Illiberalism · Gilead · Competitive authoritarian regime project



Competitive authoritarian regime project

Fig. 1. President Lyndon B. Johnson, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Clarence Mitchell during signing ceremony of the voting rights act. Yoichi Okamoto, August 6, 1965, via Wikimedia Commons, public domain.

“You do not have to have emergency powers or a military coup for democracy to wither,” Aziz Huq, a constitutional-law professor at the University of Chicago, told me [Andrew Marantz]. “Most recent cases of backsliding, Hungary being a classic example, have occurred through legal means.” [Viktor] Orbán runs for reëlection every four years. In theory, there is a chance that he could lose. In practice, he has so thoroughly rigged the system that his grip on power is virtually assured. The political-science term for this is “competitive authoritarianism.” Most scholarly books about democratic backsliding (“The New Despotism,” “Democracy Rules,” “How Democracies Die”) cite Hungary, along with Brazil and Turkey, as countries that were consolidated democracies, for a while, before they started turning back the clock.[1]

If you really want to capture your democracy, you always start with the most important guardrail, and this is judicial review. The ruling majority understood that if you have an independent court in place, the constitutional capture will never work because the constitutional court would always stand in the way.[2]

See also:

Eric Lipton and Ian Urbina, “In 5-Year Effort, Scant Evidence of Voter Fraud,” New York Times, April 12, 2007,

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. 310 (2010).

Democracy Now! “Citizens United Backlash Grows from Cali. to NYC Urging Congress to Overturn Corporate Personhood,” January 5, 2012,

Democracy Now! “Occupy New Hampshire Protester Takes Romney to Task for Declaring ‘Corporations Are People’,” January 5, 2012,

Stephen Dinan, “Justice says Supreme Court should revisit campaign finance,” Washington Times, February 17, 2012,

David G. Savage, “Supreme Court rebuffs Montana on corporate election spending,” Los Angeles Times, February 17, 2012,

Ben Geman, “Report: Ginsburg sees ‘sharp disagreements’ as court rulings near,” Hill, June 16, 2012,

Adam Liptak, “Court Declines to Revisit Its Citizens United Decision,” New York Times, June 25, 2012,

Matt Bai, “How Much Has Citizens United Changed the Political Game?” New York Times, July 17, 2012,

Lawrence Lessig, “The (Almost) Brilliance of Representative Dingell and His Friends,” Atlantic, August 4, 2012,

Lauren Feeney, “Bill Moyers: Election Expert Richard Hasen on Voter Fraud and Disenfranchisement,” Truthout, September 28, 2012,

Ethan Bronner, “Voter ID Rules Fail Court Tests Across Country,” New York Times, October 2, 2012,

New York Times, “The Cacophony of Money,” October 7, 2012,

Matt Gouras, “Appeals court reinstates campaign finance limits,” Spokane Spokesman-Review, October 10, 2012,

Alexander Bolton, “International monitors at US polling places draw criticism,” Hill, October 20, 2012,

Alex Seitz-Wald, “Report: SCOTUS naive on super PACs,” Salon, March 5, 2013,

Carey L. Biron, “Chevron Rejects Shareholder Demands to Explain Record Political Spending,” InterPress Service, May 29, 2013,

James Trimarco, “Delaware Is 15th State to Seek Overrule of Citizens United,” Yes!, June 11, 2013,

Josh Voorhees, “SCOTUS Strikes Down Arizona’s Voter Registration Law,” Slate, June 17, 2013,

Andrew Prokop, “Hillary Clinton: Let’s make voter registration automatic,” Vox, June 4, 2015,

Eduardo Porter, “Business Losing Clout in a G.O.P. Moving Right,” New York Times, September 4, 2013,

Eliza Newlin Carney, “Court’s Conservatives Maintain Skepticism of Campaign Money Limits,” Congressional Quarterly Roll Call, October 8, 2013,

Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court Strikes Down Overall Political Donation Cap,” New York Times, April 2, 2014,

Gail Collins, “Surprise! The Rich Won One,” New York Times, April 2, 2014,

Alex Park, “10 Supreme Court Rulings—Before Hobby Lobby—That Turned Corporations Into People,” Mother Jones, July 10, 2014,

Melanie Mason, “California Supreme Court blocks Citizens United measure from ballot,” Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2014,

James Hohmann, “Gov. Scott Walker defends voter ID law in first debate,” Politico, October 11, 2014,

Daniel Strauss, “Scott Walker On Voter ID: ‘Doesn’t Matter If There’s One, 100, or 1,000’,” Talking Points Memo, October 11, 2014,

David Schultz, “A Federal Court Just Threatened Citizens United,” Talking Points Memo, July 8, 2015,

Avery Anapol, “Judge orders Trump admin to explain how it decided to add citizenship question to census,” Hill, July 3, 2018,

Hansi Lo Wang, “Trump Administration’s Census Citizenship Question Plans Halted By 3rd Judge,” National Public Radio, April 5, 2019,

Robert Barnes, “On Census citizenship question, Supreme Court’s conservatives appear to be united,” Boston Globe, April 23, 2019,

Eugene Volokh, “Is the Government Required to Count the Number of Citizens in Each State?” Reason, April 25, 2019,

Tara Bahrampour and Robert Barnes, “Despite Trump administration denials, new evidence suggests census citizenship question was crafted to benefit white Republicans,” Washington Post, May 30, 2019,

Mike DeBonis, “Stepping up Trump clash, House votes to enforce Barr and McGahn subpoenas,” Washington Post, June 11, 2019,

Matt Zapotosky and John Wagner, “Trump asserts executive privilege to shield documents on census citizenship question,” Washington Post, June 12, 2019, copy in possession of author

Michael Wines, “Reopened Legal Challenge to Census Citizenship Question Throws Case Into Chaos,” New York Times, June 25, 2019,

Gillian Brockell, “No, the census has never been delayed. Even when it was really hard to conduct,” Washington Post, June 27, 2019,

Garrett Epps, “Is the Citizenship Question Dead?” Atlantic, June 27, 2019,

Lawrence Hurley and Andrew Chung, “Trump fumes as Supreme Court blocks census citizenship question,” Reuters, June 27, 2019,

David G. Savage and Mark Z. Barabak, “Supreme Court’s approval of partisan gerrymandering raises 2020 election stakes,” Los Angeles Times, June 27, 2019,

Hugh Hewitt, “The census belongs to the president. He needs to get it back. Here’s how,” Washington Post, June 29, 2019,

Noah Bierman and David G. Savage, “Trump administration abruptly gives up fight over citizenship question on the census,” Los Angeles Times, July 2, 2019,

Ann E. Marimow, Matt Zapotosky, and Tara Bahrampour, “2020 Census will not include citizenship question, Justice Department confirms,” Washington Post, July 2, 2019,

Tara Bahrampour, Matt Zapotosky, and Josh Dawsey, “Reversing course, Trump administration will look for a way to add citizenship question to 2020 Census,” Washington Post, July 3, 2019,

Noah Bierman and David G. Savage, “Citizen question may be back on 2020 census as Trump administration reverses course again,” Los Angeles Times, July 3, 2019,

Tara Bahrampour et al., “Trump administration scrambles to save citizenship question on census,” Washington Post, July 4, 2019,

Ariane de Vogue and Maegan Vazquez, “Trump faces ‘limited paths forward’ on census citizenship question,” CNN, July 4, 2019,

Tara Bahrampour and John Wagner, “Government lawyers step up effort to get a citizenship question on 2020 Census, court filing shows, ” Washington Post, July 5, 2019, source

Aaron Blake, “Trump just admitted something he probably shouldn’t have about the census citizenship question,” Washington Post, July 5, 2019,

Aaron Blake, “The Justice Department just pulled its lawyers from the census case. That could signal something ugly ahead,” Washington Post, July 8, 2019,

Garrett Epps, “The Census Case Could Provoke a Constitutional Crisis,” Atlantic, July 8, 2019,

Josh Gerstein, “Justice Department replaces attorneys in census citizenship-question battle,” Politico, July 8, 2019,

Ted Hesson and Josh Gerstein, “Why Trump will likely lose the census citizenship fight,” Politico, July 8, 2019,

J. M. Rieger, “The Trump administration has changed its story on the census citizenship question at least 10 times in four months,” Washington Post, July 8, 2019,

Felicia Sonmez and Matt Zapotosky, “Plaintiffs seek to block Justice Department from changing lawyers in census citizenship case,” Washington Post, July 8, 2019,

Matt Zapotosky, Seung Min Kim, and Tara Bahrampour, “Federal judge rejects Trump administration’s bid to swap out lawyers for Census case on citizenship question,” Washington Post, July 9, 2019,

Matt Zapotosky, “Second federal judge blocks Justice Dept. bid to replace census attorneys,” Washington Post, July 10, 2019,

Seung Min Kim, Tara Bahrampour, and John Wagner, “Trump retreats on adding citizenship question to 2020 Census,” Washington Post, July 11, 2019,

Jessica Schneider, “Federal judge permanently blocks Trump admin from adding citizenship question to 2020 census,” CNN, July 16, 2019,

Jessica Schneider, “2nd federal judge blocks Trump admin from adding citizenship question to census,” CNN, July 17, 2019,

Felicia Sonmez, “House votes to hold Attorney General Barr, Commerce Secretary Ross in contempt for failing to comply with subpoena on 2020 Census,” Washington Post, July 17, 2019,

Ishaan Tharoor, “Is it time to call Trump the f-word?” Washington Post, June 3, 2020,

Sarina Vij, “Why Minority Voters Have a Lower Voter Turnout: An Analysis of Current Restrictions,” American Bar Association, June 26, 2020,

Sophia Tesfaye, “Democrats’ actions this week suggest they have no real intention to save our democracy,” Raw Story, September 25, 2020,

George Thomas, “‘America Is a Republic, Not a Democracy’ Is a Dangerous—And Wrong—Argument,” Atlantic, November 2, 2020,

David Wasserman, “The Cook Political Report’s 2021 Redistricting Overview,” January 26, 2021,

Jack Rodgers, “Biden Justice Department Won’t Wade Deeper Into High Court Fight of Arizona Election Laws,” Courthouse News Service, February 16, 2021,

Osita Nwanevu, “Republicans Know They’re Losing the Filibuster Fight,” New Republic, March 19, 2021,

Sarah Binder, “Mitch McConnell is wrong. Here’s the filibuster’s ‘racial history,’” Washington Post, March 24, 2021,

Amy Gardner and Amy B. Wang, “Georgia governor signs into law sweeping voting bill that curtails the use of drop boxes and imposes new ID requirements for mail voting,” Washington Post, March 25, 2021,

Philip Bump, “Despite GOP rhetoric, there have been fewer than two dozen charged cases of voter fraud since the election,” Washington Post, May 4, 2021,

Stephen Collinson, “Revolt by Texas Democrats heaps pressure on Washington to act on voting reform,” CNN, June 1, 2021,

Josh Gerstein and Zach Montellaro, “Supreme Court nixes California disclosure law in blow to dark-money opponents,” Politico, July 1, 2021,

Scott Lemieux, “How the Supreme Court’s Arizona voting rights decision will affect challenges to Georgia’s law,” NBC News, July 1, 2021,

Nicholas Stephanopoulos, “The Supreme Court showcased its ‘textualist’ double standard on voting rights,” Washington Post, July 1, 2021,

Marjorie Cohn, “Supreme Court Drives a Stake Through the Heart of the Voting Rights Act,” Truthout, July 2, 2021,

Amanda Marcotte, “Kyrsten Sinema’s run out of excuses: Supreme Court leaves Senate Democrats with little choice,” Salon, July 2, 2021,

Rashawn Ray and Alexandra Gibbons, “Why are states banning critical race theory?” Brookings, July 2, 2021,

David Gans, “Selective originalism and selective textualism: How the Roberts court decimated the Voting Rights Act,” SCOTUSblog, July 7, 2021,

Carrie Levine, “Why there’s even more pressure now on Congress to pass a voting rights bill,” Center for Public Integrity, July 9, 2021,

Sam Levine, “Is the US supreme court having a liberal moment? Not on one crucial issue,” Guardian, July 11, 2020,

Elizabeth Findell, “Texas Democrats to Stage Walkout to Kill Voting Bill,” Wall Street Journal, July 12, 2021,

Jane C. Timm, “Texas Democrats flee state in effort to block GOP-backed voting restrictions,” NBC News, July 12, 2021,

Philip Bump, “Biden warns that American democracy is under threat — a message targeting many in his own party,” Washington Post, July 13, 2021,

Elizabeth Findell, “Texas Senate Passes Voting Bill, as Democratic Rivals Push Federal Bill,” Wall Street Journal, July 13, 2021,

Matt Ford, “The Democrats’ Voting Rights Bill Is Dead,” New Republic, July 13, 2021,

Amy Gardner et al., “Inside the secret plan for the Texas Democratic exodus: A phone tree, a scramble to pack and a politically perilous trip,” Washington Post, July 13, 2021,

Amy Gardner and Eva Ruth Moravec, “Texas governor says Democratic lawmakers who left state to stop passage of voting restrictions could face arrest when they return,” Washington Post, July 13, 2021,

David Weigel, “Clear eyes, fully entrenched base: Why Texas Democrats think they can’t lose by fleeing the state,” Washington Post, July 15, 2021,

Abby Livingston and Carla Astudillo, “Sen. Joe Manchin, key Democratic holdout on federal voting protections, coming to Texas for fundraiser hosted by several GOP donors,” Texas Tribune, June 16, 2021,

Maya King, David Siders, and Daniel Lippman, “‘We’re f—ed’: Dems fear turnout catastrophe from GOP voting laws,” Politico, July 26, 2021,

Stephen Caruso, “GOP 2022 gubernatorial hopefuls spar over Pa. vote by-mail law,” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, August 5, 2021,

Andrew J. Tobias, “High-school students win gerrymandering award for designing Ohio congressional map with Democrat majority,” Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 7, 2021,

Joseph Marks, “My Pillow cyber symposium is yet another font of election fraud lies,” Washington Post, August 11, 2021,

Sarah Anne Hughes, “In major shift, Pa. panel votes to count incarcerated people in home districts, not state prisons,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 24, 2021,

Eva Ruth Moravec and Elise Viebeck, “Texas House advances GOP voting restrictions, which Democrats had blocked for weeks by fleeing the state,” Washington Post, August 27, 2021,

Jon Kamp, “Texas GOP Lawmakers Send Voting Bill to Governor’s Desk,” Wall Street Journal, August 31, 2021,

Eva Ruth Moravec, “Texas Gov. Greg Abbott signs law creating new voting restrictions as opponents sue,” Washington Post, September 7, 2021,

Paige St. John, “Election watchers snap photos of workers, challenge voter signatures as recall nears,” Los Angeles Times, September 10, 2021,

Steve Benen, “As Senate Democrats reach a deal on voting rights, what happens now?” MSNBC, September 14, 2021,

Ed Kilgore, “How a Filibuster Reform for Voting Rights Could Happen,” New York, September 14, 2021,

Manu Raju, “Democrats cut deal with Manchin to get party behind long-shot voting overhaul bill,” CNN, September 14, 2021,

Hansi Lo Wang, “An Independent Review Of The 1st 2020 Census Results Found No Major Irregularities,” National Public Radio, September 14, 2021,

Elise Viebeck and Tom Hamburger, “Trump, Elder’s campaign falsely claimed fraud before California votes were counted — a growing GOP tactic,” Washington Post, September 15, 2021,

Theodore Schleifer, “The Los Altos Shrink Taking Over Washington,” Puck News, September 21, 2021,

Andrew Jeong, “University of Florida bars faculty from testifying in voting rights lawsuit against DeSantis administration,” Washington Post, October 30, 2021,

Mike DeBonis, “Senate Republicans block debate on a third major voting rights bill,” Washington Post, November 3, 2021,

Lindsay Ellis, “After Scathing Criticism, U. of Florida Will Let Professors Testify Against the State,” Chronicle of Higher Education, November 5, 2021,

Colleen Flaherty, “Just the End of the Beginning,” Inside Higher Ed, November 8, 2021,

Ruth Marcus, “The Rule of Six: A newly radicalized Supreme Court is poised to reshape the nation,” Washington Post, November 28, 2021,

Hayes Brown, “Stacey Abrams’ run for Georgia governor will test GOP voter suppression,” MSNBC, December 2, 2021,

Sam Levine, “Voting rights advocates frustrated by ‘same-old, same-old’ meeting with White House,” Guardian, December 3, 2021,

Barton Gellman, “Trump’s Next Coup Has Already Begun,” Atlantic, December 6, 2021,

Lawrence Lessig, “Why the US Is a Failed Democratic State,” New York Review of Books, December 10, 2021,

Greg Sargent, “The damage done by Joe Manchin is likely to get much worse,” Washington Post, December 10, 2021,

Marley Parish, “Pa. court to hear arguments over releasing voters’ identifying information as part of election investigation,” Pittsburgh City Paper, December 14, 2021,

David Rohde, “Is There a Smoking Gun in the January 6th Investigation?” New Yorker, December 15, 2021,

Kate Huangpu and Angela Couloumbis, “Democrats could make sizeable gains in Pennsylvania legislature under proposed new maps,” Spotlight PA, December 16, 2021,

Jonathan Lai et al., “Is the new Pa. House map better for Democrats or Republicans? We tested it,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 16, 2021,

Larry Hogan, “Mr. Garland, Please Sue My State,” Wall Street Journal, December 17, 2021,

John Harwood, “Why Democrats haven’t given up on Joe Manchin and voting rights,” CNN, January 2, 2022,

Siobhan Hughes, “Democrats Seek Filibuster Changes to Pass Elections Bills,” Wall Street Journal, January 2, 2022,

Siobhan Hughes, “Manchin Deflates Democrats’ Hopes of Changing Filibuster, Passing Election Bills,” Wall Street Journal, January 4, 2022,

Fredreka Schouten, “Senate Democrats vow they’ll pass voting rights legislation with or without Republicans. Here’s what their proposals would do,” CNN, January 7, 2022,

David Daley, “Seven ways Republicans are already undermining the 2024 election,” Guardian, January 10, 2022,

Jonathan Lai, “Pennsylvania Republicans want a lot more power in redistricting for state maps,” Philadelphia Inquirer, January 10, 2022,

Ed Kilgore, “Who Is Biden’s Big Georgia Voting-Rights Speech Really For?” New York, January 11, 2022,

Alex Leary and Eliza Collins, “Biden Endorses Filibuster Rule Changes if Necessary to Pass Voting Legislation,” Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2022,

Jewel Wicker, “Georgia activists warn Biden against a ‘photo-op’ visit that lacks voting rights plan,” Guardian, January 11, 2022,

Jessie Balmert, Laura A. Bischoff, and Anna Staver, “Redistricting: Ohio Supreme Court strikes down state House and Senate maps,” Columbus Dispatch, January 12, 2022,

Mike DeBonis and Seung Min Kim, “Sinema and Manchin confirm opposition to eliminating filibuster, likely dooming Democrats’ voting rights push,” Washington Post, January 13, 2022,

Theodore Schleifer, “Silicon Valley’s Doomed Pursuit of D.C. Nirvana,” Puck News, January 18, 2022,

Mike DeBonis, “Senate Republicans block voting rights bill, dealing blow to Democrats’ effort to overhaul election laws,” Washington Post, January 19, 2022,

Greg Sargent, “Joe Manchin finally makes it plain: He is in favor of minority rule,” Washington Post, January 19, 2022,

Joan E. Greve, “Mitch McConnell’s viral Black voter comments cause widespread furor,” Washington Post, January 20, 2022,

Paul Waldman, “Behind their big defeat, Democrats may have reached a turning point,” Washington Post, January 20, 2022,

Jack Stripling, “Blasting U. of Florida, Judge Says Professors’ Testimony Can’t Be Blocked,” Chronicle of Higher Education, January 21, 2022,

Veronica Stracqualursi, Daniella Diaz, and Ethan Cohen, “Sinema censured by Arizona Democrats over filibuster stance that blocked voting rights legislation,” CNN, January 22, 2022,

Jonathan Lai, “The clock is ticking for Pa. redistricting. The 2022 primary is at stake. Here’s what to know,” Philadelphia Inquirer, January 24, 2022,

Angela Couloumbis, “State court finds Pennsylvania’s mail voting law unconstitutional, with appeal likely,” Spotlight PA, January 28, 2022,

Jonathan Lai, “Pa. Supreme Court takes over a redistricting case and will decide the state’s new congressional map,” Philadelphia Inquirer, February 2, 2022,

Kate Huangpu, “Final Pa. legislative maps approved by redistricting panel, but legal challenges likely,” Spotlight PA, February 4, 2022,

Marc Levy, “GOP’s election inquiry: Courts, conspiracies and more costs,” Associated Press, February 4, 2022,

Kate Huangpu, “A Pa. judge just sided with the GOP on a congressional map proposal. Here’s what’s next,&dquo; Spotlight PA, February 7, 2022,

Philip Bump, “‘Genius,’ ‘Savvy’: Trump reacts to Putin’s moves on Ukraine exactly as you’d expect,” Washington Post, February 22, 2022,

Stephen Caruso, “Pa. Supreme Court court picks national Dems’ map as new congressional plan,” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, February 23, 2022,

Alexa Corse, “Pennsylvania, North Carolina Redistricting Court Decisions Don’t Provide Major Partisan Wins,” Wall Street Journal, February 23, 2022,

Jonathan Lai, “The Pennsylvania Supreme Court has picked a new congressional map,” Philadelphia Inquirer, February 23, 2022,

Marc Levy, Mark Scolforo, and Lauren Rude, “Pennsylvania high court picks new map of US House districts; lawmakers react,”, February 23, 2022,

Jackson Katz, “Vladimir Putin, Right-Wing American Masculinity and the Russian Attack on Ukraine,” Ms., March 4, 2022,

Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court denies GOP requests to block new congressional maps in N.C., Pa.,” Washington Post, March 7, 2022,

Tara Bahrampour, “2020 Census undercounted Latinos, Blacks and Native Americans, bureau estimates show,” Washington Post, March 10, 2022,

Associated Press, “Voting machine maker wins appeal in GOP election inquiry,” March 21, 2022,

Andy Paulsen, “Supreme Court Throws Out Ruling; Allows Voting Machine Maker to Intervene,” WESB, March 22, 2022,

Aaron Blake, “Trump asks for Putin’s help — again,” Washington Post, March 29, 2022,

Lori Rozsa, “Judge strikes down Florida election-law changes,” Washington Post, March 31, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The Orbanization of America: The U.S. right walks in Hungary’s path,” Washington Post, May 17, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The Orbanization of America: Florida shadows Hungary’s war on LGBTQ rights,” Washington Post, May 18, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The Orbanization of America: How to capture a democracy,” Washington Post, May 18, 2022,

David Smith, “Republican party building an ‘army’ to overturn election results – report,” Guardian, June 1, 2022,

Amy Gardner and Isaac Arnsdorf, “More than 100 GOP primary winners back Trump’s false fraud claims,” Washington Post, June 14, 2022,

Nathaniel Rakich, “The New National Congressional Map Is Biased Toward Republicans,” FiveThirtyEight, June 15, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The troubled paradox of U.S. democracy,” Washington Post, June 17, 2022,

Michael Tomasky, “The Founders Feared a Tyranny of the Majority, but What We Have Is a Tyranny of a Fanatical Minority,” New Republic, June 20, 2022,

Andrew Marantz, “Does Hungary Offer a Glimpse of Our Authoritarian Future?” New Yorker, June 27, 2022,

Amelia Thomson-DeVeaux and Nathaniel Rakich, “How The Supreme Court Could Turbocharge Gerrymandering — Just In Time for 2024,” FiveThirtyEight, July 7, 2022,

Gillian McGoldrick, “Pa. Legislature approves constitutional amendments to declare residents don’t have the right to an abortion, to require voter ID,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 8, 2022,

Gillian McGoldrick, “Pa. Senate GOP committee advances late-night amendment to restrict abortion, require voter ID,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 8, 2022,

Rodrigo Torrejón, “What the Pa. constitutional amendment package could mean for abortion and elections,” Philadelphia Inquirer, July 8, 2022,

Brynn Tannehill, “It’s Going to Take Several Miracles to Stop the Republican Party From Turning America Into Hungary,” New Republic, July 26, 2022,

Mark Scolforo, “Gov. Wolf sues to stop GOP-backed amendments on abortion, voting,” Philadelphia Inquirer, July 28, 2022,

Grace Panetta and Brent D. Griffiths, “Republicans’ next big play is to ‘scare the hell out of Washington’ by rewriting the Constitution. And they’re willing to play the long game to win,” Business Insider, July 31, 2022,

Jonathan Lai, “Pennsylvania’s Supreme Court upheld the state’s mail voting law after a long legal fight,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 2, 2022,

Michael Scherer, Ashley Parker, and Tyler Pager, “Historians privately warn Biden that America’s democracy is teetering,” Washington Post, August 10, 2022,

Louis Menand, “American Democracy Was Never Designed to Be Democratic,” review of One Person, One Vote: A Surprising History of Gerrymandering in America, by Nick Seabrook, New Yorker, August 15, 2022,

Chris McGreal, “US political violence is surging, but talk of a civil war is exaggerated – isn’t it?” Guardian, August 20, 2022,

Jon Swaine et al., “Files copied from voting systems were shared with Trump supporters, election deniers,” Washington Post, August 22, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “The debate over American fascism gets louder,” Washington Post, August 30, 2022,

Lauren Gambino, “Biden warns US democracy imperiled by Trump and Maga extremists,” Guardian, September 1, 2022,

Amber Phillips, “Takeaways from Biden’s warnings about Republican threats to democracy,” Washington Post, September 1, 2022,

Greg Sargent, “MAGA Republicans are seething with rage because Biden hit his target,” Washington Post, September 2, 2022,

Amy Gardner et al., “Republicans in key battleground races refuse to say they will accept results,” Washington Post, September 18, 2022,

Mathew Ingram, “The social-media platforms, the ‘Big Lie,’ and the coming elections,” Columbia Journalism Review, September 27, 2022,

Nate Raymond, “U.S. Supreme Court rejects challenge to Pennsylvania electoral map,” Reuters, October 3, 2022,

Jonathan Lai and Jeremy Roebuck, “The Supreme Court just undid a key ruling for counting undated Pennsylvania mail ballots,” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 11, 2022,

Ashley Parker, “Jan. 6 hearing shows Trump knew he lost — even while claiming otherwise,” Washington Post, October 14, 2022,

William Bender, “In a rare rebuke, two retired War College professors say Doug Mastriano is unfit to be governor,” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 16, 2022,

Joe Walsh, “The base of my former political party is fully radicalized. . . .” Twitter, October 18, 2022,

Reuters, “Russia’s Prigozhin admits interfering in U.S. elections,” November 7, 2022,

Ishaan Tharoor, “U.S. democracy slides toward ‘competitive authoritarianism,’” Washington Post, November 8, 2022,

Dan Balz, “The vaunted red wave never hit the shore in midterm elections,” Washington Post, November 9, 2022,

Emma Brown, Amy Gardner, and Rosalind S. Helderman, “Key election deniers concede defeat after disputing Trump’s 2020 loss,” Washington Post, November 9, 2022,

Amy Gardner, “Election deniers score big wins, but also suffer significant setbacks,” Washington Post, November 9, 2022,

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, “Group explains polling place security teams that led to response by Allegheny County sheriff’s deputies,” November 9, 2022,

Amy Gardner, Reis Thebault, and Robert Klemko, “Election deniers lose races for key state offices in every 2020 battleground,” Washington Post, November 13, 2022,

Debra Cassens Weiss, “3 conservative SCOTUS justices appear to seek middle ground on ‘independent state legislature’ theory,” American Bar Association Journal, December 7, 2022,

Cristian Farias, “‘A Theory With Big Consequences’: The Supreme Court’s Gamble With Democracy Appears to Be Veering Away From Extremism—For Now,” Vanity Fair, December 8, 2022,

Quinta Jurecic, “A Case That Even This Supreme Court Seems Torn Over,” Atlantic, December 8, 2022,

Eric Lutz, “Lawmakers Could Actually Safeguard Against Another January 6 — Will They Do It?” Vanity Fair, December 15, 2022,

Stephen Caruso, “Pa. Republicans fight to prolong House majority and pass far-reaching constitutional amendments,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 17, 2022,

Marley Parish, “Relief for child sex abuse survivors passes Senate as part of constitutional amendment package,” Pennsylvania Capital-Star, January 11, 2023,

Adam Smeltz, “Pa. House Speaker Mark Rozzi kicks off ‘listening tour’ in Pittsburgh as Harrisburg remains gridlocked,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 26, 2023,

Jason Willick, “The conservative challenge to liberalism goes deeper than self-interest,” Washington Post, February 12, 2023,

Neil Vigdor, “Republicans Face Setbacks in Push to Tighten Voting Laws on College Campuses,” New York Times, March 29, 2023,

Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court: Alabama must draw new voting map favorable to Black residents,” Washington Post, June 8, 2023,

Christian Farias, “John Roberts’s Shocking Defense of Black Voting Rights,” Vanity Fair, June 8, 2023,

Jason Willick, “This blue-state election compact could create a constitutional crisis,” Washington Post, June 11, 2023,

Tierney Sneed, “Supreme Court allows for Louisiana congressional map to be redrawn to add another majority-Black district,” CNN, January 26, 2023,

Ed Kilgore, “DeSantis Joins Trump’s Call to End Birthright Citizenship,” New York, June 27, 2023,

Leo Cassel-Siskind, “Tens of thousands of Pa. mail ballots will be thrown out in the 2024 presidential election,” Philadelphia Inquirer, June 29, 2023,

Jane C. Timm, “Alabama GOP refuses to draw second Black district, despite Supreme Court order,” NBC News, July 21, 2023,

Maegan Vazquez, “Alabama congressional map struck down again for diluting Black voting power,” Washington Post, September 5, 2023,

Ariane de Vogue and Fredreka Schouten, “Supreme Court rejects Alabama’s attempt to avoid creating a second Black majority congressional district,” CNN, September 26, 2023,

Chris Geidner, “Justice Alito’s marathon arguments in defense of South Carolina’s racial gerrymander,” Law Dork, October 11, 2023,

Jill Nolin, “Federal judge strikes down Georgia’s political maps, sending lawmakers back to the drawing board,” Georgia Recorder, October 26, 2023,

Justin Jouvenal, “GOP voter-fraud crackdown overwhelmingly targets minorities, Democrats,” Washington Post, December 20, 2023,

Rick Perlstein, “Joe Lieberman Not Only Backed Bush’s War; He Also Helped Make Bush President,” American Prospect, April 3, 2024,

Heather Cox Richardson, “April 3, 2024,” Letters from an American, April 4, 2024,

  1. [1]Andrew Marantz, “Does Hungary Offer a Glimpse of Our Authoritarian Future?” New Yorker, June 27, 2022,
  2. [2]Tomasz Tadeusz Koncewicz, quoted in Ishaan Tharoor, “Netanyahu’s Israel finds kindred spirits in Hungary and Poland,” Washington Post, March 28, 2023,

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