-stealing-donor-money

Jordan Anderson, “Highland Park residents worry about nearby open-air gun range,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 17, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/local/city/2023/04/17/highland-park-pittsburgh-residents-open-air-gun-range/stories/202304160125

Justin Vellucci, “Family of man who died after being shocked by Taser reaches $8M settlement with Pittsburgh,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 27, 2023, https://triblive.com/local/family-of-man-who-died-after-being-shocked-by-taser-reaches-8m-settlement-with-pittsburgh/

Joe Napsha, “Federal agents raid Ligonier Valley Police Department, officials say,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, May 5, 2023, https://triblive.com/local/westmoreland/federal-agents-raid-ligonier-valley-police-department-officials-say/

Hannah Allam, “A police chief got rid of a neo-Nazi. Then came the hard part,” Washington Post, May 8, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2023/05/08/police-white-supremacist-springfield-illinois/

Jordan Anderson and Hallie Lauer, “Pittsburgh had a plan to deal with the Highland Park gun range. But Gainey appears to have punted it,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 9, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/local/city/2023/05/08/pittsburgh-highland-park-gun-range-plan-gainey-scrapped-it/stories/202305080075

Paul Kane, “Defending white nationalists, Tommy Tuberville fears a military that is ‘going wrong,’” Washington Post, May 13, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2023/05/13/tommy-tuberville-white-nationalists/

Keri Blakinger, “Sheriff orders deputies to obey watchdog request to reveal gang tattoos,” Los Angeles Times, May 18, 2023, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2023-05-18/sheriff-orders-deputies-to-obey-watchdog-request-to-reveal-gang-tattoos

Joyce Sohyun Lee, Sarah Cahlan, and Arelis R. Hernández, “A year after Uvalde, officers who botched response face few consequences,” Washington Post, May 24, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2023/05/24/uvalde-school-shooting-police-response/

Andrew Sheeler, “California cops illegally share data with anti-abortion states, civil rights groups say,” Sacramento Bee, May 26, 2023, https://www.sacbee.com/news/politics-government/capitol-alert/article275795726.html

David Nakamura, Mark Berman, and Holly Bailey, “Minneapolis police engaged in pattern of misconduct, Justice Dept. says,” Washington Post, June 16, 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2023/06/16/minneapolis-police-report-doj/

Libor Jany and Richard Winton, “A Black LAPD officer wanted to make a difference. Then, he says, he was racially profiled by his own department,” Los Angeles Times, July 5, 2023, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2023-07-05/black-lapd-officer-was-making-film-while-off-duty-then-he-says-he-was-racially-profiled-his-own-department

Erin Marquis, “California Cops Are Sending License Plate Data To Anti-Abortion States,” Jalopnik, July 7, 2023, https://jalopnik.com/california-sends-license-plate-data-anti-abortion-state-1850614610

Jake Bleiberg, “Deputies accused a Texas sheriff of corruption and dysfunction. Then came the mass shooting,” Associated Press, July 9, 2023, https://apnews.com/article/texas-neighbors-shooting-sheriff-3fc5e6d5c0dc004b67d3e94a76812732

Charlie Wolfson, “Consultants give Gainey plan to fix ‘overstaffed’ police, but new chief disagrees,” Pittsburgh Public Source, July 19, 2023, https://www.publicsource.org/pittsburgh-bureau-police-staffing-study-mayor-gainey-chief-scirotto/

Elizabeth Szeto, “City efforts to address racial bias in traffic enforcement have reduced the number of stops, but disparities remain,” Pittsburgh Public Source, July 25, 2023, https://www.publicsource.org/pittsburgh-police-traffic-stop-disparity-accountability-race/

Summer Lin, “S.F. bakery won’t serve cops, police union claims. Store says it’s about the guns, not the cops,” Los Angeles Times, August 28, 2023, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2023-08-28/san-francisco-police-union-claims-bakery-refused-to-serve-armed-officer-in-uniform

Laura Esposito, Jordan Anderson, and Megan Guza, “2 years after death of Jim Rogers in Bloomfield, family presses for police accountability,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, October 15, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/local/city/2023/10/15/pittsburgh-jim-rogers-death-police-accountability/stories/202310130123

Dan Atkinson, “Stingrays, Simulators, Surveillance, and Silverados,” HorizonMass, February 6, 2024, https://horizonmass.news/2024/02/06/stingrays-simulators-surveillance-and-silverados/

Wendy Ruderman, “Mayor Parker says video of state trooper detaining top city official is ‘very concerning,’” Philadelphia Inquirer, March 2, 2024, https://www.inquirer.com/news/trooper-pennsylvania-police-celena-morrison-mayor-parker-20240302.html

Kelli Smith, “Dallas Police Officers who Laughed at Veteran Denied Restroom Get Written Reprimands,” Military.com, March 13, 2024, https://www.military.com/daily-news/2024/03/13/dallas-police-officers-who-laughed-veteran-denied-restroom-get-written-reprimands.html

  1. [1]Catherine Thorbecke, “Derek Chauvin had his knee on George Floyd’s neck for nearly 9 minutes, complaint says,” ABC News, May 29, 2020, https://abcnews.go.com/US/derek-chauvin-knee-george-floyds-neck-minutes-complaint/story?id=70961042
  2. [2]Jordan Anderson, “Highland Park residents worry about nearby open-air gun range,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 17, 2023, https://www.post-gazette.com/local/city/2023/04/17/highland-park-pittsburgh-residents-open-air-gun-range/stories/202304160125
  3. [3]Steven E. Barkan, Criminology, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentic Hall, 2006); David Benfell, “On the pretense of ‘law and order,’” Not Housebroken, September 11, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/09/11/on-the-pretense-of-law-and-order/; Ernest Drucker, A Plague of Prisons (New York: New Press, 2011); Jeffrey Reiman, The Rich Get Richer and The Poor Get Prison, 7th ed. (Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon, 2004); Dan Simon, In Doubt (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2012).
  4. [4]Wanda D. McCaslin and Denise C. Breton, “Justice as Healing: Going Outside the Colonizers’ Cage,” in Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies, eds. Norman K. Denzin, Yvonna S. Lincoln, and Linda Tuhiwai Smith (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), 511-529.
  5. [5]Mark Joseph Stern, “The Police Lie. All the Time. Can Anything Stop Them?” Slate, August 4, 2020, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2020/08/police-testilying.html
  6. [6]Mark Berman et al., “Protests spread over police shootings. Police promised reforms. Every year, they still shoot and kill nearly 1,000 people,” Washington Post, June 8, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/protests-spread-over-police-shootings-police-promised-reforms-every-year-they-still-shoot-nearly-1000-people/2020/06/08/5c204f0c-a67c-11ea-b473-04905b1af82b_story.html; Kyle Cheney, Sarah Ferris, and Laura Barrón-López, “‘Inside job’: House Dems ask if Capitol rioters had hidden help,” Politico, January 8, 2021, https://www.politico.com/news/2021/01/08/congress-democrats-capitol-riot-inside-job-456725; Tim Craig, “Proud Boys and Black Lives Matter activists clashed in a Florida suburb. Only one side was charged,” Washington Post, February 2, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/florida-protest-bill-unequal-treatment/2021/02/01/415d1b02-6240-11eb-9061-07abcc1f9229_story.html; Democracy Now! “Report Documents 32,542 Police Killings in U.S. Since 2000 with Vast Undercount of People of Color,” June 1, 2021, https://www.democracynow.org/2021/6/1/report_police_killings_people_of_color; Ryan Devereaux, “The Thin Blue Line Between Violent, Pro-Trump Militias and Police,” Intercept, August 28, 2020, https://theintercept.com/2020/08/28/kyle-rittenhouse-violent-pro-trump-militias-police/; James Downie, “Time to toss the ‘bad apples’ excuse,” Washington Post, May 31, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/05/31/time-toss-bad-apples-excuse/; Jeet Heer, “How Not to Mourn George Floyd,” The Time of Monsters, April 21, 2021, https://jeetheer.substack.com/p/how-not-to-mourn-george-floyd; Arelis R. Hernández and Cleve R. Wootson, Jr., “Black Americans are buoyed by Chauvin conviction, but they worry it will blunt pace of reform,” Washington Post, April 20, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2021/04/20/chauvin-verdict-black-americans/; Jason Johnson, “I'm not happy. I'm not relieved. The verdict is a cultural make-up call. This ruling means it takes a Black man being murdered on TV in front of millions, a years worth of protest and a phalanx of white cops saying "this is wrong" for a black person to get a scintilla of justice,” Twitter, April 20, 2021, >https://twitter.com/DrJasonJohnson/status/1384637989444325378; Kimberly Kindy, Mark Berman, and Kim Bellware, “After Capitol riot, police chiefs work to root out officers with ties to extremist groups,” Washington Post, January 24, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/police-capitol-riot-extremists/2021/01/24/16fdb2bc-5a7b-11eb-b8bd-ee36b1cd18bf_story.html; Maggie Koerth, “The Police’s Tepid Response To The Capitol Breach Wasn’t An Aberration,” FiveThirtyEight, January 7, 2021, https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-polices-tepid-response-to-the-capitol-breach-wasnt-an-aberration/; Kurtis Lee, “Derek Chauvin is guilty of murdering George Floyd,” Los Angeles Times, April 20, 2021, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-04-20/jury-verdict-derek-chauvin-george-floyd-death; Kurtis Lee, Jaweed Kaleem, and Laura King, “‘White supremacy was on full display.’ Double standard seen in police response to riot at Capitol,” Los Angeles Times, January 7, 2021, https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-01-07/la-na-washington-capitol-police-attack-race; German Lopez, “Police officers are prosecuted for murder in less than 2 percent of fatal shootings,” Vox, April 2, 2021, https://www.vox.com/21497089/derek-chauvin-george-floyd-trial-police-prosecutions-black-lives-matter; Wesley Lowery, “Aren’t more white people than black people killed by police? Yes, but no,” Washington Post, July 11, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2016/07/11/arent-more-white-people-than-black-people-killed-by-police-yes-but-no/; Brentin Mock, “What New Research Says About Race and Police Shootings,” CityLab, August 6, 2019, https://www.citylab.com/equity/2019/08/police-officer-shootings-gun-violence-racial-bias-crime-data/595528/; Elie Mystal, “There’s Only One Possible Conclusion: White America Likes Its Killer Cops,” Nation, May 27, 2020, https://www.thenation.com/article/society/white-america-cops/; Alanna Durkin Richer and Lindsay Whitehurst, “1 verdict, then 6 police killings across America in 24 hours,” Associated Press, April 24, 2021, copy in possession of author; Jon Schuppe, “Police across U.S. respond to Derek Chauvin trial: ‘Our American way of policing is on trial,’” NBC News, April 15, 2021, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/police-across-u-s-respond-derek-chauvin-trial-our-american-n1264224; Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, “How Do We Change America?” New Yorker, June 8, 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/news/our-columnists/how-do-we-change-america; Raphael Warnock, “Today’s verdict affirming Derek Chauvin’s responsibility for killing George Floyd is the right outcome in this trial, but it is not justice. . . .” Twitter, April 20, 2021, https://twitter.com/SenatorWarnock/status/1384651251061858323
  7. [7]David Benfell, “Stephen Zappala’s resignation would be nowhere near enough,” Not Housebroken, January 4, 2022, https://disunitedstates.org/2021/06/03/stephen-zappalas-resignation-would-be-nowhere-near-enough/

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